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Vol. VIII.— No. 1 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Bv A. H. Hi.NS 

Bad I 

Our inovomeats are directfid by the 
mind. Skill in any art is tlie result of 
properly directed efforts. The .secret of 
guccesa in writiug lies io a careful study of 
correct rules, and a constant observance of 
them during pnictice. We have full faith 
that if all wlin desirfl improved penmau- 
ahip will study and carry out the instruc- 
tions in this and future lessons they will be 
well rewarded. Fair writing, like "Fair 
t be wou by fiiint heart 
The many little 

Lady," wil 
nor iodiffer- 
suggested i 


al to 


rithig the feet should always be Hat 
The body should lean 
slightly forward and to the left about five 
degrees from perpendicular, with the breast 
about one inch from the desk. The seat 
aud desk should be adapted to the Deeds of 
the studeut. The top of the defk should 
be even with the elbow of the writer, as 
his arm hangs at his side. The posiiion 
for copy-books upon uarrow desks is the 
-right side at the desk. 

iPosition For CopyBoob 

For writing birge bn..ks, Hie left 
i.le is best. 

pDS.Iion for Book- Keepers. 


While wriling, the eyes should be fro 

twelve to eighteen inches from t'le puint of 
the pen, tho distance depending uj'ou the 
size of the person. The light falling upon 
the paper should come from ihe left aide of 
the writer, and in the evening should be 
latnjdight instead of gas. The position of 
ihe right-arin should be well out from the 
body, while the hands should come together 
on the paper at a righi angle well away 
fom the breast. The loft should hold the 
paper, and the other the pen. 

In tiolding the pen, the back of the 
thumb should be bent nearly to a right 
angle, aud tiie second finger bent so as to 
bring it nearly opposite the thumb. 

The forefingers should reach beyond all 
other fiDgers, the end being about one inch 
from the point of the pen. The forefinger 
nail, the lower part of tlie thumb and 
wrist, should be upon a straight line, and 
with adults one inch above the paper. 
The second aud third fiogers should always 
be separated, while the third and fourth 
fingers should bend beneath the band never 
to rest, but always to slide with a lightness 
(»f touch equal to that of the pen. The pen- 
holder should cross opposite the knuckles, 
the upper end poiutiog at or a litile below 
the right shoulder. The penholder will 
halanee better in the ha.d by being short- 
ened one inch back of the knuckles. The 
penholder should be held lightly between 
ihe thumb and fingers, gripping it only at 
ihe inttant of making a shade B th ribs 
of tlie peuhi^lder should rest eveuly upon 
the paper, while the more ere.-t the pen is 
held the finer will be the line. The pen- 
bolder should be of light wood, with the 
pen clasp always firm upon it. 

As the above instructions are presented 
as reliable aids to good writiuif, it may be 
«»f value to some reader* to learu the re- 
sults of iheir violation. When the f.-et are 
crossed or placed in an awkward position, 
ihey do not give that firm and natural sup- 
port to the body which is essential to gnod 
writing. When sitting too far from the 
desk and leaning forward too much, the 
weight of the body is apt to be supported 
in part by the rightrarm, which interferes 
with ease and freedom of movement. Too 
much leaniug may result from a desk too 
low, or seat too high ; or, an uneasy and 
unnatural position of the hands and arms 
may result from a desk too high, or seat 
too low, cramped wriling being the re?ult. 
Throwing the head well over to the left, 
often deceives one into being pleased with 
his writing during its execution, but dis- 
appoiuted when viewing the writing square- 
ly before the eyes. The head should, there- 
fore, bo upon a line with the spine. Where 
the bands do not come near together an easy 
support of the body is not obtained; and 
when the hands are brought too near the 
breast the movements of the arm and bands 
are impeded. When tlie thumb and second 
fingers are placed upon the penholder 
nearly straight ir without being well bent, 
their movements are weak and feeble, aud 
easy finger movement is absolutely impos- 
sible ; while with the thumb and second 
fingers well bent, they are in the posi- 
tion for straight and easy a -tifm. The 
thumb wbU bent, resting against the sitles 

of the handle, gives the power to make 
strung iipwanl strokes iu long letters with 
easp, simply by straightening the tliumh. 
The sliding upon the nail of the little fin- 
ger is practiced as suecpssfully by skillful 
penmen as where two nails touch the paper. 
All experience proves the fact that, how- 
ever difficult to acquire, correct peuholding 
is absolutely necessary for success in pro- 
ducing easy and correct writing. 

The dropping of the wvist near to nr 
upon the desk prevents the benefit of the 
muscular movement. T'. 

as to bring the rest near the elbow. When 
the peuholiler does not point at or near the 
right shoulder, the hand is turned over too 
ftir to the right, bringing the pen's point 
upon the paper, so as to cause them to 
move sideways. This produces imperfect 
lines and shades— besides, forces the fingers 
to do the writing without the aid of the 
muscular movement. The gripping of the 
pen prevents the limber action of the fin- 
gers required to produce the light touch 
necessary for llie clean, cut, smooth, hair 
lines so effective in fine penmanship, Be- 
*ide8, grip[iiug the pen eonn ciniscs tlie 
head to ache, and in tbo main caii.^e of 


the pen cousisls iu wrapping t«inc arouud 
the penholder where the fingers r. si lill its 
thickness equals that of a blackboard cray- 
on. Turning the hand over ttt the right, 
while wriling. is eafily ci-rreoled by lyiui; 
a six-inch pencil or stick across the palm 
of the hand, allowing it to pn.ject to the 



Movements in tenting are of four kinds: 
Fijiyer, Muscular, Combined, Wkolearm. 

The finger movemrnt consists in extend- 
ine aud contracting the thumb, second aud 
third fingers. This movement is used to 
advantage iu very small vi'ritiug, such as 
is ured upon carefully written ladles* cards. 
The lung, straight lines in loop lellers, aud 
letters p, ( aud d, are made with more pre- 
cision by contracting the fingers than with 

T/ie muscular movement is produced by 
the action of the muscle near the elbow, as 
in the engraving of the arm aud hand. 

This movement is used to advantage in 
very rapid business- writing. 

The combined tnovement is the result of 
a combined or simultaneons action of the 
finger and Miuscular movement, and is the 
chief movement used by the most skillful 

The wkolearm movement is produced by 
lifting the fjrearm, and swinging the hand 
and pen from the shoidder. This move- 
ment is used in forming large, bold capitals, 
and is aided, in its development by practice 
with crayon upon the blackboard, as black- 
hoard writing is of necessity produced by 
the wholearm movement. 

Accordmg to Roman letters, from which 

original script or writing' was derived, the 
geueral proportions of a letter are, 'i l>y 4 
— three measures in width by four iu leoylh. 
This proportion should, in our opinion, be 
recognized as the standard length and width 
of one space in writing. As written l^-tters 
slant to the right, the correct slant may be 
ascertained by drawing the left and top 
sides of a scjuare; then, dividing the top 
line into three equal parts, and draw a 
slanting line, as iu example No. 1 below. 

Ex. No. 2 represents one space, or the 
opening between two slanting straight 
lines placed three-fourths of their length 
apart. Ex. No. 3 iihows the letter n oc- 
cupying three spaces. The general direc- 
tion of curved lines is seen, in n, to be di- 
agonally across a space : the spacing 
between lettere may hi? seen in the words 
that follow. 

In Ex. No. 4 the letters a 
apart. In No. 5 there is ot 
third spaces between letters, 
there are two spaces between 
The spacing between letters should always 
be uniform, but accordiuii to the taste of 
the writer. Practice upon loi'g words 
widely spaced between letters tends greatly 
to develope a free lateral muvement. But 
ca)-e must be taken to make the letters cor- 

In another lesson will he presented an 
alphabet with the general proportions of 
letters, one space, or throe by four, as 

I on^ space 

In No. fi 
he letters- 

Send Specimens and Questions. 

It may be of future interest aud advan- 
tage to all of our readers who pnrpo50 to 
make a special efiort for improvement of 
their writing, under the tuition of Pri'f. 
Hinman's course of lessons, to forward 
specimens of their present writing, to be 
placed on file for future comparison and 
We would suggest that they be 


written i 


% folio 

fair specimen of 
before practicing from the lessoi 
Prof. Hinmau through the cnlti 
Penman's Art Journal " 

Give plainly the name and address. 

We are also requested by Prof. Him 
to say that ho will take jdeasure iu aus\ 
ing, through the Journal, any quest 
pertaining to practical wriling which i 
be sent to him during the continuance of 
his course of lessons. All specimens of 
writing, and such questions should be ad- 
dressed to Prof. A. H. Hinmau, Worcester, 

ly writing 
given by 
us of the 


The Mysterious Note. 

I was a harum-scarum youth, and for a 
dozen yoars of my manhood had no settled 
aim. I started out as a clerk io a country 
store, then I became a school-teacher, next 
a clerk in a drug store, where I learned my 
chemical mysteries ; finally, I became a 
law student; and it was my knowledge of 
chemistry — a science of which I am pas- 
sionately fund — that gave me a start as a 
law student. 

My shingle had been hung out in vain 
for four or five months, and I had not a 
single brief to prepare. What little money 
I had possessed after my studies were com- 
pleted was rapidly melting away, and I 
could not ignore the fact if no fees should 
fiome in my way for a couple of months I 
should have to go on the street, or on the 
prairie, and labor for a living. It would be 
no disgrace, to be sure, but when one has 
spent his little all in preparing himself for a 
professional life, and when he has set his 
heart and hopes ou such a life, it is sad to 
have to abandon it. 

I was seated in my otEce one afternoon, 
indulging in certain gloomy thoughts on the 
subject, when the door opened, and a mid- 
dle-aged man in humble garb came in, and 
I recognized him at the first glance as an 


William Campbell, a former neighbor of 
my father's, who was now dead. He was 
flurried and nervous, and I saw, at once, 
there was something wrong. 

"Good morning, Mr. Campbell," said I. 
" How did you happen to find the office of 
a poor young lawyer like me ?" 

" By accident," he said. "I am in trouble, 
and if I don't get out of it I am ruined. 
All the savings of my life will be gone 
unless I can flml some lawyer smart enough 
to defeat the rascality of a certain man, and 
I was going along, intending to call on the 
first lawyer I should see, and it happened 
to be you. As I knew your father well, 
and knew you when you was a boy, I 
thought I could not do better than to put 
this case in your hands ; I'd at least bo sure 
of fair treatment, I thought." 

"You would be sure of that at the 
hands of any lawyer to whom you should 
intrust your case," said I. "Now, let me 
hear what it is, and I will see what can be 

" Well, it is this : I've worked quite hard 
all my life at my trade, and accumulated 
some money — about six thousand dollars, in 
fact. I have seven children I should like 
to provide for, and it has been ray steady 
aim to increase my money all I could. A 
year ago, a friend of mine, who is in the 
Fame business I am in, told me if he could 
take a partner in the spring, and if I should 
go in with him, we could make a lot of 
money. I looked into the matter, and 
found he was not mistaken about it. I saw 
I could, in a few years, increase my eix 
thousand to twenty thousand, and 1 told 
him I would be ready to join hira in the 
busiuesswhen the time came. Meantime, 
my money was laying in tlie bank, where I 
ought to have left it, drawing five and a 
half per cent, interest. 

"Shortly after I made this arrangement 
with my friend about the partnership, a 
man I knew well, and had great confidence 
in, came to me and asked me to lend him 
the money till I should want it at the end of 
the year, and he could readily return it by 
that time, and he would give me eight per 
cent. So I let him have it, and now it ia 
due and I can't get it back." 
" Has he any property ? " 
" Yes— the amount of it; but I have 
since understood he's a slippery fellow, but 
1 had not known that before." 

" But you took his note, surely," said I. 
"Yes, but I can't find it; that's what 
troubles me. I called on him yesterday and 
told him 80, and he said ho had no recollec- 
tion of borrowing any money from me; if I 
had the note, he would pay it; if I hadn't 
he certainly would not." , 

"And jou can't find the note?" 

"What did you do with itt" 

"I put it in this pocketbook, where I 
kept all my important papers; but when I 
came to look for it among some other notes, 
and the like, I couldn't find it." 

He produced a large old-fashioned, 
leather pocketbook, as he spoke, and I 
looked through it and esamined a lot of 
receipts and notes that were packed together 
in one of its pockets, thinking that two of 
the papers might be stickiug together. 

"There is no promissory note for that 
amount here," I said. " But what is the 
blank sheet of paper doing here?" and I 
took up a slip of white paper that I found 
among the documents. 

"Who is the man that gave you the 

"Alexander Bolton, the druggist." 

I knew Alexander Bolton well. He was 
wealthy and penurious, and had the name 
of being very tricky. I was satisfied that 
Mr. Campbell was telling the truth. I was 
as well convinced that Alexander Bolton 
was not a man who would be likely to for- 
get having borrowed such a sum as eix 
thousand dcdiars, and I jumped to the con- 
clusion that he had played some cunning 
trick to wrong the confiding mechanic out 
of the fruits of many years of labor. But 
what was the trick f That was the ques- 
tion that puzzled me. 

" Have you had this pocketbook in a se- 
cure place ever since he gave you the note t " 
I asked. 

" Yes ; under lock and key, where no one 
could touch it but myself." 

" Are you sure that it has been ever since 
impossible for any one to find it to purloin 


I am perfectly sure of that. The lock of 
my desk iu which I have kept it is one I 
made myself. There is but one key in the 
world that will open it, and here it is," he 
said, producing from his pocket a bright 
steel key, of very odd outline. "Not a 
thing has ever been disturbed in that desk." 

I mused a few moments as I again casu- 
ally overhauled the papers, then said : 

" Mr. Campbell, I don't mean to say that 
Mr. Bolton is dishonest, but might he not 
have handed you this blank sheet of paper, 
and slipped the note into his pocketbook 
with the money you lent him t " 

"No, that is out of the question. I ex- 
amined the note again, after I reached 
home, before I put the pocketbook away, 
to see that no mistake had been made; 
found it all right, plain as day in every let- 
ter and figure, and I remember as well as 
though it had been yesterday ; I even re- 
member noticing how bright the ink was; 
it had quite a reddish tinge." 

I was in the act of handing the pocket- 
book back to him, as he said this, but a 
thought suddenly struck me, and I opened 
it again. 

" Mr. Campbell," I said, carelessly, "do 
you remember whether the note was filled 
out on a blank form, or notf" 

" It was not ; he wrote it out in full him- 
self, on the top of a piece of foolscap, and 
cut it ofi' with a pair of scissors. I re- 
member everything about it very clearly, 
for it was about all I had in the world, and 
to me it was a very essential afi'air." 

I examined the strip of white paper, for 
a startling idea had already taken shape in 
my mind, and I perceived that it had been 
cut from the top of foolscap, evidently with 

" Do you know how you happened to 
place the slip of white paper in here?" 

" No, I don't remember placing it there ; 
I might have done so, thinking it would 
some time be handy to figure on." 

" Will you let me have itt " 

"Certainly," he replied, somewhat sur- 
prised at my modest request. 

" Well," I aaid, as I laid the paper on the 
table, and set the inkstand on it, " I am go- 
ing to make an effort to recover your money 
for you; 1 shall bring suit against Bolton 
at once and have him summoned to appear 
before Judge — — . You oan, of course, 

swear that you have lent him the money, 
and the note he gave you is missing." 

"Yes, with a clear conscience; I could 
not be mistaken about it." 

"Then call on me to-morrow morning at 

" I will." 

He left me, and I took the slip of paper 
and examined it closely. 

It seemed to be nothing but a stray frag- 
ment of foolscap, but it occurred to me that 
it might have a history. It was here that 
my chemical knowledge came into play. 

I remembered that Alexander Bolton was 
a chemist; and I also remembered that an 
ink could be made with aniline, iodide of 
ammonia and chloride of zinc, in certain pro~ 
portions, which had a fresh, reddish tinge, 
and that it would fade out entirely in four 
days, leaving no mark on the paper. Bol- 
ton, no doubt, knew his secret that he used 
to swindle the mechanic out of his earnings. 

The more I considered this subject, the 
more I became convinced that such was the 
case. The note had been written with fad- 
ing ink. 

But there was another cheuiical secret 
which probably Bolton did not know; as I 
had discovered it myself by accident. This 
treacherous ink, on fading out, leaves the 
zinc in invisible atoms in the paper, so that 
every fine trace may be restored by the ap- 
plication of a certain solution of sulphate 
of iron and hydrate of calcium. So, no 
sooner had Mr. Campbell left my office, 
then I hurried to a drug store where I ob- 
tained the solution. 

Returning to my office, I saturated a 
piece of blotting-paper with a drop of it, 
and applied it to a corner of the blank 
paper. The result made me jump up, clap 
my hands and yell with delight, for fresh 
and clear the dollar came out. I knew not 
what hidden words the paper continued, 
and I placed it iu my pocketbook, corked 
up the vial — which was destined to prove a 
vial of wrath to Mr. Bolton — and went 
immediately, and brought suit against him 
for the recovery of the amount of the note, 
with interest and costs. 

A few days later, Alexander Bolton stood 
at the bar of justice, to answer in his own 
behalf. It seemed so easy to bim, that he 
did not deem it necessary to employ any 

Mr. Campbell swore to the facts he had 
related to me concerning the loan. Mr. 
Bolton answered, ou oath, that he had no 
recollection of ever borrowing any money of 
the plaintiff. If he did, where was the 
note? He would thank anybody to pro- 
duce it. 

"Your honor," said I, addressing the 
judge, " I tliink I can produce the note in 

" I understood yon that it was not to be 

found," said Judge D , somewhat 


" It has never been lost," I said, as I 
took from my pocket the blank sll p of 
paper, and passed it to him. "This is it." 

"I hope you ar^ not trifling with the 
court," he said, as he glanced at both sides 
and perceived that it was blank. 

" I am not, your honor," said I, as I pro- 
ceeded at once to explain to him the chem- 
ical fact I have already described. 

I watched Alexander Bolton as I did so 
and noticed that he turned very pale. 
When I had concluded, I took from my 
pocket the vial containing the solution, sat- 
urated a piece of blotting paper with it, 
and pressed it upon the blank slip of paper 
that lay upon the judge's desk. 

A few seconds I left it bo, then lifted it 
up, confident of the result; and I wae not 

The blank slip of paper was suddenly 
transformed into a promissory note, every 
word, letter and figure, as clear as sunshine. 

It was a note of six thousand dollars, 
with a year's interest just due, drawn in 
favor of William Campbell, and the signa- 
ture of Alexander Bolton was at the bottom 
of it. 

The judge gazed with amazement, from 

the note toward Alexander Bolton, just in 
time to discover that that tricky gentleman 
was skulking away toward the door. 

At the judge's order be was broueht back 
by an officer, and informed that he woold 
have something more to answer for than the 
amount of the loan, interest and co8t«. 

And so he had. Abashed and terrified, 
at the discovery of his unsuccessful swindle, 
and in hopes of propitiating the court, he 
at once gave bis check for the amount due 
Mr. Campbell, and the costs. 

In view of his confession, he was let off 
with two years' imprisonment, and I don't 
suppose he will ever dabble in invisible ink 

This, my first case, attracted considerable 
notice, and I have never since had to lounge 
in my office and yearn for clients. 

Our Winter Evenings. 
By Paul Pastnor. 

How are we spending these long winter 
evenings — so long that lamplight almost 
seems to outshine daylight, when we com- 
pute the amount of work which may be 
done during the reign of each f Are we 
spending them wisely — doing something, I 
mean, to improve ourselves or benefit 
others! Not necessarily,— except in the 
sense that all activity is a sort of work,— 
but " useful play," perhaps ; are we doing 
Biimethiog that is not a dissipation of men- 
tal or moral energy, aud that tends to make 
us really and permanently better and hap- 
pier! Are we reading useful and valuable 
books, for instance, or studying something, 
or doing some work aside from our regular 
pursuits, which rests us by its dissimilarity f 

If not, we are probably wasting a very 
valuable portion of time. Winter is a rare 
season for mental accomplishment of pvery 
kind. The mind shares with the body iu 
the exilaratiou of the season. That lan- 
guidness and indisposition to efl'ort, whi<Th 
is such a bar Io work in the warmer seasons 
of the year, disappears entirely with the 
coming on of the keen north winds and the 
snow. We are all alive to the enterprises 
of the busy brain, when the blood courses 
so swiftly through the veins, bearing its 
nourishment and stimulus to every nook 
and corner of our being. We can accom- 
plish more in a given line, I am inclined to 
think, during the four months of winter 
than io all the other eight. 

What a considerable progress any one 
interested iu penmanship might make, by 
giving his winter evenings to this study ! 
Here are, at least, three good hours of 
mellow lamplight, with quiet and leisure, 
every evening. All admit the value of 
good penmanship, but the excuse o[ most 
poor writers is that they do not have any 
time for improvement. Business, they say, 
engages their attention during the day, and 
consequently they have no time to study or 
practice the art. The mistake which such 
persons make is in assuming that the hours 
commonly devoted to business comprise the 
only practically available portion of the 
whole day. They look at the time between, 
say, seven and ten o'clock p. m. as a soit of 
temporal interregnum, an empty gap, to 
be whiled away in the pleasantest manner 
possible. Now this is all a mistake. Our 
evenings are not mere chinks of time be- 
tween the days, to be tilled with odds and 
ends of little things. They are integral 
parta of our days, and very valuable parts, 
too. Now, why could not these golden 
hours of lamplight be utilized, for one 
thing, in the study of penmanship ? There 
are a great many aids to the individual and 
private study of this beautiful art. There 
are manuals, and compendlums, aud copy- 
slips, and books of introduction, and last, 
but not least, there are penman's journals, 
combining the good qualities of all, with 
other good qualities distinctively their own. 
With such helps, our long winter evenings 
might be most profitably spent in the study 
and practice of the art of penmanship. It 
really requires but a short while to get upon 

the right track — to learn the princi|>le9 of 
the Hrt, aDil to be(Tom<? familiar with the 
correct metliml^ ; and thcu progresa is ea^y 
am! rapd. The -^niet evening in the home, 
with one's husiuess finished lor the day, and 
oDo's nerves longing for some pleasant and 
restful change of occupation, ought to he 
the very best time for the practice of the 
graceful and delightful art of writing. Of 
course, one would not expect to inalte the 
progress, or to attain the results, of a regu- 
lar course of study in a business college or 
school of penmanship. The one, is profes- 
sional work ; the other, amateur. The stu- 
dent at school expects to make it his life- 
work ; the amateur aims only to improve 
a very necessary qualification for business 
or professional work of any kind. But the 
results of much study, as J have indicated, 
cannot fail to he satiefactory, and would, I 
believe, richly repay the outlay of time. 

Address upon Personality of 

Handwriting, and Expert 


Of the necessity for expert examination 
of handwriting you are all familiar. The 
frequent occurrence of rases in courts of jus- 
tice in which the identity of handwriting is 
involved has called into service a class of 
persons who are supposed to possess supe- 
rior experience and skill in the examination 
of handwriting. Respecting the value of 
testimony based upon such examinations 
there is among jurists a wide diversity of 

This results from various causes. First, 
cases differ widely in tlie character and ex- 
tent of writing called in question. There 
are pnses which, from the great ehill em- 
ph.yed by the forger or the limited extent 
of his work, wellnigh defy detection; while 
others, of great magnitude, or perpetrated 
with less skill, are detected with wellnigh a 
certainty. Second, it often happens that 
unskilled or mercenary persons are called as 
experts when, through their blundering or 
transparent knavery, the very idea of ex- 
portism is brought under suspicion if not 

The question, then, often arises: Ih there 
any reliable dependence to be placed in 
scientific examinations and comparisons of 
handwriting when conducted by persons of 
acknowledged skill and integrity? We be- 
lieve that there is. Every adult handwrit- 
ing possesses peculiar personal character- 
istics, unconsciously established through the 
force of habit, that became unavoidable, and 
which mark the identity of handwriting as 
conspicuously and certainly as does physi- 
ognomy the identity of the person. No 
two persons' writing naturally, in accord- 
ance with habit, can ever write in all re- 
spects alike. Difi"erent writings may, as 
will diflerent persons, present a general 
resemblance so close as to deceive tlie un- 
familiar observer, and yet really have little 
or no characteristic resemlilance. 

Pemons writing naturally, do so without 
thought respecting the peculiar construc- 
tion of their writing. The hand operates 
the pen, as it were, automatically through 
the sheer force of habit, by which all the 
innumerable personalities are unconsciously 
unparled to writing. Learners and forgers 
think respecting their writing, and hence, 
the more stiff and formal style of their work, 
there is wanting the easy, graceful flow ap- 
parent in thoughtless or habitual writing. 
Lines show more of nervousness and hesi- 
tancy, while the whole construction of the 
writing is more exact and formal; and, 
besides, every different handwriting abounds 
in wellnigh numberless habitual peculiari- 
ties, of which the writer himself is uncon- 
scious, and cannot, therefore, avoid. Thus, 
two other insurmountable difficulties are 
placed in the way of the forger: first, to 
observe and imitate all the characteristics 
of the writing he would simulate; and, I 

second, tp note and avoid all the habitual 
characteristics of his own hand. Habit in 
writing becomes so fixed and arbitrary, 
(not to mention the great artistic skill re- 
quired to exactly imitate an unpracticed 
hand ) that I do not conceive it to be pos- 
sible for any one to simulate the writing of 
another, or to so dissemble his own writing, 
in any considerable quantity, as to defy 
detection through a really skilled expert 

Forgeries are mostly of autographs, and 
are perpetrated by various methods — one 
of which is to place the paper upon which 
the forgery is to be made over the signature 
to be copied, wlien, by holding the same to 
the light or to a window, the writing to be 
copied may be seen througli so that an out- 
line may be traced with a pencil, which is 
then carefully traced with a pen. Another 
method of obtaining an exact outline is to 
place over the signature or writing to be 
copied a piece of thin transparent paper, 
upon which is traced with a pencil the 
outline of the writing which appears nnder- 
neatli ; after which the side of the paper 
opposite the tracing is blackened over with 
a soft pencil crayon, or other similar sub- 
stance, when the traced paper is placed 
upon the sheet where the forgery is to be 
made, and then, with some smooth-pointed 
instrument, the penciled outline is re-traced 
with sufficient pressure to cause an offset of 
the coloring matter to the paper underneath, 
sufficiently to present a distinct outline of 
the writing as made upon the tracing. A 
forgery perpetrated in this manner is sure 
of detection; when subjected to a skilled 
examination it will be manifest— /if r^f, in 
the shaky and hesitating quality of the ink 
lines, as the result of being carefully drawn 
to follow the traced outline; second, in un- 
natural rests and re-tracing, occasioned by 
stops to study the original writing; and, 
third, in the retouchings of the shaded 
strokes, which can seldom be made of the 
proper strength the first time passing over 
the tracing with the pen, and therefor require 
subsequent modification. All subsequent 
touches of the pen, rests and re-tracings are 
certainly detected when subjected to micro- 
scopic examinations. Yet forgeries made 
in this manner are very likely to deceive 
unskilled or unsuspectmg persons, since if 
made with a tolerable degree of skill they 
will be in outline and general appearance a 
close reproduction of the original. Another 
and, perhaps, the most dangerous signa- 
ture is where a skilled artist places before 
him the signature to be forged, and prac- 
tices upou it as from a copy until his hand 
has become so accustomed to its formation 
and movement as to reproduce it to a great 
degree of accuracy with the natural move- 
ment of the pen. Where this is done by ii 
really skilhd imitator, a signature which 
presents no extraordinary and difficult of 
imitation personalities is often reproduced 
wellnigh to perlection — so near as to render 
very difficult, if not baffle, all expert exam- 
inations. The lines and movement, of 
course, are correct, and the only basis for 
the expert is in the variations of theTorgery 
from the characteristic forms of the original 
writing. These will vary according to the 
skill of the forger. Should his skill he very 
great, the variations may be so slight as to 
scarcely exceed the ordinary variations be- 
tween genuine autographs; in which case 
even skilled experts may fail to discover 
any tangible or convincing proofs of forgery, 
and may honestly differ in their opinions. 

The speaker here made a skillful use of 
the blackboard for illustrating his subject 
—first by writing a name in a natural man- 
ner, and then making a copy of the same in 
imitation of a tracing, and afterward touch- 
ing in the shades in imitation of the man- 
ner of forgery. 

Mr. Ames continued bysaying that no two 
genuine signatures are ever exactly alike. 
They vary, as do different kernels of the 
same grain, in size and outline, while they 
are characteristically identical; and a per- 
son is no more likely to be mistaken re- 
apeoting the identity of his autograph than 

he would bis coat, bat, or the faces of his 
relatives and friends. When apparently 
two autographs arc found that ap[)eHr ex- 
actly alike, and when superimposed one is 
found to exactly cover the other through-, 
out, the forgery of one or both is certain. 

I was lately called into a bank in Brook- 
lyn. As I entered I met the cashier about 
going to bis dinner. He returned to his 
deek, and from it banded me a package of 
several hundred checks, with a request that 
I look them over while he was gone. I was 
without the slightest clue to his object, 
but presumed that within the package there 
was a suspected forgery, and so at once be- 
gan an examination. I at fir^t passed them 
through my hands, and any one that in the 
least degree excited my suspicion I placed 
one side. I thus selected half a dozen or 
or more. These I again passed through 
my hand?, laying out those most suspicious. 

In a very few minutes, and long hefure 
the cashier returned, I found remaining in 
my hands two checks, the signatures to 
which appeared exactly alike, and different 
to a considerable extent in their style from 
all of the others. I placed one over the other 
and held them to the window, and they so 
Correctly covered over the other as to appear 
as one signature. I then examined them 
with my glass, and was ctmvlnced that they 
were both forgeries. One for $1,9(10, had 
been paid by the hank; and the other, for 
$1,7.'>0, would have been paid had il not 
exceeded the deposit, which caused a delay, 
and notice to be sent to the depositors, who 
denied its genuineness. 

When the cashier returned I handed to 
him the two checks and said: "I think 
those checks are what troubles you." 
" You surprise me ! " he said. " How in the 
world did you ascertain that I" I then ex- 
plained, and he admitted that I was correct. 

The writing of the person suspected of 
the forgery was obtained and identified with 
that in the forged checks, so as to lead to 

Where the original writing or signature 
of any forgery, made by tracing, can be 
found for comparison, the forgery is easily 
and certainly proved. Most forgers under- 
stand this, and hence either destroy or con- 
ceal the original, or purposely vary their for- 
gery from the exact outline of the original. 

Mr. H. C. Spekcer: "How does a pho- 
tograph, when enlarged, aid in detecting a 
forgery f " 

" It is no aid as a means of detection. A 
direct examination of the writing, with 
good glasses, is a much better and more re- 
liable method. The photograph is of value 
where access cannot be had to the original, 
and for purposes of illustration; by placing 
duplicates of the writing in tpiestion in the 
hands of the court and jury, that they may 
better understand and appreciate any ex- 
pert testimony and explanations given. 

Mr. C. H. Peirce: "When diamond 
cuts diamond— i. c, when the skill of the 
forger is equal to that of the expert— do you 
not believe that a forgery may he so per- 
fectly executed as to defy detection t" 

Mr. Ames: "I would not presume to 
define the possible or impossible. I believe 
that it would he, to say the least, rare that 
a forger would do his work so perfectly as 
to leave absolutely no indication of ungen- 

Mr. Peirce: "When you have ex- 
pressed your opinion fully, and taken sides 
in a case, do you feel bound to sustain that 
side in case further developments should 

)be i 

Mr. Ames: "By no means. It is the 
sole duty ol an expert to discover and pre- 
sent facts without regard to whether they 
may or may not sustain any theory he 
may have formed, and shoul.l he at any 
time find that he has been misled or de- 
ceived into giving an erroneous opinion, he 
should say so, and frankly state his reasons 
for the change of opinion; and in any case 
where he is in doubt he shoubl so admit, 
giving his reasons i^ro and com; and when 
under cross-examination he should admit 
frankly any fact which he may believe to 

exist, tending to controvert his expressed 
opinion. An expert witness should, in my 
opinion, have no facts to conceal, or about 
which to quibble." 

Mr. II. C. Spencer : "You have stated 
that one genuine autograph differs from 
another. You also disprove the genuine- 
ness of an autograph, by pointing out its 
differences from your genuine standards. 
How are you to determine that the varia- 
tions noted result from the inability of the 
forger to correctly reproduce au autograph, 
rather than from the iucidental variations 
between genuine autogrnphs? or, in other 
words, whether they are the natural varia- 
tions in writing, or imperfections in copy- 

In reply, Mr. Ames requested a member 
to write his autograph twice upon the 
blackboard, and another member to copy it 
as perfectly as possible, and then write his 

Mr. Ames said : " When a person writea 
his own autograph it is without thought, 
from force of habit; and, if repeated, al- 
though with variations in form, size, and 
etc., there is a perfect ease or thoughtless 
freedom of line, and a homogeneousness 
which stamps both as the result of one 
writing habit. Peculiar shades, turns, spac- 
ings, and the nice personal characteristics 
which impart a personality to writing, are 
reproduced with a natural ease. Not so in 
a forged VTriting." 

Turning to the blackboard, Mr. Amea 
gave a very elaboratft analysis of the 
genuine autographs — pointing to their ap- 
parent differences, and comparing them in 
their nature and degree with those in the 
counterfeit. He made it very apparent that 
the differences between the genuine were 
slight, and of very different character than 
were those between the genuine and forged 
writing. He pointed to many instances 
where it was very apparent that the force 
of habit bad asserted itself, and caused the 
copyist to impart hi.s own personality, 
rather than that of the original. Loops 
were differently turned and 'proportioned, 
letters differed in the manner of their con- 
struction, shades were misplaced and differ- 
ent in degree, and letters were differently 
joined and proportioned. It whs oJeariy 
shown how these were radical differences, 
resulting alike from the inability of the 
copyist to observe and reproduce the writ- 
ing habit of another, and to avoid his own. 
In these comparisons, Mr. Ames qaade it 
very apparent how sur.h differences, as he 
pointed out, must be the result of au en- 
tirely different habit, rather than of the ac- 
cidental variations of the same habit. 

It is a matter of much regret that full 
illustrations, as used upon the board by Mr. 
Ames, cannot accompany his lecture; but 
for that, very elaborate and numerous draw- 
ing would be required. As au example of 
his blackboard illustrations see the accom- 
panying cut and analysis. 

In answer to a question, Mr. Ames re- 
ferred to the Morey-GarHeld letter. He 
said that one of the conclusive reasons 
which led him at the first sight to pro- 
nounce that famous letter a forgery, was the 
fact that the dot intended for the i, in Gar- 
field, was to the left of the/, and over the 
r. I did not believe it was possible that 
Gen. Garfield had not learned where the t 
was in his autograph, or that a habit ao 
long and oft-repeated should make such a 
mistake. Had the dot been omitted en- 
tirely, 1 should have thought that a possi- 
ble oversight; but such a misplacement 
could only he the blunder of a copyist. 

Mr. Ames having concluded, Mr. S. S. 
Packard took the floor, and spoke as fol- 

"Mr. Packard: "It is no extravagance 
to say that Mr. Ames stands at the bead of 
writing experts — that this is his position in 
New York and throughout the country. 
And he has honestly earned this position by 
the kind of work of which be has just 
given an illustration. It is evident to all 
that he goes to the bottom of things, and 
what is possible In dzecution he acoom- 


he entirely i 

i)i<« reputatir 
tlielees, I ha 

propriety of e 
on m.rPly e: 
two kiud» <.f 

pliebes. Believin 
corruptible he w< 
bis opinion, or testify coatrary to his c 
victions for any ainoiint of niooey. Thi 
, atiil he deserves it. Ne^ 
e doubts about the efficacy of 
it is iifieu prosecuted by euii 
, who want to bolster up i 
ind Bouie quPSlioD as to tb< 
tiidiog H man to State's Prison 
:ptTt leatimony. There ai 
experts in whom the publ: 
have more or leaa confidence: one, is tl 
intuiti re expert, who, like the bank-teller, 
judges of the genuiaeuess of a sig 
by the Brat impression, and who 
lereons on the subject, but simply decides 
offhand ; ami the other is the careful, log 
ical, keen-eyed, educated detective, who 
compart'8 poiuts, and studies habits, and 
weighs testimony until he is driven to a 
conclneiou. There are, doubtless, merits in 
both methods; but it is the latter sort of 
experls wlio are most uaeful on the witness- 
stand, and who are relied upon to influence 
iurors. Experts of this kind have great 
power for good or evil, for it requires but 
few tricks to confound the average juryman. 
And, besides, the popular method of using 
expert testimony is to put one expert 
against another, and call It 
aide has three experts, the other side must 
have three or more, or suffer in the eyes of 
the jury — for, unfortunately, experts must 
be on one side or the other and must bend 
their tesiimouy to fit a theory. I do not 
think Mr. Ames ever accepted a retaitiing 
fee as an ex|)ert, and I have sometimes 
thought he would have the courage to go 
back on his own testimony if he should 
suddenly discover that he had founded his 


', prci 

years ago a Httle matter caw 
experience that bears on this 
experli^in, and I would like 1 
of it. I was 

lises. So; 
e within 1 

I opit 

United States la 

Xpert , 




9 the tin 

under the law, and elicited a good deal of 
attention. I was asked by the defendant 
tu discover that the postal- cards which he 
was charged with writing bad been forged 
—at 1. ast that they were not wriilen by him. 
A brief examination satisfied me that he 
had written them, and I told him at once 
that I could not do him any good. He 
asked me if I believed the writing his. I 
told bim that it was not necessary to answer 
that (luestiou, but if I should be shown one 
of these cards, and a letter which he ac- 
knowledged as bia, and under ..ath asked 
if I believed they were writti-u by diiiereut 
persons, I should not say yes. I lold him, 
however, that I didn't think it would be at 
all difficult to imitate the writing on the 
card, and if it would afford him any comfort 
1 would undertake to do ii so well as to de- 
ceive any or all the experts on the other 
side. And although this would prove 
nothing it would 8hi)W to the jury that ex- 
pert testimony was not iutallible. Ho said 
he would like me to do it, and I obuined 
the privilege of taking a few cards for a 
better examination, and oue of them I 
copied— not servilely, oi by tracing, but with 
uiing to preserve only ihe 
-or what Mr. Ames calls the 
" unconscious habits " of the writer. I had, 
fortunately, an important clue, which was 
given me in coufidence, and which I might 
not have discovered myself. The writer 

bad a habit of touching bis pen liyhlly to 

obtain a flow of ink — jusi preceding a 
word. It was a very small dot, hardly 
difltinguiahable, but was repeated very often. 
This characteristic appeared in all the writ- 
ten cards -about fifty of which were in 
evidence-and, also, in the standard letter 
acknowledged to be his. Of course I did not 
omit this ear-mark. After copying the 
card, I manipulated it, and blurred it with 
ink-blots after the manner of the original; 
submitted it to the defendant's counsel. 
Judge Fullerlou, who was himself deceived 
by it, and said the imitation was perfect. 


be brief, this card was adroitly 

slipped into the package in the bands of one 
the chief experts for the prosecution while 
uuder cross-examination, and his ftttention 
was particularly drawn to it by Judge Ful- 
lerton, and the expert 

of the cards did Dot bear 
nd so the jig 

noticed that o 

the post- mark 

the question comes to me whether, 

with Mr. Ames's skill and patience, he may 

not sometimes be thrown off the track. The 

only money I ever received as a writing ex- 

The following cut a 
board illustrations which 

The force of habit 
cut below. The first tw 

Illustrations and Analysis. 

ad analysis will serve to convey an idea of the numerous black- 
=s'8 Address, 
the way of forgery are illustrated in the 
atographs; the third, a skillfully executed 
< of the genuine, and would pass 

mpaiiiod Mr. At 

id the difficulties i 

represent genuine 
forgery, and to the casual observer it is a fae 

such. Yet, under a scientific examination it differs very widely — in fact, has scarcely a 
characteristic resemblance — while as proof of its ungenuineness uoless than thirty char- 
acteristic differences may be cited — twenty-five of which are indicated by numerals in 
the cut. ( 1 ) The staff of the F in the genuine terminntes at the base line with a round, 
free movement, while in the forgery it is broken at the base and horizontal at its termi- 
nal. (2) The ii'is crossed with a curved line, while in the g. it is straight. (3) The 
initial line to the cap of the Fis longer and farther from the second, and not so nearly 
parallel, making a differently formed ami larger space than in the f. (-1 ) Tlie loop is 
larger and more egg-shaped in the g. than in the f. ( 5 ) The cap of the F in g. is far 
above the top of the stem, and close to it in the f. (G) The shade of the loop is chiefly 
below the middle in the g., while it is above that point in the f. (7) It is a more graceful 
and better balanced curve than in the g. (8) The iniijal to the R begins with a well- 
defined right curve in the g., and a compound one in the f., and {[)) the sl-ade is low 
down toward the base in the g., while it is uear the top in the f. ( lU) The top portion 
of the R is larger and more round in the g. than in the f., and ( II ) it is less shaded in 
tlie g. than in the f. ( 12 ) The last etroke of the R is shaded lower down in the g. than 
in the f . ; while the center loop points slnvight upward in the g , and nearly horizontal 
in thef. (13) The finishing turn of the i2, the lower Uirns of the «— in fact, all the 
turns of the g. are more round and full than in the f. (14) The ss's in the g. are more 
round and open at the top, and have for the down-stroke a simple right curve, and ( 15) 
terminate with a triangular form; while in llic f tlieae letters are closed and pointed at 
the lop, have a compound curve in down-stroke, while they terminate with well turned 

lifii-hlh from the base: 
p-tiuus in the g , and 
■ and thinner thau the 

graceful loops. ( IC) Tin' U'f^ in thr l;. cto.^s less tli^u I ..1' 
in the f. above, \ ; and (17) jdl the I'a are angulnr in tl, 
round in the f. ; while from habit Ihe first I in the g is e 

second, while they are in all respects alike in the f. { 18) In the g. the Vs terminate 
with a straight downward movement; in llie f., with a turn and upward right curve. 
(10) In the g. the loop at the base of the X is much larger and broader then in the f. : 
(20) while the staff is mure sloping with th<- shade much lower down in the g. than 
in the f. ( 21 ) The ;/ in g is angular in the top of the first part, and round in its turn at 
the bottom of loop; while the first j art in the f- is round, and the turn of the loop an- 
gular. (22) In the g. the connecting lino to the o api)roacIies at an angle near the 
base, whUe in the f it approaches on nearly a parallel movement, and much higlier, 
while the whole letter in the g. is much more narrow and cojtracted than in the f. 
( 2:1) In the g. the n is round at tlie top, also the first turn at base is round and open, 
while both tliese turns in the f. are sharp angles. ( 24 ) The terminal lines in g. are com- 
pound curves, while in f. it is curved only slightly to the right. (25) All the punctua- 
tion points in the g. are are very delicate points, while in the f. they jire conspicuous, 
curved dashes- 

It is apparent from its character that the above forgery was perpetrated without 
tracing, and upcm nearly the natural movement, as the lines are smooth, graceful, and 
none of the sha-'ed lines show retouching, and all the viiriatiors noted in the foregoiug 
analysis result from ihe power of habit asserting itself on the part of the forger, and 
a failure to note many of the nice habitual characteristics of the genuine autograph. 
It is also apparent that thi' forger was a more skiUed artist with the pen thau the writer 
of the genuine. This appears in the better balanced lines in the top of the F, com- 
pound curves of the ss% the more graceful loops, better rounded o, and morebicely 
turned n; and the whole movement appears <iuite as free as the genuine; while it must 
liave been thoughtfully and cart-fully written ; hence, it is a fair iLlerence that whoa writ- 
ing with entire freedom from thought and without effort to copy there would have been 
ttifenifest additional grace rind fkill. 

it closely, and say if in hie judgment it was 
written by ihe difeudant. He did examine 
it closely, and said that ihere was no doubt 
whatever that the defendant had written it. 
But the opportunity was lost of making a 
poiut on the jnry, for the District Attorney, 
mistrusting a trick, bad discovered that 
there were too many cards in the witness's 
hand, and upon a eubseqaont investigation 

pert I took for services on behalf of ihe 
Northampton Bank robbers; and I should 
have disgraced myself inetrievably if the 
letter which I swore was not written by the 
chief rascal Scott had not been ruled out 
as containing irrelevant matter. It was a 
letter known and acknowledged to have 
been written by Scott to his wife, and I ex- 
pertly said it could not have been written 

by him. I have not been on the witness- 
stand as an expert since. When I am 
called upon I always ssy that I have sold 
out to Ames. 

"And I will say in conclusion that not- 
withstanding my belief that expert testimony 
-is not wholly ndiable, I do believe that the 
only method by which reaeonable and SKt- 
isfactory concluf 
those which Mr, 

Mr. Ames: ■' 
ampton Bank c( 
saii>e foe thai 
I looked ov 

be reached are 

'I was called in the North- 
asR, and suppose I got the 
-Packard did. (Laughter.] 
said to Mr. 

. papei 

Scott's attorney that I felt very sorry to 
say that I could be of no service to him, 
as I believed the writing it. i|ueetion to be 
that of his client. He argued and urged 
that I was mistaken, and when I persisted, 
he said: 'For God's sake, Mr. Ames, get 
<mt of this town befrire Pinkerton's men 
get hold of you and suhpu'na you upon the 
other side.' I had been shadowed by Pink- 
erton's men from the time I arrived in 
Northampton. I left at on.-e, and was at 
least more f.irtunate than was Bro. Pack- 
ard ia my e^e^d. [Liughter. ] Respect- 
ing the postal card mentioned by Mr. Pack- 
ard, I would veuture a wager that he put 
more marks into the fiwgerj than were in 
the original." 

. Mr.Packard: "No, Ididn't: I counted 
them." [Laughter.] 

Mr. Ami:s: "Suppose you had under- 
taken to have simulated that writing in 
other composition than that upon the card, 
you would have noted the more conspicu- 
ous peculiarities of the hand, which, in re- 
producing, y<u would have most certainly 
overdone, while a multitude of lesser i>ecu- 
liarities would have been overlooked ; but, 
supplied from your .>wn habit, and these, 
liad there ever been a proper examiuaiion 
and comparison with your writing loade. 


I belle 

e, bave 

idenlitied the 




as your 
<: "Do 

es tbe 

law of X 


.1 will 

that au expert 
the wriliog 
8 supposed t 

r the 

be : 

Mr. Amrs: "Only from comparison. 
Until within a low years, much diffiiuliy 
was experienced re^pectiug tbe introduction 
of the proper standards for a basis of com- 
parison and expert tt'stiinouy. Previously, 
all writing used fur compariMon had to have 



, It 

could not be admitted. The law now is to 
the efl'ecl that any Mriling proved genuine 
to the SHtisfactitm of the court, may be put 
in for the special purpose of comparison 
by experts. In several of the States, where 
I have testified, there has been an almost 
insuperable ditficulty on account of the 
sharp limitation of writing that could be 
used for comparison, and the work of the 
expert has many times miscarried for want 
of the proper standards for comparison." 

Standard and Complete. 

On the occasion of deliverioe an educa- 
tional address, President Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as " that system 
of penmanship which has become the pride 
of our country and model of our schools." 

Its latest complete American edition of 
Standard Practical Penmanship, prepared 
for the Journal by the Spencerian Broth- 
ers, is a reliable and popular publication for 

It is not sold to the book -trade, but mailed 
direct to students, accountants, luerchants, 
bankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
eraUy, on receipt of $1. 

The work embraces a comprehensive 
course, in plain styles of writing, and gives 

correspondence, book-keeping, etc., etc. 

If not found superior to other styled self- 
instructors in writing, the purchase price will 
be refunded. 

Sample copies of the Journal sent on 
leceipt of price, 10 cents. 



The Proper Caper. 

Our tboughti are of anolber hua 
80 ([""d.bye ! Eighteen Eighty.; 

Educational Notes. 

[Communioations for this Department may 
be adflreBsed to B. F. Kkllky.205 Broadway. 
New York. Briel educational itemn solicited.] 

The University of Berlin has 250 pro- 

The University of Edinburgh will soon 
celehrale its -WOth anniversary. 

Cornell is goine to exiieriineat Ly drop- 
ping the languages, .-ind directing all its 
energies toward the sciences. 

In Germany, every teacher who goes 
into the schools must lake a course of di- 
dactics and mental pliihisophy. 

Out of :«■) colleges in this country, 155 
use the Roiian, 144 the English, and 34 
the Continental pronunciation. 

Mexico has a population of ]0,500,U0U, 
more than a third of whom are of pure 
Indian blood. 

Two daughters of the p -ct Longfellow 
have entered as students at Newnham Col- 
lege, England. 

Sixty-four of 111 New Jersey sohool- 
tenchcrs eay in report that whipiiing is 

Miss Elaine Goodale, the elder of the 
Sky Farm poets, has hccomo one of the 
teachers of the Indians at the Hampton 

It is estimated that there are in attend- 
ance in the various schools business 
education in the United States, about 40,- 



I their 


The collrge President; 
meeting in Boston, were t 
opinion that football, as a collrge sport, 
ought to ho prohibited — Boston Herald. 

Business deparltnents arc now opened in 
many of tho liigh schools and academies of 
the country, and the nuinhor is rapidly 
increiising. This may be considered as 
reHeoting favorably upon business college 

Mexico has a school of arts and trades 
for women, numbering ;I6S pupils, ranging 
from twelve years to women of middle age. 
Sewicg, and all work suitable for women, 
are taught, as well as drawing, painting 
and music. 

EK0L4ND — The Educational Depart- 
ment, in its instructions to school inspec- 
tors, advises that the birch tree be left to 
develop its beauty, and be not robbed of 
its branches for the purpose of coiduroying 
the backs of tho adolescents.— Sc/iooJ Jour- 

The entire amount, $4,4:tl.950. was ap- 
proved by unanimous vote, $750,000 of the 
sum being appropria-ed for sites and build- 
ings. The appropriation htst year was 
$3,750,000. The appropriation of $136,. 

000 for the College of the City of Xe 
York was adopted. 

Educational Fancies. 

[In every iiiBtance wliere the 
ilem used in this deparlment 
proper credit is giveo. A like 
01 hers will be appreciated.] 

/"wwn. °th« 
courtesy from 

■ The Id 

3ian "summer"-^ 

D aboriginal 

He has a 

V Arnold calls a cow a "coo," 
cowrioua style of pronuDciation. 

"I am 
my class," 
threw his 

bvirning to stand at the head of 
as the boy remarked when he 
schoolmate's exercise into the 

"Lands are measured in rods, leagues 
and so forth," said the teacher, "now what 
isasurveyor?" " A land leaguer ! " shouted 
one of the boys. 

"John strikes William," remarked a 
school-teacher, "what is the object of 
strikes.'" "Higher wages and less work," 
promptly replied the iutelligent youth. 

Professor to student: "Your answer is 
wrong." Student: "Well, the principle is 
all right, isn't it.^" Professor: "Yes, the 
Principiil is all right, but the student is 

"Miss Jane, you will have for your sub- 
ject Ihe King of Spain." "Impossible," 
says Jane. "Why?" says the teacher. 
"Because," says Jane, "it is impossible 
for a lung to becme a subject." 

" What is the worst thing about riches f" 

Teachers, Please Answer, 
By Arthur Oeuler. 

The watchword of popular education in 
its various divisions is progress. This 
grade of progress fluctuates, and is more 
prominent at certain times with some 
branches than others. 

For the last few years, thtre h«8 been a 
steady though slow advaucetiient in Pen- 
manship in our public schools, or, rather, 
in the teaching of wrtiing; while the 
business colleges have made rapid strides, 
and done a grand and noble work in this 

Of coufte, the 
two (namely, the 
public schools) h; 
difl'erent; and it 
favorable to the business colleges. But, 
then, better work must also be done in this 
branch ia the public schools, and will, ere 
long, be demanded by school officers as well 
patrons. It therefore behooves us to give 
this branch the attention it deserves, by ex- 
changing ideas, and, in tliis way, reaping 
mutual i)ro6t from our varied experiences. 

In accordance with this spirit the follow- 
ing (jLiestions are submitted; and whoever 
has bad experience in writing, will very 
likely reud considerable between the lines. 

First. Why do girls from the age of ten 

between the 
Cfdieges and the 
and are, entirely 


ter band tha 
Second, h 
public schools) 
of twenty? Whyf 

general r 

, write a bet- 



r a /ovrith executed by A. U. Kellty. penm 
■al Colltge, St. Joseph, Mo. 

d a Sunday-school teacher. "That 
they take unto themselves wings and fly 
away," promptly rejdied the boy at the foot 
of the class — Cincinnati Saturday Night. 

'Give me," said the schoolmaster, "a 
sentence in which the words 'a burning 
shame' are properly applied." Immediately 
the bright boy at the head of the class went 
to the blackboard and wrote; "Satan's 
treatment of the wicked is a burnibg 
shdrae."— Philadelphia Chronicle. 

Said ateapher to the school: "What ia 
the largest city in the world?" And the 
child replied "Chicago." "No," said the 
teacher; "Chicago is not the largest city 
in the world." "Well," said the child, 
"anyway, a Chicago man told me it was." 

A hoy of eight years was asked by his 
teacher where Zenith was. He replied: 
"The spilt in the heavens directly over 
one's head." To test his knowledge fur- 
ther, tlie teacher asked : "Can two persons 
have the same Zenith at the same time?" 
"They can." "How?", "If one stands 
on tho other's head." 

"Gaze upon that pure, beautiful even- 
ing star, and swear to be pure while its 
light shall shine! Swear, my love! Swear 
by Venus!" eiolaimod a Boston youth, in 
iuipassioned accents. "How stupid you 
are," amswered the Boston girl. "That is 
not Venus. The right ascension of Venus 
this month is 15h. yin.; her declination is 
17 degrees 25 minutes south, and her di- 
ameter is 10 3."-JEx. 

Now is the time to subscribe for the 
J' URNAL. and begin with the new year and 
Prof. Hiuman's leasous ij practical writing. 

Third. Why do a large number of pupils 
experience so much difficulty to acipiire 
proper and regular slant in writing^ 

Fourth. Is the full, right side position 
not a disadvantage to the pupil sitting on 
the left hand side of double desks? 

Fifth. Does it pay, in public schools, to 
give any further attention lo penholding, or 
the position of the hand, while writing, 
more than that the wrist must, under no 
circumstances, touch the desk? 

Fellow teachers, let us hear from you, 

Work and Think, 
f Professor H. Russel 

In those terrible days which tried men's 
souls during the early part of the war, a cap- 
tain of one regiment asked President Lin- 
coln, with whom be was acquainted: "Mr. 
Lincoln, what ought men do to succeed in 
life? Mr. Lincoln answered in the never 
to be forgotten words, "Work and think." 
For twenty years I have told this as a 
motto for my school, and if there is a better 
one I never beard of it. Never was the life 
of a great man more fully illustrative i.f the 
motto, than that of Mr. Lincoln. Born in 
the lowest poverty, it was his undcviating 
and firm adherence to this principle that gave 
him such a grand and ennobling triumph; and 
many another great man who has been im- 
bued with the like SfUtiraent has enabled 
himself to secure success. On every field 

that bears a tempting harvest on its breast, 
on every brick in every building that was 
ever reared, on every book of value that 
was ever written, i.n every thought that 
burns to light the world, in every work- 
shop, mine, furnace, factory, and wherever 
labor sweats, are written the credentials of 

What is your secret asked a lady of Tur- 
ner, the distinguished painter. He replied, 
" I have no secret, madam, but hard work." 
Says Dr. Arnold : The " difference between 
one man and another is, not so much in tal- 
ent as in energy." " Nothing," says Key- 
nolds, "is denied well directed labor, and 
nothing is to be attained without it." 
"Excellence in any department." says 
Johnson, "can now he attained by the 

labor of a lifetir 

chased at a lesser price 
one method," said Sydney Smith, "and that 
is, hard labor; and a man that will not pay 
that price for distinction, had better at once 
iledicate hirase t to the pursuit of the fox." 
" Step by step " reads the French proverb, 
"one goes very far." "Nothing," says 
Mirabeau, "is impossible to a man who 
can will. This is the only law of true suc- 
cess. "Haveyru ever entered a college, 
or traveled in a coach, talked with a peas- 
ant in the field, or loitered with a mechanic 
at the loom," asked Sir Edward Bulwer 
Lytton, "and found that each of these men 
had a talent you have not, knew son-.ething 
you did not. The most useless creature 
that yawned at a club, or idled in rags under 
the suns of Italy, has no excuse for the 
want of intellect. What man w;.nts, is— 
not talent, but purpose ; in other words, not 
the power to achieve, but the will to labor." 
All honor, then, to the toilers who "work 
and think," whether on land or water, 
whether paPd with study or begrimed with 
sweat. Tbey are the parents aud possess- 
ors of all true enjoyments, and commerce is 
their servant and their frieud. All men 
are by nature bom free and equal. They 
are equal in the sight of our law. and in the 
Creator's love; and the man of business or 
any man who forgets this great truth ia 
false to our institutions, and mindless of re- 
ligion. The laborer, equally with the mil- 
lionaire, should enjoy ease and alternate 
labor. The drones, if there be any in our 
busy country, are few. Thfre can be no 


is pou 

Jjnyment in their Tn 

useful." If apj: 
brings heavenly 

er," It is a 
and must be s 
lied to great 

I Bat 

isfaclion, and, with God's 
happiness. If hoarded 
or put to tho possessor's personal use it 
cankers the soul; and Scott's lines apply 
forcibly to him wtio so basely neglects his 

If work aud thought, then, cjiu produce a 
Lincoln, a G« field, and hundreds of self- 
made men, as ii undoubtedly has done; if 
it can in the short space ..f one hundred 
years build up the richest and most power- 
ful nation on earth— what grand pjospects, 
what splendid examples, are before every 
youDg man who wishes to do or he anything 
in the Wi.rld ! 


The Wriling-Ruler has become 
ard article with those who profess 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing- Kuler is a re- 
liable penmanship chart and compass sent 
by the Journal on receipt of HO cents. 

The Hand - book 
offered free 

{in paper) 

premmiii to every person 
remitting $1 for one year's subscriiition to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely bound in 
eloth, fur 25 oenU additional. 

AKi »iom{,\.ii. 

Movement as Applied to 

Mr, President, Ladits and Gentlemen, and 
Membera of the Contmtiim : 
I am always proud to asB'St ia a move- 
ment having for its ol>ject the advancement 
of maDkiod. If in my experieoce I have 
gathered anjrthiug valuable I gladly ufl'cr it 
without reserve to the houoral-le members 
of this association. Movement, as applied 

J pen 



ivhioh 8 

freedom of motion in executiou. Movement 
ip the central power that gives force and 
BlrtTigth of character to the most graceful 
of forms. Movement is the magic wand 
that gives life and beauty wherever found, 
( N. IJ. That the above couplet was Dot 
Intended for poetry.) 

In presenting this subject I am well 
aware that much must be »aid that you al- 
ready know, in order to elucidate that which, 
to me, forms a very important part in the 
highest cimception of education. 

I pannot hope to reach minor points in 
the allotted time, but will endeavor to travel 
io a measvirc untrodden around. 

To substantiate my position, and prove 
conclusively that I am correct in my reason- 
iug, permit me, if you please, to make 
compariBons that I may be enabled to' pro- 
duce a clinging argument in favor of the 
Peircerian Method of Instruction. Years 
before the publication of No, 4 of the New 
Spencerian Compendium I bad advocated 
the practice ot Tracing Movements, Ex- 
i\, which are identical 
the first two pcges of 
inated'' Capital Exer- 
ciaes." I borrowed them from no one, and I 
am very positive the authors of the Spence- 
rian System did not borrow them from me. 
The results achieved in either case are the 
outgrowth of neceesity, and differ only in 

the training necessary to produce the results 
desired. This is true with the mass below 
the ages of twelve and fifteen years. 
Therefore, the conclusion is reached that 
the success of teaching Movement depends, 
Jtrst, upon how developed; second, to 
whom taught, 

It might be asked, is it necessary, in in- 
troducing the subject of Movement, to al- 
ways begin by tracingf Every rule has its 
exception. I know of a gentleman who 
always eats his dessert first, and I am almost 
convinced that this would be a good rule. 

The rule is that movement should be in- 
troduced by beginning with tracing eier- 
<'ises. This, of course, is conceding the 
fact that all beginners possess little or no 
available power. Occasionally a smart 
"Alexia "is found, and I invariably begin 
with Extended Movements. 

What are Extended Movements andwliat 
purpose do they serve? Extended Move- 
ments are groups of capitals executed with 
a continuous or discontinuous motion, and 
serve as a means to acquire increased power 
over Tracing Movcmeuts. 

The joining together of capital letters, 
as given in No. 4 of the New Spencerian 

which I ha 



Philosophy of Movement. 

As I understand it, the Philosophy of 
Movement is the embodiment of certain 
principles necessary to a true conception 
and perfeet execution of capitals. The 
Philosophy of movement is an application 
of mechanical force, which opcratos in con- 
formity to certain laws. 

Thete is a certain power which every one 
must possess to reudor the execution of cap- 
itals easy and graceful. Some one will say 
a free, easy movement, and a knowledge of 
forms, with the proper application — i. e., 
with due amount of practice — will produce 
the highest order of results. 

Tlieorotically speaking, this is true. 
Practically speaking, it is not true. Too 
mauy of the so-called best results are de- 
void of merit. Productions that are below 
mediocrity are landed to the skies. Praise 
comes too often from an unworthy source. 
Do not get puffed up into an overween- 
ing confidpnce of your ability too soon. 
Age and experience will do much toward 
taking off the wire edge, after which pos- 
sibly a keen edge may be discovered. Let 
me not be misunderstood: I do not affirm 

tended Movement 
with ihuso found 
No. 4, and are den 

While there ia 

not very much in a name 

—because "a ros 

e by any other name would 

smell as sweet"- 

-I chose to name the de- 

designs that ru 

n in the same groove. 

"Tracing Move 

uif-nts," and those that 

were drawn out 

"Extended Movements." 

With these general statements I pass to 
the consideration of a more speciiil applica- 

First. What are Tracing Movements, 
and for what are theyusedt Tracing Move- 
ments are designs composed principally of 
capital letters used as the initiatory step to 
produce freedom o! motion. 

This is accomplished by the teacher 
executing the various designs with blue 
pencil, and having the student follow the 
same with lead-pencil or end of hulder. 
By reference to Nu. -1 New Spencerian 
Compendium (See cut on this page.) yuu 
will find that what I term Tracing Move- 
ments are thoee which follow in the same 
channel, and are designed to be traced from 
1 to 2;i8,(,ll0 times according to necessity, in 
order to acquire freedom, or action of the 
muscles that must of necessity be gained at 
the outset. An attempt to produce results 
witli a pen at fer&t by the unskilled, to say 
the least, is laughable. Therefore, to make 
doubly sure and avoid discouragement in a 
measure, educate the muscles to do the 
simplest class of work well, and advanced 
steps are easily taken. It may not be ne- 
cessary, but I make this statement so that 
all may thoroughly understand the situation. 



unteachable to ohildreu. Long Division is 
nnteacbablo to the child of six years; in- 
terest cannot be comprehended by the child 
of ten years. The child of twelve and fif- 
teen is not expected to explain llio 
all points embodied in Cube Root, 

Physical development has its 
well as mental development, Thii 
too well known to need repetition ; 
applied to penmanship, it is b 
wholly ignored. The muscles are e 
sisutly developed in ohUdhood 

c aUve fALt represents one of the plates of No. 4 of the New Spencerian Co^npendium (re- 
duced one-half in eize), to which Prof Peirce alludes in his Ucture. Seven Parts of this 
valuable publication have been itsutd, and are mailed from ihe office of the " Journal " at 

Compendium, is what I term Extended 
Movements. My ambition has been some- 
what exercised in this direction until I have 
now reached more than 4(10 ditterent de- 
signs. It may seem strange to the uniuitia- 
tfd, hut the fact is susceptible of proof that 
Extended Movements containing capital 
letters are easier of execution than single 
capitals of similar design. This will be 
demonstrated later on. Analogous princi- 
ples in teaching are a sure guide. It is not 
necessary, in teaching the child Addition, to 
dwell upon the subject until all points 
have been gained before proceeding to sub- 

A few of the eighty designs, produced 
with ease and grace in Tracing Movements, 
will give enough power to secure fair results 
—with a little application— in Extended 
Movements. Besides, the three steps in 
this class of work are sure to affect ad- 
vancement, even with the most plodding. 
If necessary, first use a lead-pencil. Sec- 
ond, A coarse pen will aid in giving confi- 
dence by producing the form without shade. 
Third and last. By producing a pure, 
smooth line and shade with tine pen. 

Enough of this work should be done to 
give daf h and firmness in execution before 
attempting capital letters proper. The 
crowning effort is to thoroughly understand 
what I deem the connecting link between 
movement and capitals; or, in other words, 
Hdmit of I the applloation of movement to oapitftls; 

that the highest order of execution embod- 
ied in any capital of a wholearm or forearm 
nature, depends upon the application of the 
Philosophy of Movement. 

Mechanical forces are operated through 
certain laws. To ignore those laws and 
expect or hope for the best results is to 
shut our eyes against a truth { that many 
unconsciously do), and commit the fatal er- 
ror of unintelligent practice which fosters 
ordinary results that will ultimately defeat 
the most sanguine. 

To succeed in any undertaking every pos- 
sible advantage must be taken. If a watch 
keeps perfect time, it must be true in all its 
parts. One imperfection will in time work 
disaster. If you would reach the highest 
ideal in the production of capital letters you 
must submit each part of the law to a tech- 
nical test ere its full force can be ascertained. 
To execute any pen-work is not " difficult " 
or " hard to do." To say that certain work 
requires great skill is in proper keeping, 
because we can then infer that a system- 
matic course of training ia the essential 
through which great results are achieved. 
Skillful execution is the outgrowth of intel- 
ligent practice coupled with patient, earnest, 
determined repetition. Intelligent practice 
is the only true guide, and every step taken 
is A well conceived plan of instruction, which 
will grow results that are sure to lead to 
perpetual advancement. 

There are penmen in the field to-day who 

have made but little or no advancement in 
the past ten years. The reasons to me are 
obvious : superficial scribbling, with ignor- 
ance of all law as its base, is productive of 
evil worthy of condemnation. Analogous 
reasoning will prove to the mogt skeptical 
that there is a philosophy of movemcQt. 
That a capital letter can be produced with- 
out any introductory movement does not 
disqualify my statement any more than 
jumpiug without moving the arms is impos- 
sible. The point is simple: can the high- 
est order of execution be reached without 
the application of this philosophy of move- 
ment? or, in other words, can a (standing) 
jump be made as far and with an equal ease 
without as with moving the arms ? Most 
eiriphatically no! a thousand times, no! 

The intuitive nature which our best 
penmen possess, brings them to the attain- 
ment of results without knowing the rea- 
sons why ; and the want of it leaves the 
world at large to cry, " We are doomed be- 
cause we have no natural talent!" True, 
teaching-power must supply every link in 
the chain if the mass be led to a successful 
termination, A little natural reasoning, or, 
better still, a development of brain-power 
into a sensible diagnosis of the ease, will 
produce, other things considered, hosts of 
qatural penmen. 

This introductory movement is a "power 
behind the throne," and without a proper 
understanding of it I have failed to discover 
that encouragement attends the average 
student, or renders the work a pleasant task 
for even the most precocious. 

There are five principles embodied in the 
Philosophy of Movement ; First, Motion 
preceding execution. Second. Motion larger 
than result. Third. Time in execution 
same as motion preceding it. Fourth. 
Location of movement preceding execution. 
Fifth. Going from an ellipse to straight 

Ist. " Motion preceding execution." By 
this is'meant that in the formation of capi- 
tals a certain speed or power must be avail- 
able before a letter can be smoothly 
executed. The motion preceding the 
pitching or throwing of a ball or a lasso; 
the motion of the arms in jumping; the 
threshing of grain by horse-power; and the 
motion necessary to precede the actual work 
i. e , the driving around the horses once or 
twice to acquire certain force before actual 
execution, all are practical illustrations, 
and furnish proof of one principle in 
mechanical force necessary to perfect results. 
Therfore it is usual to count 1, 2, while 
making the introductory motion, and pro- 
duce the letter or part of a letter on the 
third count. For example, take the capital- 
loop in its simplest form, and count 1,2, J, 
completing llie M-ork on third count. 
Again; take the capital "O" as an illus 
tratiou, the form to consist of its regular 
proportions, with last part extending in an 
oval form below base-line and ending in 
center of the "0" proper; count 1, 2, in 
the preparatory motion, and th — ree, fo — 
ur, in expcntion, I'bo same is true of any 
capital, and the count is regulated according 
to the number of downward strokes, or the 
nuuiber of lines composing the letter; i. c, 
the simpler '■forms of capitals contain less 
strokes, hence fewer counts. 

(N. B.— That in counting I invariably 
name the downward strokes only. ) 

In producing a capital "J" there is but 
one downward stroke; the count, then 
would be wu — n, tw — o, for preparatory 
motion; and th — re e in execution of let- 
ter; t. c, while uttering the "th" the first 
upward stroke is formed ; while uttering 
the "re "the main stroke is formed; and 
while uttering the "e," the finishing stroke 
is added. 

You will notice the lines dividing the 

word ( th— re e ) arc of different lengths; 

this indicates the time at tops and base of 
letter in execution. The short turn at base 
of letter always requires a check, which 
constitutes a longer pause than the long 
turn found at the top of letter. This is the 
only foieotifie method by which the form of 

'miW: *'" 'J"i •<'v VI 


I capital can be produced that will < 
«*fP9lhelicB. Long turns require li 

When I ^ee the forms nf a set of capitals 
tbat are iosipiilly ugly, held up as repre- 
sentiug some quality fur a speciHc purpuae. 

Fourth. The location of movemeDt pre- 
eding execution. I can best explain what 

mean by tliis in h practical example. 

Suppose I desire to execute any of the 
ingle capital loop letters like V, U, Y, X, 
W, Q, Z, J, and by observing the first, 

only know that the Pbilnsophy of I second and third principles- 
Movement ha* been set at defiauce ( in ig- I I locate my movement by having the 
Dorance, doubtless), but that refuge has [ point of centre at base of line, making half 
been sought in these imperfect results, (be- '. the movement below base line. As these 
cause nothing better could be achieved), ' letters begin below the base line, the loca- 
and a plea set up for their practicability. I tion of movement secures the lesult without 
The production of artistic 
forms of capitals does de- 
pend upon the application 
of certain laws. How they 
are disregarded can be seen 
.1 a glance. ExamiDe, if 
you please, the resulte of 

and effect, and must be applied to make 
progress certain. 

Admitting that what has been said is 
true, we come to the Jifth principle, and 
propose proving that the curve in tirst part 
of nuy capital letter is determined by the 
direction of the movement preceding exe- 

If I make the capital " " too wide, what 
is the cause f If I make the capital stem 
too crooked, or too straight, what is the 
cause t If I make the capital " I " too large 

"Close bible with violent slam afler this 
passage." *' Contemplate ceiling iu attitude 
of adoration at this point.'' " Sarcastic 
wave of the hand," etc. And yet ministers 
declaim against the theatric art. — Inter- 

About Counterfeits. 

The $500 
pjivvnl>ro Iter's 

of , 

sional penmen and ygu can 
readily detect error. What 
is the cause? Surely not 
imperfect conception ; sure- 
ly not a lack of freedom of 

Surely not from want of 
practice. Go down, down, 
down, and yoa will find 





tbat treats of the philoso- 
phy of motion, will unravel 
the mystery. 

Do not present wishy- 
washy results in this Nine- 
teenth Century, and advo- 
cate them on a basis of 
hueiness. The claims of 
busiuesa are just, but let us 
not retrograde and be led 
to forget our mission by 
the larger per cent, of hu- 
manity who do not even 
aspire, much less attempt, 
to produce anything beyond 

The second principle ne- 
cessary to the best execu- 
tion is that the moti.m 
(spoken of) should be larger 
than result. 

This is deemed necessary 

amount ot capacity, and at 

enough reserve force to 
carry the- hand through a 
letter without materially 
impeding its progress. All 
machinery must have a 
given amount of momen- 
tum preceding 



of p'^w 
beeins, materially lessens 
the chances of obtaining 
excellent results as to form, 
and is in direct opposition 
to the third principle, which 
asserts that the time in 
execution should ho the 


ceding it. 

In all mechanism time has ever been 
considered indispensable to superior results. 
If we walk oat of lime we walk irregularly. 
If we talk out of rime we talk irregularly, 
and con&et)uently with bad effect. 

If we sing out of lime we spoil thai 
which is beautiful in music. The regularity 
vrith which all machinery runs, lends a 
charm that is never lost until irregularity 
creeps in. 

Why does my watch keep perfect timeT 
For no other reason than that the move- 
ment is perfect. Again ; your watch keeps 
imperfect time because of not having been 
properly adjusted. 

It runs, but not with auy degree of satis- 
faction. You have what loight he terimd 
a good movement, but you cannot execute, 
and why t Simply because you do not 
conform to regularity of stroke— a law that 
you do not dare ignore without fatal results. 

The above cut repretentt a detign for bl^ielcboard Jfourishing, and i» one of ei'jhteen plates prepared at the 
'' Journal" fur the pevmanahip department of " Peale's Popular Educator and Cyclopedia of Jifferen 
a finely illustrated quarto-work €^ 70S pages, lately issued by if. S. Peak ^- Co., of Chicago. 

junterfeit note found in a 
;cently in a Third Avenue 
store, and prououuced a 
counterfeit by Chief Drum- 
moud, of the United States 
Secret Service, Wiis declared 
by that officer to bo one of 


of , 

any additional effort. Again ; if I am pro- 
ducing a letter like the capital 0, etc., the 
centre of movement is at top of letter. In 
addition to its being directly applied, its 
effect is very noticeable upon the grand re- 
sults obtained in conjunction with the fifth 
principle, viz., going from an ellipse to a 
straight line. 

The majority producing the loop letters 
invariably spoil the general shape of them 
by attaching a long introductory curved 
line. This is caused by ignoring the fourth 
and fifth principles. The first part of 
capital O being made with a book and 

much highe 

r than second part, is attributed 

to the same 

causes. Mathematical criticism 

is all well ( 

nough, but there comes a lime 

when, if ao 

nething else is not substituted. 

there cannc 

r and will not be any pro- 

Philosophical criticism deals with < 

al the top, what is the cause ? Is the motion 
preceding the execution of "I" and "J" the 
samet If not, by what process am I to 
produce one large and the oilier smalH 
This entire reasoning is based upon the 
theory that conception of form is properly 

Id conclusion allow mo to say, that new 
theories, properly substantiated, must dis- 
place old ideas (however valuable they 
may have been in their day), in order to 
render progress positive. 

Mr. Brooks, of the Secret 
Service, recently stated to 
a Telegram reporter that 
tho note was presented at 
one of the leading city 
banks and that llie officials 
declared that they would 
accept it without hesita- 
tion. It was shown to the 
publishers of a bank-note 
detector, and they would 
not pronounce as to its 
bciug spurious or not. The 
note was evidently in cir- 
culation for some time and 
was patched. It is thought 
have been produced by 
Smith, a iiiumber of the 
Brockway gang of counter- 
feiters, who is now at lib- 
erty, and by Thomas P. 
Ballard, who is now in 
the Albany Penitentiary 
serving a torui of thirty 
years for counterfeiting. 
Mistakes, however, are 
sometimes made,and notes 
and coin which are genu- 
ine are regarded as count- 
erfeits. Not long ago a, 
Chambers Street merchant 
called upon Mr. Brooks, 
of the Secret Service, and 
told him that he had two 
counterfeit silver coins 
passed upon him, and that 
he considered it his duty 
to inform tho Secret Serv- 
ice of the fact. The coin, 
ho stated, had been refused 
at the elevated railway sta- 
tions, and by othei-s was 
declared to be countorfpit, 
one person after weighing 
them declaring them be- 
yond all doubt spurious. 
Mr. Brooks viewed the 
coins and then weiglied 
thein and asiouislied ihe 
Chambers Street mercluint 
by declaring them genu- 
ine. The five-cent pieces, 
ec of the gilded, bo ;is to look like 

" five-dollar gold coins, re- 

cently discovered, were 
manufactured as watch- 
charms, and there was evidently no crim- 
inal intent. To issue a gold, silver or 
other coin, even of true metal and over the 
value of legal coin, constitutes the crime 
of counterfeiting, and leaves the person 
who manufactured them liable to prosecu- 
tion, tho samo as if the intention to defraud 
had existed. Some time since a wealthy 
man in the South issued gold coins which 
were worth more than the legal ones, but 
this fact did not save him from prosecution 
aud punishment as a counterfeiter. — Even- 
i iug Telegram. 

A Minister's Notes. — The sermon of a 
prominent minister that recently came into 
the possession of a vandal was annotated 
along the margin thus : " Deliver this pas- 
sage in solemn tones." " Scornful smile after 
the word 'never.'" "Pause long enough 
to count twenty-five after this passage," 

The "Hand-book" (in paper) is mailed 
free to every person remitting $1.00 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the hook hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price i>f the book, 
by mail, in cloth, $1 ; in paper, 73 i^ents. 
Liberal discoant to teachers and ageuts. 




PubUshed Monthly at SI ,.er\ 


single iMgrtlou, 30 cenl* per liue Dciipareil. 
1 month. 3 mo.. fi moB. 1 y 
lonm nO.OO $65.00 1120.00 $17 


Boood Dg Stag 
Lord B Prayer 

CongdoQ • Normal Sj •tern 
r IhnN. oamea and $3 we w I 


100 cope* $15 00 

KNAL will be uuued m nearly lu p€ 


New York, Janua 

, 1884. 

It is, tbeu 
its utility 

WritiDg equal in its perfection to the beat 
py-plate ever engraved, if written with a 
poti scarcely exceeding tbttt of the en- 
graver upon the plate, wouM be bad, be- 
ise it could be of ni> possible use. In 
nt of utility it would lie no better than a 
perfectly illpgible scrawl. Giod and rapid 
•e the requisites for good writing. 
Artistic writing is Lot thus univeraal in 
s usefulness, and cannot be said to be a 
Bcessity to every civilized man : it is to be 
iewed more as a luxury. It is one of the 
lany accompHsb menta and arts that in 
lauy ways administer to the taate atid re- 
finements of life, and, also, through the aid 
modern didcoveries of photograpliic 
metlinda of reproducing pen-drawing upon 
stone and metal for printing, artistic pen- 
mauship is now a convenient and economi- 
cnl, if not a necessary, factor of business. 
It will be in this view, and npoo the esti- 
mated relative importance of practical 
combined with artistic writing, that the 
Jol RN\L will treat of penmauship — prae 
tical wriiing, first an! chief — nit oinilting 

enviable fame of to - Bay, that but a few 
years and all these are gone — their eoter- 
prisos, lame and fortune will fall to new and 
younger hands f And whose shall they be T 
Surely not to the ignorant, slothful and vi- 
cious; but to those who, by iudustriou?, 
wise, and virtuous efft>rt, have acquired the 
requisite intelligence, and won the confi 
deuce of their fellows. Whether or not 
into your hands shall come a coveted prize 



the r 

to : 


led, toi 
nake e> 


leaf just 
ne will help 
tiu that of all 
id noble effort 

1 beral embellishments representh 
most u>4eral and beautilul ot arti; 

3 of the 

coming years. Every good 
gives augumentHd p -wer f..r its repetilion, 
and the resistance of any tcinptatiou to do 
evil; whilo, upon the other hand, as often 
as one yields to vicious temptation his power 
for resistaoco to evil is lessened, and he is 
led on and on from vice to crime and to 
ruin Choose then, now thoughtluUy 
houe'^tly and resolutely, vow that upon 
the new kaf bIihII be a record all h )nor 
able D line we woull were not there 
when It shall le turned ain^ng the past, 
and remember that 

The Spencerian Hall of 
New York City. 

The Spencerian Hall is located at No. 
114 West Fourteenth Street, New York, 
apposite the Fourteenth Street Theatre. 
It is sixty-five fret long, pleasant and ac- 
cessible, with offices and reception-room, 
up bnt one flight nf stairs from the street. 
The New Shorthand Company make it 
their headquarters, under whose auspices 
individual and class inetrucliun is given in 
Alphabetic and Phonetic Shorthand; also 
inslruetiuQ in Spencerian Practical Penmao- 
ship. The Company have la press a book 
for classes and self-ioatruction in Shorthand, 
to be issued on or before Aprr) lOth. In- 
stitutions, under able managemetkt, devote<fi 
to long and short baud, should eommand' 
remunerative patronage in every Iarg.e city- 

Practical vs. Artistic 

The importance of any 
be measured by the degr< 
its usefulness. Thus judged, practical 
writing weighs down the scale with many 
times the force of fancy or artistic penman- 
ship. In this land the person who uaDuoi 
write Boine sort of a hand is highly except 
ional, and should be a curiosity ; while thosi 
who have no need for that 
arc indeed idiots or nobod 
an accomplishment univen 
and, hence, should be of universal interest, 
to the person who cannot read and write, 
one half — and by far the greater half — of 
the world is a sealed book ; and an equal 
porlioo of bis sources for wealth and hap- 
piness are closed. Indeed, such a person 
can be said to only half live. Practical 
writing, then, may be classed as one of 
the universal necessities of civilized man, 
and one of the greater sources of his 
knowledge and advaiiceuieut. Not only is 
ibis true of the human race as a whole, bnt 
of individuals. No other single accomplish- 
ment will 80 soon and frequently help a 
young lady or gentleman to renumerative 
and desirable employnient as a really good 

To be truly good, writing must be 
easily read, graceful, and rapidly written. 

Be Your Own Master. 

Srtlmon P. Chase in early life appealed' 
to hia uncle who was then in a hieh official 
poaition at Washington, for a clerkship ini 
one of the departments. He was met with 
a 6rm refusal. " I will give you half a 
dollar to go out and buy a spade to dig 
with for a living, but I will not get 
y u a place under the Government; 
and you will live to see that this is the 
best advice I can gi\e you." Had Mr. 
Chnse secured the covetfd clerkship, 
he would probably lived and died a 
department clerk; for once in that 
positi u, nobndy quits unless by dis- 
charge or death. As it was, Mr. Chase 
entered upon the study and practice of 
^^^ law became Governor of Ohio, U. S. 
Senator, Secntary of tbfl U. S. Trea- 
surv, and Chief Justice of the United 

year has been added 1 

those of the- past, 
and what has its record been! What 
portion of the fair premises made, and 
bright hopes cherished at its dawn, are now 
among ila realitJesf These are fitting 
thoughts to accompany the tnruing of the 
new leaf. If upon the old one are records 
of acts we would were not — of disappoint- 
ment, loss, or failure — let us B'udy the 
cause, that we may, in the light of experi- 
e the record upon the now. 
e have failed to secure coveted 
promotions that wiih greater 
efficiency in the discharge of 
incumbent duties might have been won. 
The assistant or clerk who 
ingenuity and solicitude for his 

Possibly Bi 
positions < 
industry c 

. tba 

ployer will record disappointmenle and fail- 
ure upon hia new leaf; while he who is 
dilligcnt and looks with honest and intelli' 
gent solicitude to an employer's interest, 
may reasonably hope tp make a record of a 
gratifying aucceBS. 

Young reader, did you over think, a 
look around you and behold the great 
chants, learned and honored judges, si 


number of the 
been found necessary to 
call attention to some of th 
ant points underlying successlul practice. 
The ideas presented by Prof. Hinman are 
conclusions reached through a long experi- 
ence, and, in our opinion, are worthy of 
careful study. In the next and future les- 
sons special attention will be given to 
methods of analysis and practical means of 
criticising -letters of various styles. As 
Prof. Hinman expreeaea himself, he is "in 
penmanship an eclectic, and does not pur- 
pose to confine his teaohiug within the 
bounds of any published system, but rather 
be guided by whatever he has found to be 
good and true inside and outside of pub- 
lished methods." In the next number he 
promises to give a method of learning the 
correct formation of letters upon a plan 
similar to that taught by the founder of 

Subscribers wishing to ha 
changed, should be careful t 
old and new address. 

e their address 
' give both the 

Extra Copies ol the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 

It is far bt-tte 

lor a m 

An to be hia 

own inaste 


the servant of others. 

The great 


s in every avenue of 

human tho 


lud actio 

Q have been 


mostly men 


were the 

r own mas- 

tera, while 


ue thai a 

vast numiier 


of men are 

so CO 


as to need \& 

have their 


directed, and equally- 

true that a 

vast c 

umber of 

great enter- 

prises to 1 

e sur 

cessful Tf 

I'lire onitedi 


ital and labor, an 

\ that in 

uoh all can- 

holders most must be aubordinatea an* 
and simply laborers. But many of our 
educated outerpriaing young men largely 
seek derkahips and Government -popilions,, 
which secured, usually ends their indepen 
dent enterprise and existence. Thousands 
of eu h, had they struck out boldly and 
manfully for themselves, might have 
achieved fortune and honor far beyond what 
is to he hoped for in the capacity of a mere 

The Piatt R. Spencer Memorial. 

The Committee having in charge the 
collection and compilation of materials for 
the biography of Piatt R. Spencer and 
Persia Duty, his wife, make a request, 
through a late i.^sue of the Geneva { Ohio > 
limes, that all persons having a knowl- 
edge of any fact or incident material to 
such biography should communicate the 
same to J- B Treat, Geneva, 0., or Hon. 
R. C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Ws. 

How to Remit Money, 

The best and safest way is by Post-oflBod 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parte of 
a dollar, send postAge-stAmps. Do not Btnd 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -stamps. 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmauship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Penmanship " (in paper 
covers; 2.'i cents extra m cloth >. Price 
mwh, Bep»r»U), ♦'■ 


The King Club 

For the last month unmbers one hundred 
and eighty-nine, aod was eenl hy Prof. 
Charles H. Wflls, special teacher of wriiiug 
in the public schooU uf Syraonae, N. Y. 
For Learly twenty-five years Prof. Wells 
has raoked aiiioag the very lirst writers aod 
t«achers of writing in the E'npirt State. 
And the fact that from uiiioog his pn'sent 
pupils and teachers nlth whom he is as- 
sociated, he is able to seud nearly two hun- 
dred subscribers to the Journal, is the 
most conclusive evidence that be is doing 
efficient and popular work in bis present 
field of labor; for it is from those who have 

■sted i 

k] aliv 

the i 

of good writing that subscriptions 
come; and it ia only the skillful and eoibu- 
giaslic teacher of writing who can enkindle 
such interest lu, and appreciation uf, good 
writing, as to lead his piipils and associates 
to seek every available in'ans of improve- 
ment. Whf n we hear writing-teachers say, 
as we ofieu do, that they cannot understand 
why their pupils cannot he ioducrd to be- 
oomu subscribers to the Journal, we feel 
assured that they are not doing very eulhu- 
siastio or fuccessful work in their classes. 

The Q leen club numbers thirty-one, rwI 
was sent by A. G. Coonrod, a special teach- 
er of writing, Business Department of the 
Minneapolis (Minn.) Academy. Mr. C. is 
himself a superior writer, Mud, evidently, 
b^'lieves in the Journal as an aid to those 
who wish to become 8r>. 

The third club iu size numbera twenty 
two. and comes from W". A. Simons, Lank 
Center, Minu. 

A club oi fourteen comes from H. Folar- 
4lean, n principal of one of the schools of 
Q lobeo, Canada. 

Clubs of smaller dimensions have been 
very numertius. and promise to be much 
more si for the coming' month. 

Dangerous College Currency. 

A commercial college student in Provi- 
dence R- L, is charged wiih defrauding a 
poor half-blind old man who had moved his 
furniture by paying him wiih one of the 
worthless five dollar bills used in the college 
to illustrate the practices of trade and ti- 
nance. Subsccin'-ntly the vinim tendered 
the bill innocently at several shops, from 
more than one of which he h as uuceremoni- 
onsly kicked out. It is said that the stu- 
dent is known tn the police, but that be 
will not be prosecuted in rase he makes 
ample amends. He will be lacki^r than he 
deservi'^ to be if be escapes as easily as that, 
for the Government as well as the individual 
enfi'erer by Ins trickery Is interested in his 
case.-iV. r. Tribune. 

A few months since a newly landed im- 
migrant at Castle Garden, in this city, was 
induced by a sharper to exchange $I60U 
[Old for a like amount ofbu«inP89 college 

a gol 




.impositions which have been perpetrated 
through the aid of the finely engraved cur- 
rency has led ihe U S. Treasury authorities 
to enforce the law which places sharp re- 
atriolions upon the engravers arfH printers 
who have been furnishing such currency, 
as well as upon Ukibo who use it. We 
have twice been cUled upon to abandon 
or greatly modify, at great loss and expense, 
plates from which we were printing college 
currency, which plates were purposely made 
greatly inferior to most deeigus used by 
other engravers and printers. We have 
now, after consultation wiih the authorities 
at Washington, arranged, with their written 
approval, an entirely new set of designs, 
which, although without the dangerous and 
distinctive chsTacterisiics of bank notfs, are 
very attractive, and serve well all the pur- 
poses of college money. This cuirency is 
on good bank-note paper, and is kept iu 
stock, so that orders to any amount may be 
filled by return of mail or eiprees. Samples 
and circulars sent on request. 

8ample copies of the Joubhal i 
>u rvoeipi uf prioe — ten centa. 



Ag>iin Mr. Cupid has been practicing his 
archery, ar.d his happy "victims" are Mr. 
Austin N. Palmer, of the C dar Rapids 
(Iowa) Business Cdlcge, and Miss Sadie 
P. Whitney, of the same place, where the 
ceremony wa." performed on Jan. 1st. Mr. 
Palmer is an aocoinpli3he<l and popular 
teacher of the commercial branchep, and he 
has our best wishes for a long, happy, and 
pros[»erou8 wedded life. And so, Mr Ar 
thur L. Wyman, of the Omaha (Neb.) 
Business College, and Mis Julia E. Ilard- 
enbergh, of the ^ame place, where the cer- 
emony was performed on Dec. 25th. 

Autograph Exchangers. 

Id accordance with a suggestion In the 
last numb r, ttie f.dlowing named persons 
have sigoified their willingness or desire to 
ezchnnge autographs, upon the Peiroerian 
plan, Hs set forth in the August number of 
the Journal: 

T. Slooiim. Chitlicolh*, Ohio. 
". Wwtervelt, Wood«lock, Oot 

H Kliuming. 103> Water SI . Phila , Pb. 
1. PreMon. HM KlatbuBh Ave., Br. olilyo, ] 

iRfM Celine, St. Joseph, 
oUl Co1lfg«, St. liouie, 

Books and Exchanges. 

We have had lefi with us for sale three 
rare old piiblicationa iipnu penmanship, viz., 
a work published by William Miln, in Lon- 
don, in I7!J4; It consists of thirty-six IlxJfi 
plates, ttnd embrtiees every phase of the 
art beautiful, as it was, practiced in those 
days. It is finely engraved on copper, and 
evinces great chirographic skill. Ani>ther 
work f uhlished in L mdon, by John Seddon, 
in 119.5, consists also of thirty-six copper 
plates, '.)xl4, and, like thatof Mllns, covers 
ihe entire range of writing, fiourishing and 
lettering, as then practiced by profecaloual 
penmen. It is not as well engraved, nur 
does it present as high a degree of artistic 
taste and hkill as dues that by Miln, yet it 
is a rare and valuable work. It is quite 
apparent to the Nineteenth Century student 
of penmanship ihat both of these wnrks 
were liberally consulted by the early Amer- 
ican authors. The third work is by Nepo- 
iimck Wel-er, bearing date I81G. It con- 
sists of thirty-two shee's, 9ixl5, all exe- 
cuted with a pen-quill, and considering tbe 
lime and manner of their production are in- 
deed a curiosity. The text consists of plain 
writing, lettering, and fiouriahing. These 
works can all be examined at the office uf 
the Journal. 

"Hill's Manual of Social and Business 
Forms," published by Hon. Thos. E. Hill, 
Chicago, 111. This work was first issued 
1373; since which it has passed through 
thirty-eight editions, aggregating two hun- 
dred and seventy-eight thousand copies 
sold. It was originally a book of rare util- 
ity and elegance, hut as it has passed 
through edition after edition it has been en- 
larged and improved in a manner almost 
lavish, until now it is one of the most com- 
plete, compreben»ive, and beautiful sub- 
scription - books offered to tbe American 


We htve 
which seem 

its workmanship, 
replete with choic 
as this work. It 



ver helore examined a 
SD nearly faultless in 
I at the same time so 
md useful information, 
lainly richly merits the 
d wonderful sale to 
which it has attained. 

'Peale'^ Popular E lu.-Ht..r and Cyclo- 
pedia ..f Reference," This is a well printed, 
handsomely-illustrated wo-k of 7((2 quarto 
pages. Il if, HS its title iudlcates, an inval- 
uable bo.ik of reference, full of fncts and 
information about a multiuide of the things 
interesting and tif value to all classes of 
person". It is of iis' If a kind nf house- 
hold library that would be often consulted 
relaiive to some of \\w tbcmsands of useful 
scraps ol knowledge which it contains. It 
would require columns of the Journal to 
describe the various departments of this 
great work. Persons luteresled in such a 
b'ok can oh'fiio full information by addres 
sing R S. Peale & Co., Publishers, Chi- 

" Vick's Floral Guide Un 1884 " has 150 
pages, three colored jdates of fiowera and 
vegetttbles. and more than 1 ,()0{) illustrations 
of choice fl.iwer.s plants and vegetables, and 
dire.-tions for growing. It is printed iu 
both English aod Gurmau. The Flnral 
Guide will tell how to get and grow Vick's 
seeds, which are always reliable. The cover 
this year is a delicately tinted backgrouud 
and a dish of gracefully arranged flowers. 
It is primed on good paper, and is filled 
■quired by 

appear again aometime ihis month. Pen- 
man's papers which are as capricious in 
their issuft as this one appears to have been, 
are anything but a credit to the pr.ifession. 
It has with impurity itkipped month after 

wiih jilBl Sim 

h in fur 

111! as i 


the gjtnlener. ihn 


u.-r, Ih 


pluDtf, aud 


9 ueedi 


plums. Th 


11 c-enls 


ducted from 

the first 1 

rd.r re 

t 1 

James Vick, 



, N Y. 

The Uni 




which has be 

en in 


le ol so 


Ai'ril last, ia 



d l.y ci 


nth i 


mber for two months, and it should 
appear according to programme. 

to China Painters" is the 
title of a little work jnat published by 
Hobert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
It is a practical manual for the upe of ama- 
teurs in the decoration of hard porcelain. 
By Miss M. Louise McLauahlin. Square 
r2mo. Ornamented cover. Price, 75 cents. 

The Exponent Is the title of a sprightly, 
fine magazine, published by J Geo. Cross 
and Geo- Yeager, at Bloomington, HI. It 
is the exponent of the E'-leclic system of 
shorthand, <.f which Prof. Cr.'SS is the au- 
thor. It is monthly, at $i per year. 

The Students' Quarterly, lately issued by 
J. A. Weber, Walp-le, N. H , is a nice 
appf^aring four-page paper. 

What has become of the Penman and 
Booh keeper — that of promise bright and 
frtirt It is some months since il has put in 
an appearance. Is It hibernating, or has it 
altogether ceased to bel 

New Special Premiums. 

The attention of our readers is invited to 
the advertisment, in the adveriising col- 
umns, ot a dictionary and a fountain pen, 
which from their merits we have been in- 
duced to oft'er to the patrons of the Jour- 
nal as a premium for clubs, and also at 
a low cash price. Please read, and then, 
of course, accept our advice and raise the 
required club. 

Send your name to the New England 
Card Company, 72 Nassau Street, New 
York, for new price-list (1884) of cards 
and penman's specialities. Sample free to 
all mentioning tbe paper. 

An Amateur's Views. 

By J. H. Bkvant. 

Having been for a long time a constant 
reader of the Journal, and an enthusiastic 
advocate of the art which it seeks to ad- 
vance, I would humbly ask permission to 
cast in my mite "to help the cause." It is 
not without some misgivings that I write 
these lines, when I glance over your 
list of contribuiors, and find the names of 
such men as Peirce, Spencer, Hinman, 
C'oper, and others, who give us, through 
the Journal's columns, the boiled-down 
knowledge, practical experience and valu- 
able hints culled from their years of labors. 
But these, with the golden fund of infor- 
maiion elven by the Journal's able edito- 
rial staff, go to make that paper, pre- 
eminently, the one for amateurs, as well as 
for professionals. 

Being but an amateur, I would not pre- 
sume, as yet, to add new ideas to those of 
my more experienced brethren; but wonld 
rather suggest or comment upon views al- 
ready advanced. I do not wi^h to have it 
inferred from this that I am content to fol- 
low In the wake of others — a ine'e machine 
— but believe that we may sometimes profit- 
ably ''read between the lines." The claim 
of oTigmality shall not be one nf my weak- 
nesses. Am willing tn credit a go<id thing 
for all it is worth, no matter where it is 
found, or by whom present d. Such, I 
believe to be the spirit nhlch should, and 
does, characterize every true '"Knight of 
the guill." 

In the December Journal appears an 
article under the caption, "What I saw in a 
Brooklyn High School," by Miss R<.bertaoD. 

Though alrea-iy an advocate of "time" 
iu writing, the suggestions given in that 
article put me to experimenting in this Hoe 
on a broader scale than before, and wiih 
very gratifying results. Members of my 
class have reached the speed of ^50 strokes 
(straight) with the pen in <me minute; and 
wheu grouping letters together ( five or six 
in a group) have made 4U0, 501), and even 
upwards of fiOO, movements ot" the pen pir 
minute. The last was on miscellaneous 
work, each doing his best, and continued 

have not yet reached the speed on capitals 
and slgnatureE: mentioned in llie article re- 
ferred to; but the result so far justifies ub 
in believing it can be reached, and even 
surpassed, after a reasonable amount of 

1 believe, however, that in working by 
time the speed at first should be 'only mod- 
erate—perhaps even slow — iu order to se- 
cure regular, systematic work, aud correct, 
active thinking; increasing the speed, ac- 
cording to tbe ability of students to perform 
the work mentally, until a high rate of 
speed is attained; having the work from 
tirst to last uuder control of the will. 

" Sloiv ayid rapid writing at will," as the 
lUftliod has been properly siyted, may be 
made a very valuable drill, and will tend 
toward placiug penmanship iu the light of 
an intellectual altaiumeni ultimatiug In 
higbo^^t degree. of muscular skill. 

I reccommend the Brooklyn teacher's 
method to others. 

The London Times »&ys: "Stivtisticians 
have pronounced the United States to he 
not cmly potenijally, but actually, richer 
than the United Kingdom. Counting the 
houses, furniture, manufactures, railways, 
shipping, bullion, lands, cattle, crops, in- 
vestments and roads, it is estimated that 
there is a grand total in the I'nited States 
of $4!>,770,OO0,000. Great Britain is cred- 
ited with something less than *lii,0(10,OflO,- 
000 less than the United States. The 
wealth per inhabitant In Great Britain is 
estimated at $1,100, and in the United 
States at $yi)5. With regard to the re- 
muneration of labor, assuming the produce 
of labor to be 100, in Great Britain 56 
parts go to the liiborcr, 21 to capital, and 
2'i to Governuient. In France 41 parts go 
to labor, 36 to capital, aud 23 to Goveru- 
meut. In the United States 72 parts go to 
labor, 2;J to capital, and 5 to Government.' 



Back Numbers of the "Journal." 

Every iiiail briogB inquiries reflpectine 
bark numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878; all 
for 1870, except May and November: for 

1880, copifs for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain; all numbers for 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will be noted that while Spencer's writing 
the June number. Only' a lew copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned ab(»ve 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4 00, or any of the oumbera at 10 cents 

And School Items. 

The Lawrence ( Kas ) BuBiiieaa College, in 
charge of E, S. Mclleavy, rectjivea a flatter- 
ing commeDddtion through the Tribune of that 

We learn that Prof. H. Russell, of Joliet, 
III., ia about to publish a book of SOD pages, 
entitled, "HinU and Helps on Practical Edu- 

D. L. Musselman, the enterprising proprie- 
tor of the C.mtsva. City (Quiucy, III.) Busi- 
ness College reports over 300 students in daily 

The writing academy opened last Fall by 
Prof, H. W. Flickinger, in Philadelphia, is 
deservedly prosperous. Prof. F. is a teacher 
and writer of superior skill, 

Wm. Heron, Jr., of the Manchester ( N. H. ) 
Business College is highly and deservedly 
complimented by the press of thar city for his 
successful management of the college. 

Prof. S. Bogardus, principal ot the Spring- 
tield ( III. ) Business College, lately received a 
well-merited "caning" at the hands of his 
students. The cane was gold-headed, and the 
tables were heavily ladened with choice delica- 
cies. The Professor is believed to be out of 

W. E. Drake, for the past year 
principal of the New Jersey Business College, 
Newark, N. J., has lately purchased, and taken 
personal charge of, Brown's Business College, 
Jersey City, N. J, Mr. Drake is a competent 
and faithful teacher, and will, no doubt, win 
favor and liberal patronage in bis nen position. 

A. P. Root, for many years an etbcient in- 
structor of penmanship in the public schools 
of Cleveland. Ohio, has so far recovered 
from a long and prostrating illness as to be 
again able to enter upon active labor. His 
letter and specimens lately sent to the Journal 
indicate that his skillful pen has lost none of 

At ihe late graduation exercises of the 
Treuton (N.J.) Business College the princi- 
pal, A. J. Ridi-r, was the recipient, from his 
students, of an elegant silver tea-set; also, a 
set of engrossed resolutions expressive of bis 
pupils' high appreciation ot him and his insti- 
tution. The graduation exercises were of a 
highly entertaining character. 

H. V. Whiltier. a lad of sixteen in the Slate 
Reform School. Portland, Me., writes a hand- 
some letter. Mr. E. P. Wentworlb, the super- 
intendent of the school, informs us that four 
yean since young Whittier could scarcely 
write bis name. He is an interested reader of 
the JoL'KNAL, from which be has derived effi- 
cient aid in his great progress iu writing. 

N. S. Beardsly, formerly penman at Curtis's 
Buetiness College, Minneapolis, Minn., is now 
superintendent of penmanship in the public 
schools of Council Blulfs, Iowa. Prof. B. is 
an accomiilished writer and a succesi<ful 
teacher. He has also contributed, to the Min- 
neapolit Journal of Education several impurtani 
articles upon penmanship — one of which was 
copied into the JouitNAL, for which, by an 
oversight, he was not credited. 

The Hon. Thos. E. Hill, author of Hill" 
Manual'' and other popular works, has recently 
purchased, for some (IG.OOO, a tract of about 
one hundred and fifty acres of land south of 
ProapMl Park, on the Chicago &. Northwestern 

Railway, and will fit it up for bis fulur. 
homestead. People who know of Mr. Hill'etint 
tastes and of his abundant means, will feel as 
sured that he will make this tract of land on* 
of the best and most beautiful homes in tb( 
suburbs of Chicago. 

[ Persons sending specimens for notice 
this column should see that the packages co 
laining the same are pottage paid in full 



IB upward, which, 

< pay. This is scarcely a desirabU 

ion for a gratuitous notice.] 

E. E. Morris, Raymore, Mo., a letter. 
H. C. Carver, Lacrosse, Wis., a letter. 
C. W. Jones, Batesville. Ohio, a letter. 
J. B. Nelson, Eddyville, Iowa, a letter. 

C. K. Mason, Hillsboro. N. H., a letter. 
Emma M. Pool, DeOraff, Ohio, a letter. 
Will T. Harris, Jackson, Tenn., a letter. 
Wm. M. Evans, Richmond, Va.. a letter. 
Mary D. Lackey, Alleghany, Pa., a tetter. 

D. Clinton Taylor. Oakland, Cal.. a letter. 
a. W. Rice, Mendola, III., a letter and cards. 
G. W. Allison, Wilkins Run, Ohio, a letter. 
J. P. Corcoran, Denver, Col., a letter and 

F. H. Heath. Epsom, N. H,, a letter and 

E. C. Brownelle. Black River Falls, Wis., a 

Miss Mary A. Philip, Wankesha, Wis., a 

W. W. Blair, 149 Tremont St., Boston, a 

E. J. Keeb, Indianapolis Business College, 

A. B. Katbamier, Farmington, N. Y., a let- 
ter and cards. 

E. E. Cbilds, of Holyoke (Mai 
College, a letter. 

Prof. A. R. Dunton, 26 School Street, Bos- 
m, Mass., a letter. 

Co.. Miuneap- 

C. F. Reynolds, Fitchville, Ohio, a letter, 
nd writing exercise. 

Thomas E. Hill, author of " Hill's Manual," 
Chicago, 111., a letter. 

W. O. Hawortb, New Market, Tenn.. a let- 
ter and set uf capitals. 

M. V. Casey, Treasury Department, Wash- 
ington, D. C, a letter. 

Elmer E. Lacy Jones, Commercial College, 
St. Louis, Mo., a letter. 

B. Musser, the veteran penman of SmithvUle 
(Ohio) Institute, a letter. 

J. W. Van Kirk, Milton, Pa., a letter, 
flourished birJ, and cards. 

C. P. MeadB, of Meads's Syracuse ( N. Y. ) 
tusiness College, a letter. 

L. Madarasz, card-writer, of this city, sev 
eral superior specimens of card-writing. 

C. W. Slocum. superintendent of writing in 
public schools, Chillicotbe, Ohio, a letter. 

C. M. Cable, of the Smithfield Practical Bus- 
iness College, Greensboro, N. C, a letter. 

R. S. Collins, Knoxville (Goodman's Busi- 
ness College), a letter in excellent style. 

C. N. Crandle, Busbnell, 111., a beautifully 
written Christmas and New Year Greeting. 

J. D. Briant, Raceland. La., a disign of 
drawing and lettering and roundhand writing. 

The Spencerian Business College, Detroit, 
Mich., an elegant Christmas and New Year 


M. B. Moore, Nelson's Business College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, a letter, cards, and flourished 

John C. Brown, Commersial Department of 
Campbell University, Holion, Kas., a letter 
and card. 

W. W. Philips, of Evergreen City ( Bloom- 
ington, 111. ) Business College, a letter and 
flourished bird. 

J. E. Souie. of Bryant & Stratton Business 
Cullege, Philadelphia, Pa., a superbly written 
New Year greeting. 

E. F. Shaw, book-keeper for the Plymouth 
( Mass. ) Foundry Co., a most excellent specl- 

F. A. Frost, with the Boston & Albany 
Railroad Co., at Albany, N. Y., a letter in a 
most excellent business style. 

W. A. Wrigbt, of Baltimore, Md., a letter, 
in excellent practical style, and a set of grace- 
fully-executed flourished capitals. 

D. H. Farley, professor of penmanship and 
book-keeping at ihe State Normal School, 
Trenton, N. J., a set of splendidly - executed 

A. N. Palmer, of the Cedar Rapids < Iowa ) 
Business College, a letter, copy-eUps, and a 
flourished bird — all in superior style. 

W. Martin Rogers, Scottsville, N. X., a let- 
ter which, in view of his statement that iie has 
been thirty years out of practice, is very cred- 

Prof. H. C. Spencer, of the Spencerian Bus- 
iness College. Washington, a New Year greet- 
ing on behalf, of himself and Mrs. Spencer; 
written in most elegant Spencerian. 

J. W. Whittlesey, Lincoln, III., a letter, iji 
which he says; "I find the Journal a very 
interesting and welcome visitor in my house, 
and heartily wish it could go to every family 

A. M. Hoolman, Principal of the College of 
Commerce, Jennings's Seminary and Normal 
School, Aurora, 111., a letter and set of capitals. 
He says: "I have been a subscriber to the 
Journal for several years, and cannot do 

L. S. W. Wilson, Secretary of the Commer- 
cihl Traveler's Association, Syracuse. N. Y.. a 
letter in an excellent business style. He says : 
"I am much pleased with the Journax. Your 
article on Business Writiug was good; more 
should be written on that subject." 

Property and Home, 

IT JOUUHAi, by George Hobart, Slenograpber. 

I recently said to you that the foundation 
of home iu vvmnan ; that the perpetuation of 
race is dependent upon sex. This ia 
the order of nature. The homo is the type 
of progress. The home of the savage is 
Ixed ; it ia a temporary hut, a wigwam 
ephemenil contrivance. It is con- 
structed of the branches of trees, of their 
bark, or of the skin of animals. It may be a 
hiding-place from the winds and storms, on 
e leeward side of a trunk of a tree, or 
me grent rock— a caveru possibly — 
mething made without hands. 
The wandering migratory habits of the 
savage or barbarian are not favorable to the 
trvatiou and development of the life 
of infancy, whicb ia held by a thread, bo 
jr and frail that it needs the moat in- 
telligent and constant oire and affection. 
Parental instinct holds ofTspring in loving 
regard that tends toward though tfulnesa in 

preserving its life. Little forms are clad 
with more care, but this clothing must be 
woven by hands; and the moment hands 
touch the material out of which is to bo 
fabricated the dress of a human being and 
it thereby takes useful shape, it becomes 

Looking out this morning upon the city, 
in the midst uf which we are, we see a pop- 
ulation of one hundred and fifty thousand 
souls, well clad and shielded against the 
cold and the piercing winds of approaching 
winter. These protections to living forma 
are property which indicate the place we 
hold in civilized progress. 

The affection which springs spontaneous 
ly in the heart of the parent toward its off- 
spring is a feeling which exists in the breast 
of the savage and barbarian. In them, 
however, love toward children is not so <b'- 
veloped as in more advanced society. It is 
not as intelligent as that which nourished 
and cherished each of you, and brought you 
safely, healthfully and vigorously up to 
young manhood and young womanhood. 
The infant of the savage may bo neglected, 
exposed to cold, to hunger, treated with 
■neglect and cruelty, and yet there is in the 
heart of the savage parent the germ of that 
love and affection which alternately blos- 
soms into comfortable and beautiful homes. 
Properly tends to forms and applications 
corresponding to the thought and feeling of 

When the feeling which founds the home, 
establishes the hearthstone, wanns it, and 
creates its attractions, becomes powerful in 
the human heart, thought, care and hope 
are directed toward the home. Into it is 
organized the best efforts in the pursuit of 
happiness, and home life becomes the foun- 
tain of the beet satisfactions. 

As home and the perpetuation of the rare 
are dependent upon relations of sex, mar- 
riage presents itself to the thought of every 
member of the community as the most im- 
portant of its institutious. Hence young 
people in preparing for the business of life 
ahould direct their attention wisely to tlie 
subject of property in its relation to home. 
I submit, then, this subject, the most 
suggestive probably that I can ofi'er for 
your consideration. It calls up to your 
hearts pictures that will be ever dear — pic- 
tures of home. 

Those whom you love and who love you 
will pass away, but the home is perpetual. 
To my mind, the homo is one of those 
things which in order of creation never will 
be entirely perfected. It will continue to 
grow better, sweeter and more beautiful, 
and its improvement ia our improvement. 
For the home and its salisfactiona you will 
labor, seek gain, choose companionships, 
and form itsiociations in the liTe that now 
is — the busy toilsome life of to-day, the 
hope and fruition ot the past, the promise 
of the future. 


know, m*, that : 
ways ask who on 



. Philadelphia people al- 
'» grandfather was, and as 

1 you 

, tell 

Was my grandfather a judge, or a governor, 
or a president, or anything t " 

" Well no, my dear. He became very 
rich, though, and you may say he had some- 
thing to do with banks." 

" But what was his profession or trade 1 " 

" Oh, never mind about that." 

" But those Philadelphia people will ask 

"Well the only trade he ever learned 
was shoemaking." 

"Sboetiiaking! Oh, well, he got rich, bo 
that is all right." 

"Yes; he made shoes a great many 
years. He learned the trade and worked at 
it in a penitentiary, bat you need not men- 
tion that." — Set. 

Remember, that if you renew, or send, 
your subscription to the JotlRHAL, with 
$1, you will get a 75 cent book &ee, or a 
$1 book for 35 oents extim. 




ik V. 


The above cm ia phi 
new "Compeodium of Pia 
of the p^imian'H art, wt-r if 
oniale Hlphabeie, and over 
inch pIul^B. It coiilftinan. 
the Beuder of a club ut iwfI 
be at liberty to 

ingraved from pen-and-ink copy, executed at the office of the Journal, and is * a page from ihe department of alphabets in Ames's 

lical and Artisiic Penmauehip." It is univerBally acknowledged to be the i 
lied. Comprises a complete course of inelruciion in Plain Writing, a full cour 
twenty llx 14 plates of commercial designs, engrossed reeolutioue, memorials 
iierouB examples of every species of work in the line ol a professional pen-t 
B Bubscribere ($12) to the " Journal." We hereby agree that, Bhould anyone, i 

and we will refund to -them the full i 

iprehensive and practical guide, in the » 
e of Off-hand Flourinhing, upward of forty standard and 
certificates, title pages, etc., etc.; iu all, seventy 11x14 
rtist. Price, by mail, $5; mailed free, as a premium, to 
n receipt of the book, be diBsalisfied with it, they shall 

"Ames's New Compendium of 

Practical and Artistic 


Bv W. P. Cooper. 

Wo have in our handa to-day, and have 
iust been carefully lookiug through, another 
new book upon penmanship. The title ia 
"Aines'a Compendium of Practical and 
Ornamental Penmanehip." In the last two 
or three years meritorious publications have 
followed each other in such rapid succession 
that one is scarcely thoroughly examined 
before another appears. Nearly all are 
from the great metroj.i.lis— the mother of 
publishing fttcilities. We might almost 
safely say that from " Tbe Gems," hy 
Williams & Packard, down, each and 
either, to the capable and erilical pupil, 
would or might furnish all of the aids to 
the mastery of this art absolutely essential or 
really needed to reach suf^cess. If we look 
into other matters of art education, or any 
other department of public school or uni- 
vereily education, we eball find nothing like 
the energy, emulation, ability or progress 
exhibited in this accumulative array of 
grand authorship. 

We have now what might be properly 
called the " Penman's Library " complete. 
We look with astonishment over the mag- 
nificent plates in the set of books, 
(We must not omit Hill's great work.) 
What more can be added ? Possibly aome- 
ibing, but we unhesitatingly say, Mai some- 
thing must be superfluous and unnecessary. 
It must be, if anywhere, in the direction of 
new triumphs in pen-art; novelties, in the 
way of execution; and original and merito- 
rious conceptiona in composition 

is richer in buoks th 
Ltisfied with what w« 


other, we 

but will no 
have them 

A year or two ago Gaskell 
oharacterijtio and great work, 

—to wit, " Gaskell's Penman'sHand-book." 
This work is largely European, somewhat 
American, and finely put up. The Spencer 
Brothers and their publishers have just 
given tbe people "Tbe Spencerian Com- 
pendium of Penmanship." This great and 
elaborate work, which comes from the living 
and the dead, is largely, almost wholly 
American, and is almost exhaustive of pen- 
', with the art as it 
istdering the price 

, how 

of the work, the publish 
back. Here, at last, is another book by 
Ames. This book is pre-eminently charac- 
teristic. It is Ames all over— inside and out. 
It is what we might expect from a man, to 
a fault self-reliant, painstaking, industrious 
— almost beyond human power of endur- 
ance—in short, from the editor and publisher 
of the Penman's Aht Journal of the 
United States. For its "timber" the 
JOUHNAL is the cheapest publication in 
America. This book in quality and charac- 
teristics beats the Journal itself. Gask- 
ell's Hand-book isUxll inches; this book 
is 11x14 inches — a very large book. For a 
book of art, we thought Gaskell's very 
large ; this one has one-third more surface 
to the page. The paper in this, in qual- 
ity and fineoeas, equals French- board. It is 
the beat paper Me have seen in a book. 
The fine board in this book ( (j? sheets) 
must be worth §1.50 alone, without a 
mark. Twenty-seven or more of these 
plates or boards are each whole and complete 
art compositions. We" think that most of 
these masterly compositions are by Prof. 
Ames himself. Gaskell's book, properly 
speaking, is not a book of compositions or 
the work of modern artists. TJtis is a book 
of elaborate composition ; not European, but 
American, of tbe present and not tbe past. 
The marked trails and character of these 
compositions is as much Ames as the indi- 
vidual type ot his agreeable face. We take 
it for granted that peamea especially wU 

see the incomparable value of the book in 
this respect. We have in these twenty-seven 
or thirty sheets as many valuable pictures 
altogether in illustrated casing. And really 
for exhibition, what finer adornment than 
this for the home and drawing-room f We 
spoken of twenty-seven or thirty ela 

struoted, perplexed and confounded in the 
perpetual passing in sentence-writing from 
one movement to another. The best prac- 
tice after capital- practice is single-word 
practice Repeat words at least twelve 
times; write a great deal. 

borate compositions, 
other plates, really c 

The limits of this 


ling the words 


i dozens of 




of t 

, plate by plate, 
llence.i or touch 

barely hint at 
upon matters of great interest to the pur- 
chaser or the public. The first division of 
the work is a text-book to the student of 
practical writing. The diagrauis are not 
only fac-similes of, but by large size of line 
and shade preserve the 8]»irit of, practical 
writing. They thus preserve every advan- 
tage of pon-copy with perfect precision, and 
far more palpable forms; hence the student 
will copy these, not only with more pleas- 
ure, but far greater profit than steel-engrav- 
ings. The instruction in regard to position 
is excellent. Let no student underrate the 
importance of a perfect mastery of position, 
reached only by care and habit. By prac- 
tice, converted and fixed, master the three. 
We prefer the front. That position which 
gives the greatest power over every faculty 
used, leaving every part tbe least cramped 
and under the least restraint, surely cannot 
be a bad position. The book, on the sub- 
ject of Position, is ^exhaustive. That is 
surely enough. Pages 4, 5, C, 7 and 8 
embody the philosophy of shape and com- 
bination. On this subject the " Self-instruc- 
tor " seems to be lame ; I mean particularly 
combination. We practice ./(>«(, movement; 
next letters; then words; and, lastly, sen- 
tences. Thousands of the pupils of the 
" Invincibles" master capitals, exel in 
particular words, but fail in the sentence, 
paragraph or discourse. It is because free 
movement once ac(^uired is continually ob- 

bratory lines from right to left. Take the 
words on pages 8 and !» of this new book ; 
repeat cuery word at least a dozen times; 
first slowly ; then up, by accelerated move- 
ment, to rapid. You will soon see by re- 
sults that at last you are in the right way. 
After lung and oft-repeated word-prartice 
try by the same rule the single sentence, 
and, lastly, the composition. We are not 
to forget that penmanship is an exact sci- 
ence; hence that, if the letters are correctly 
made the word will be correctly written • 
but herein lies not the ruli ; it is in the dif- 
ficulty of rapidly passing from one move- 
ment to another and preserving the perfect 
letters complete. Page 12 gives three 
business slips. Put yourself in drill by 
what is overhead; then write each of these 
slips a score of times. Repeat the two 
letters on page 12 two score of times, re- 
turning very olten while doing thia to word 
and capital practice. In capital -practice, 
look continually after slope or slant. (See 
diagram at the top of the lOlh page.) On 
page 14 try the uj.per set of capitals, mus- 
cular movement : first, one at a time, across 
over and over; then the whole set in their 
order; then the whole arm-movement set 
below after the same order; then turn 
back to page 10, try sets No. 1 and No. 2, 
small muscular movement, a score of times 
each. The movement copies on page 8 are 
always in order. The size may vibrate 
between large and small, but use no super- 
fluous marks. Determine upon succesa 
when you begin, and let no hindrance what- 
ever stop you short of a correct and rapid 
hand writing complete. These words are, 
of course, for studeati who buy tbi* rare 

book. Tbe iostruotioaa found in thiR book 
he'naieiDe to this division are not lees re- 
markable for pflrspicui'y than Invity. If 
Pnif. Ames alway8 speaks to the point, 
he ofteoer says tim little rather than too 
much. The hints ou deeiga and flourishing 
are most perspicuous, onmprehensive antl 
couiplel''. Everjthiug here is brief and to 
the point; these a'e found on pus^e Ui. 
The examples on pHge 18. f..r drill, are se- 
lected from many, and cannot be practiced 
t"o much. The diagraois on the right and 
left of the ha<ie are opening buds, finished 
with high ornamentation. Nearly all of the 
most commou conceits for ornanientaiiou 
are put in here. Page 19 is tbe bird in 
partp. The whole is in simple line and 
de^igu. The exercises of this page should 
be repeated until the pupil produces each, 
off-haud. nearly or quite mrrfct ; then try 
the bird at the top of page 21, without its 
surroundings ; then try your hand at 
SpGUcor's bird in the center of tiie page, 
with the flourished surroundings; next, at- 
tempt the two birds in the of the plate, 
over and over, until you get them— that is, 
off-hand. Now undertake the bird at the 
top "f page 23; pass the swan -it is too 
difficult; then turn to page 24, and study 
the diagram ; try the birds. The eagle at 
the ti>p of the page presents too great difti- 
ciiltiea to anew beeinner. Page 2.'i gives 
a new study in birds; try these three birds 
over and over; aD.i study the wings, heads, 
bi.dics and position. Now undertake, if 
yiu please, this ideal bird's ne.-t ; omit the 

card, place below, scroll-work and your 
namo, or something of that sort. Now 
turn to page 24, or the one of card-deaiyns. 
Try diagram No. 2 and 3 on the left, and 
No 2 and 3 on the right; finally, the one 
in the left base. Yuu are by this time 
ready tu try the surroundings, in Hourish, 
in each diagram before undertaken. 

These imperfect hints are simply to intro- 
duce you to, and make easier the beginning 
of yo'ir work. To you, the student . f 
Pen- art, let me say, Du not be afraid of uft"- 
hand rtonrishing: every hour at thie work 
will help your writing. U(>e the p-iu both 
ways, direct and reversed. 

The editor of the Gazette recommends 

tbe position 
he is older h< 
dllBiMilties o' 
the rovereed posit 
this kind of pract 

before you tuuch t 
say flourish the ve 

exclusively. When 
that there are mon. 
«ith the direct than 
n of the pen ; besides, 
B doubles i«n power in 
evtry direction. We regret the brevity 
forced upon us by want nf space in speaking 
of each deparlmeut ..f Mr. Ames's bo..k as 
wegH along. We must say to you, however, 
irare but very liitle; wurk long at simple 
idy or some part of it 
her. Understand, we 
ies of birds first with- 


f'thi-r with 


after 1 

Q.I hav 

the beginning 



We have in this great work f.jui 
of letltring; many with three o 
phabets earh. You will never see more 
beautiful text than on page 32. Turn now 
to pHge 3tj ; see the richness of the rustic 
alphabets; next, to plate No. 40, ci.mpijsed 
of twenty- f .ur types of letters. For variety 
in invention, lieauty of design, richness in 
shade, we never saw these surpassed. You 
can contemplate at your leisure these won- 
derful studies in lettering. They are the 
outgrowth ol a thousand J ears. You have 
here a style of letter for every possible [ilace 
and purpos''. From these you cm select 
always tho best varieties for use. 
for yuur needs, and then trace or 
sketch for using. The best and richest al- 
phabets lurnish distinct and complicateil 
studies, as grand to conteuipUte iu hours of 
leisure, as useful to engraver or artist any- 
where. Now look, if you please, at the 
four designs on plate 44 ; here is the begin- 
ning of composition. Observe design No. 
I on the right; the artistic bottom idea is 
this: Jirst, the beautiful in form ; next, va- 
rioty; next, high contrast in light, ehade, 

fashion and 1il 

, ({roupmg fvr K©tjt,i« 

effect. All work of this sort should be 
clearly defined, clean cut — everything be- 
ing in character and its place; all distanc- 
iug the very best, considering the whole 
composition. This kind of work, under the 
eye and hand of Prof. Ames, from being 
fair has grown to be rich and artistically 
elegant and grand beyond description. 

Fourteen years ago we first saw a Jirst 
design in lettering from the hand of Prof. 
Ames. Palpably signilicant was the work, 
and fore-shadowed ihe leader of a new 
school in letter-design easy enough. Hia 
work, although infiuitely varied, is all of it 
of one original type. His forms, although 
always multiplied beyond other artists', 
never want either in harmony or unity of 
purpose or pff'ect. Turn in the new book 
to paee or plate S.^. Tlii.s design embodies 
a series of resolutions commemorative of 
the virtues of William Sauer, deceased, by 
tbe Tammany Hall Central Committee of 
Eleventh District, New York. This com- 
position, in its way, we imagiue to be 
inimitable; a masterly and finished work. 




shall find no where else such 
men of eugrossiug as this; rich in shad- 
ows, rich in forms, perfect in grouping. 
It j8 scientifically and artistically, in all 
Itghts, a masterpiece; at the same time it 
pre-eminently illustrates Ames's stylo and 

fioully with the student is to know where 
or howfo begin or prosecute the study of 
these plates. Plate No. .5(1 is another de- 
sign in engrossing, wholly difi'erent from 
the one just mentioned. It ia neither so 
diveriiilie i, complete or elaborate, but still 
the com[o.ilioa is in excel'eut taste. You 
can find in banker's hand no belter copy 
for practice than is furnished by this beau- 
tiful card. Should you undertake large 
card'* of engrossing, you can have no better 
model than tbe above plate. The masonic 
card or plate, on page 51, is a work of rare 
merit. Kvevy part of this beautiful design 
is so contrived as to give the whide an ele- 
gance and brilliancy rarely reached by any 
work with graver or pen. Now turn to 
plate ()7. This card contains four lines of 
lettering; the heading of ibis card is a 
masterpiece of art. The eflVct of the de- 
sign, as a whole, of this plate is wonderfully 
bidd, brilliant and beautiful You can have 
no richer study in bold lettering than this. 

Volumes might be written in explanation 
and praise of this array of plates — this in- 
comparable grouping of masterly cumpu- 
silions; but our circumscribed limits will 
not permit of our dwelling longer on this 
part of our subject. It seems to its that 
this book, considering its conteuts, might 
be accepted as the crowning labor in Mr. 
Ames'a long, laborious, but triumphant 

To produce grand pen ■ pictures by the 
use of all aids in landscape, or historical 
illustration, or siatuiatic design, is no mean 
achievement for penmen ; but to do this, not 
by these aids, but by the use <jf simple eroup- 
ings and ciimposilion alone, this was left for 
Ames, and nobody else, as we understand 
it. Proud as he must be of this assoiiibled 
exhibition of his best work, he now ofi^ers it 
to you, the young men and women of this 
great country, and at what price? The 
largest and richest work in pen-art and 
■ompociiioo iu America, and we uiigbt say 
he world, not put up in pHper. but the 
ioest board, a volume for Jive dollars. 
Twelve dollars for a bible, twelve for a 
iictionary, twelve for a book of maps, and 
only Jioe for a great work of art ! Very 
thick and heavy books are apt to give way 
in the binding. This book has no fault of 
this sort; firmly and strongly bound, and in 
the very best possible shape to handle' 
praclically, as a thing t* buy, it is without a 
fault. Hy careful usage it will serve three 
generations of writers, instead of one; then 
why not have it! The writer of this faulty 
rneudation wishes Professor Ames long 
and health, and the purchaser of the 
book happiness and success, and eo must 
say fdruwell. 

A Few Comments 

'Ames's New Cobii'ENdi 

About the "Journal." 

Uadge MaiJle'i) sptendl 

^ profvMlan. 
tone by tLe 


make good wri 
lical writing hoc 

(empiB &( lloiiria 

JouuxAL ooDdemtiR ail 6 
li'iig. jii't as persiitently ua 
eilravagnooe in dreu an 
C, .Sp«ocer, „. Wa.hi„g,« 


of J) tarn 
In bu«i. 
peopla of 


Hid aonipaluualy 

hepEKM&N'b A 


nn U .0 
olatiea ag.i. 
diug aoy ooe 

Irt Vamt 




gam dtjle or 



(Illy. It ronlsln 


DrumiBiloa nD 


Tremendous Power of Water. 

The properties of water are only partially 
understood by thf)8e who have never seen 
it under high pressure. The Virginia City 
Water Company gets its supply from Mari- 
ette lake, on the Tahoe side of the moun- 
tain. It gets it through by a long tunnel, 
is then on the crest of a high mountain op- 
posite Mount Davidson, with Washoe val- 

(S this valley by a 
impossible, so the 

i under the 

. & T. 

1 up agam 

1,720 feet, and the pressure r 
800 pounds to the square in< 

ley betwe 
flume would be alir 
water is carried dow 
the bottom, and cros 
railroad track, on the divid 
Washoe and Eagle valleys, thr 
in pipes to the rcrpiired height. The de- 
rrying is 

IS eleven inches in diameter, and is quarter- 
inch iron, lap-welded, and eighteen feet 
long, with, screw joints. There is little 
trouble iVom it ; but the other, which is 
twelve inches in diameter and a riveted 
pipe, makes more or lees trouble all the 
time. The pipe is laid with the seam 
down, an'I whenever a crack is made by 
the frost or sun warping it, or from any 
other cause, the stream fours forth with 
tremendous force. 

If the joint is bri»ken open, of course the 
whole stream is loose and goes tearing 
down the moontain, but usually the escape 
is very small. Tbe last break was less 
than five-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
and yet the water in the flume was lowereil 
an inch and a half by it, and the pressure 
went down fifteen or twenty pounds. 
Capt. Overton says that fifty iuches of water 
went through it. It has been probably a 
year in cutting out, and was made by a lit- 
tle stream hardly visible to the naki d eye 
that escaped through a joint and struck the 
pipe two or three feet off, eating away ihe 
iron until the pressure inside broke through. 
When such a break occurs the noise cau be 
heard for half a mile, and the earth slialtos 
for hundreds of feet an-und. A break the 
size of a knitting-needle will cut a hole in 
the pipe in half an hour. Such breaks are 
repaired by putting a band around the pipe, 
pouring in moulten lead, and tamping it in. 
Such a stream bores through a rock like a 
sand Blast. The flying water is as hard us 
iron, and feels rough like a file to the touch. 
It is impossible to turn it with the baud, as 
it tears the flesh off the bones, and if the 
fingers are stuck into the stream, with tie 
point up, the nails are instantly turned 
back and sometimes torn loose from the 
fieab.— Jieno Gazette. 

The Lost Rivers of Idaho.— One of the 
most singular features in the scenery of the 
Territory of Idaho is the occurrence of dark, 
rocky chasms, into whicli large slreanis and 
creeks suddenly disappear and an? never 
more seen. These fissures are old lava 
channels, produced by the outside of the 
molten mass cooling and forming a tube, 
which, on the fiery stream becomiug ex- 
hausted, has been left empty, while the 
roof of tho lava duct, having at some points 
fallen in. presents there the opening iuio 
which the river plunges and is lost. At 
one place along the banks of tho Suake, 
one of these rivera reappears gushing from 
a cleft high up in the basaltic walls, where 

> the 

; belo 

Where this stream has its origin, 
what point it is swallowed np, is utterly 
unknown, though it is believed that its 
sources are a long way up in tbe north 
country. Besides becoming the channels of 
living streams, these lava conduits are fie- 
quontly found impacted with ice masses, 
which never entirely melt.— Pm6/ic Opin- 

The Price of a Specimen Copy 

of the Journal is ten cetits, which is not 
paid with a one, two, three, or five cent 
stamp, as many applicants seem to suppose. 
Persons expecting their orders for specimen 
copies to receive attention ibould remit £en 

UimU^ ^>'oS^roi^^^?^'CALED;;c^^^^ 








O ^-^-V-~^ 

The XvTioxiL Rvkk Rvxk. 



W^^ ^f-^ -^i^^JJ^^t^ M&ii>Od^Hji^d 

"^ tin- iihx{tc> »!;'*'■■-■ 

smv^m '■-Vis 

ti \> 

behev„ „, have „„„ ».e„,„pli.l,ed, „-d alfuvc we^oJuru S ,1,: esig". u^n ':'pt ';" c^ 'fuMy ip, "vjd" l',y i;r„ •;':,'''• a u'Villi'"''' '" "'"" '^ '" ""■""■'■' ^ I"" "'»' "« 
Bolh kmdB w,ll W kept m slock, and .rd,™ till<.,l, l,y ,o,„r,i of mail uv, upon the foll.wi„g terms : 

. . Hn I.S. OK L>(.1.1.AR CURHKNCV. 

' */ UU I Iraolloiiai Currency, pt-r R'U iiolef a ~r 

7E0 n. 

U 110 



Duplic««^elief plates, „.hick ea. be used in p.inling circulars, catalogues, papers, etc., fu'rui'sLlJof la.go, $:,, „, s„,all, $i eacl>. 


/^ aDot. cuts .„ v>^.o.^,ra.eiM,.,^.a„a in. cop, ,.,c.U, ., «« „^,« „/ »,. • VcurnaV »«^ <..7,7„e„ «, .^,c>™. „/c«„.„„W ,.„r*. 
OrUm/or similar umk rtanvcd and promptly filled. Eatimalea given an request. 

How to Write a Postal-Card. 

There are different waj's of writiDR a 
postal-card — good, bad &nd indifferout. A 
poatal-card often carries as much informa- 
tion as a letter, yet few persons are partic- 
ular to date it properly, state clearly what 
they wish to say, and direct carefully. 

That is the first thing to see to in writing 
your postal-eard — the address. Be sure to 
give the name of the person, the place 
where he lives (street, and number of bouse, 
if in a city), county and state. It sounds 
rather absurd, but it is true that postals are 
often mailed without the name of the state 
attached to the address. Strange that it 
never reaches its destination! Now turn 
over your card and write on it lengthwise, 
just the way the direction runs. In this 
way you will not need to distribute half of 
one word on one line and half on another, 
as you would if you wrote across the other 
way. At the upper right-hand corner 
place the date and your address as you 
would in a letter. The heading, " Dear 
" is usually omitted on the postal- 
card, and the space occupied with what is to 
be said. Be as brief as possible, and sign 
your name bo that the one to whom it is 
addressed will know who has written it. 
Initials are often misleading. Of course 
you will use a capital to begin every sen- 
tence and every proper name, and a period 
after abbreviations and complete seutenrcs. 
It is not necessary to suggest that persoual 
allusions are out of place on what is con- 
sidered by many as public property. — Schol- 
ar's Companibn. 

A late order of the Postmaster-General 
provides that no parcel or letter will be 
forwarded upon which the postage lias not 
been fully paid. This is an important 
order, and should be fully understood. If 
the card of the sender is on the pachage, 
BDch package will be immediately returned ; 
otherwise, the addressed will be notified and 
required to furnish the requisite amount of 
postage.— iV. W. Trade Bulletin. 

The Double Penholdeb, mailed from 
the office of the Journal, at 00 cents per 
dozen, can be used oblique or straight, as 
the writer may prefer. 




pIBCULARS and iamples of cHrd- writing. 10 rcDtx In 

»Tersl apei^meD antograplu for praotioe. 



ellent opportunllj It no 

poratwd 1 

V lowiDg 


cripl, as cU. per 

mplM, 25 oiaT 
Broailway. Nev 





itiihiDg. Price, bj 









SeDd me 70a 
Culumbiu Junotlo 

n. I«. 


piflcti. Holcomb i>ub]lihlB( Co., Olevtl^iTd, 

Mr. Jjhn Bright then glanced back over 
the history of the Episcopal State Church, 
Had its influence made the State better, 
more just and gentle, more merciful and 
peaceful t Not a bit of it. In 1C83 no 
less than 1,000 Quakers— "members of the 
small sect to which I belong," said Friend 
John, *' were in the horrible English jails 
of that time. Hundreds of ihem perished 
there. Three years later William Penn 
wrote: 'There [have] been ruined since 
the late King's restoration about 15,000 
familica, and more than 5,000 have died 
under bonds for matters of mere conscience 
to God.' That was the work of the State 
Church. The reformation of the bloody 
penal code, under which men and women 
were banged for petty larceny, was carried 
over the opposing votes of Bishops and 
Archbishops." — Student's Journal. 




Liiilii WrhMn. «xclu.ively, «re boiU. .hould 

tells Cohimbiis Buggy Co'. BugiriM Pliaeion., 
Park Wagon., Light Carnng.., and popu- 
.aa Can.. ( Oirr o.rl. are eaiy riding and Ire. 


Learn to Write. 

By oBing Shaytur's Compendium of Pratilical and Or- 

<Ksa FOHMS, of the beet Btylee, iocludlng a MODEL 
aUBlNEsa Lettku, several atylea of CAPiTALfl, Ladies' 

PeoholdiDg, Slant Spacing, Shading, eto., and If rightly 

AddtttM J. R. HOLCOMB &. CO,, 

PENS eipeolally adapted for fine peDmaDshlp ai 
fTritiDg, SfS oeota per box. Clrculsn tree. 
L. Uauakabz, 215 East SOlb SUeet, 

Seat po^pi^d 00 receipt of tl 76 

idway. New Tork- 

tot 38 mdU, by L. Maoabasz, 215 Eaet SOtb I 

pARD-CASBS ofthe flneil lealber, mnde erpreuly for 


LAPIUNUM (Stone-Cloth). 

Black Diamond Slating. 



Pinl,$L25j QiiErt.f2! Half-Gallon^ $3.50; OaUon, f6.50. 

One qaart easily covera 50 i<tnara feet with three ooata. 

the number usually applied. 

Waed and givea Perfect Salia/action in 

Columbia College (School of Mines) - New York City 

Columbia Grammar School .... 

College of Phyeiciaoe and Surgeons - 

Univereity of the City ol New York - 

College of the City of New York - - 

College of Pharraaoy |; ;| 

Lafayette College Easton. Pa- 
Madison Univereity HamUloD. N.Y. 

Stevens Institute of Technology - - - Hoboken, N, j! 

Stevens High School 

Uoiveriity of Mississippi Oxford, Miss. 

State Normal Sobool Oahkosh.Wis. 

J^ug Island Uospilal Mediml College . Brooklyn,' N.Y. 
New York Stock Exchange; New York Cotton Ex- 

Coffee Bxehange ; New York Iron and Metal Exchange ; 
Equitable Grain and Produce Exchange. 
In the Publt'c Xchoolt of 

Washington,D.C..(exclusively). Palerwn, N.J. 

New York City. Plusliing. N. Y. 

San Francisco, Cal. Ml. Vernon, N. Y. 

Ne-^ark. N. J. Poughheepsie. N. Y. 

Monlclair, N. J. Waverly. N. Y. 

Bloomfield, N. J. Hartford, Ot. 

Jetwy City, N. J. Naugatuok, Ct. 

Bergen Point, N. J. Easthamplon, Mass. 

South Orange. N. J. Knoxville, Tenn. 

Hoboken, If. J. Raleigh, N. C. 



No. I ... - Slie. 2ic3 feet . . - . 11.25 

;; a - . - . ■■ aix^i •; - - - 1.75 

,t Shel 

No. 1 


This w universally admitted to be the best 
material for blackboard in ute. 


IS-tf 20s Broadway, New York. 


only oard- 

oily, i 

Penmanship and Art Department 


BashneU, lU. 

ip in p«iiinan>bip department, with di- 


., byn 


Dicplay 8 

MrtralU lo order. 

C N. CRANDLE, Manager. 
3-12 BusnNELL, III. 

OPECIAL OFFER — To auy person seadlog me a $1 

mao.bip ( latejil aditloQ ) and your name neallv wnlteo 
on ooe doten card.. AddroM, J. A. WUAlfl, 7 Uobart 
sm«l, V»<a, H. 1, 1,1 




Adapted for use with or without Text-Book, 

and the onlj set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Counting-House- Book keeping." 





refully lelected. They a 


larly adapted ( 


119 AND 121 William Strbkt, New York. 


American Popular Dictionary 


olicit siibsriptions to the Pbnkam'b Art Jouknal 
to sell popnlor publitiatiotis apon proollcsl aud artistic 

lOOO " M 50 ; by express 4 00 

Live agents can, and do, make money, by taking enb- 

ioriben lor the JOUaXAL. and telliog the above works. 
Send for our Speoia] Rates to Agents. 

Shorthand Writing 







W«t«n H«iiafcou»7, OhhMca, 1 

-^■ pjyjiwir' 

"ZZ^ z:JT^ 

The Source of Mathematics. 

Algebra in hu Arabic word, dcootitig tlie 
science r)f combining the noparatod. The 
MoHloins in Cario zcalonsly cultivated it, 
aod after they came to kDow Euclid thfty 
became great mathematiciiins on the basis 
of the writiogs of Claudius Ptolemieiis, and 
also great astronomers and geographers. 
In thin province, too, they owe to the an- 
cient Egyptians more than has hitherto 
bceo acknowledged. It is by no mbaus ac- 
cidental that the greatest math era aticians 
of Hellenic antiquity were styled pupils of 
the Egyptians, or thai it was said of them 
that they had lived on the Nile. Thales 
(600 B. C.) is reported to have measured the 
height of the Pyramids by their shadow. 
Pythagoras lived long in Egypt, and studied 
particularly at Heliopolis. He is said to 
have been master of the Egyptian language, 
and Onnpbis and Soucliis are mentioned as 
his principal teachers. In the same city of 
scholars was trained under Nektaulbos 1., 
Eudemos of Knidos {357) who discovered, 
among other things, that a pyramid was 
the tliird part of a prism whose base and 
height were equal. It is well known that 
Euclid wrote his "Elements" in Alexan- 
dria, under the first Ptolemy {Soter). The 
great Eratosthenes, who was the first to 
measure a meridian of the earth, owed his 
success in doing so to previous investigations 
made in that department by the Egyptians, 
who were already able to give with tolera- 
ble accuracy the dfstauce iu a straight line 
from Alexandria to Tyaua. In all tliis 
there is nothing that is new to matheiiial- 
iciaus, but few of them have any acquaint- 
ance with the records that made known to 
us tlie state of malhematical science among 
the Egyptians in the beginning of the sec- 
ond milleniuin B. c. The Rhind papyrus, 
preserved in the British Museum, may be 
termed a hand-book of ancient Egyjilian 
mathematics. It was written by a certain 
Aahmesu, under one of the last Hykso 
Kings, and shows that the science of au- 
oient times coutinued to exist even under 
the hated conquerors. The Heidelberg 
Egyptologist, Eisenlohr, has published this 
remarkable codex and a translation of it, 
with the assistance of Kantor, the well- 
known authority on the history of mathe- 
matics. Some of the mistaken renderings 
of these scholars — easily excusable on -le 
count of the great dilticulty of the matter 
— have been pointed out in a most acute 
and stimulating paper by L. Rhodet, which 
we recommend to the attention of ill 
mathematicians. The Rhind papjrus es 
lablishes ihe remarkable fact that certain 
processes of rockouiog ust-d by the writer 
of that very ancient document are identical 
with processes found among the Greeks, 
and through them, among the Arabs and 
the Western mathematicians of the Middle 
Ages, to whom the writings of the Arabs, 
were made known, for the most part, by 
Jewish scholars. When we find, for ex 
ample, the arithmetical process of the 
"false stating" to have been practiced 
from the time of Aahmesu ( about 1700 
B.C.) down to the sixteenth century a d 
that seems remarkable enough , but it is 
more astonishing still to find tl at cert iiu 
examples of progression which extort a 
smile from ua on account of the heteroge 
neons character of their arrangement, are 
contained in the writings of Fibonacci 
( Leonardo von Pisa) about the year 1200 
A. D., in exactly the same form in wliicli 
they are given by Aahmesu. This fact, 
discovered by Rhodet, is so remarkable, so 
easily understood, and so striking to the 
eye, that it will interest even the lay mind. 
The Egyptian example is stated : Scribes, 
7; cats, 49; mice, 343; measures of corn, 
2,401 ; bushels, 1 6,807 — total, 19,()07. 
That is, there are 7 scribes, and every 
scribe has seven cats (49); and every cat 
catches 7 mice (343); and every mouse in 
a given time eats 7 measures of corn (2,- 
401 ) ; and every measure when sown pro- 
duces 7 bushels ( 16,807 ). How much is 
the wh<.le? 19,607.— Contemporary Re- 

A $1 Book and the " Journal '* one year for $1.50. 

We have made arrangements Iiy which we can mail the following described book, 
«ith the Journal one year, for $1..5(». Or we will mail the book, free, to anyone send- 
ing us a club of three siibscrihers and $.3. 



edgeortlielanKU&gp "- 

Eiut 50th Street, New York oily, wbo ii Mkiioi*l«<I|Ted 
by all to be ths moil flnUbed card-wriler lo the ooantry . 




laohing in EaMman College. From 

Hes in trying lo e 
) College on Jan 

U/ E. DENNIS, wbo ii acknowledged lo be tl 



N -.H^ St eat, Hew Yoi 

It t 

f fho 


i if "/ u"'l" 

n fitf 4le ih it s*> fiilJtf corresponds 

s 'H <lo s tl, \m/ intentan Leier 

(/„,..,„ . , , ,, ; ■■' "/ •*''"/ 'tifiil< o/ tlKit pi IC10U8 metal 

■ntendit to out leadcfi 

flaf^h It iHiH f/u ml, ant , 






only, to e 


3 Furfl 

1 alphabe 

and iejwt 

Price, i 


sample alpb 


NoiM, R« 

dpts, e 

0.; aUio, 

f'»|lP"«e B 


oopius are 

ery ele 


aol. the Com 

peodiam 1 




yew 'u 

/"' ur" c 

uice "r Um 

M- Portfo 


mpendlum o 

f Peoman 

f. K. /SAACS. Editor and Publisher, 

1 nnK it with thchi St M atrlirgmadi anuwhere Wei 

""■ ■ '" " "- '• Wat<h that imU fjiire entire snllataetlon. 

The Best Fountain Pen JVIadel 

Wb have used a Peoograph oonslantly for some monthg pael 
'-■ ^en, and, untikejhu •tylographlo. i ' " ' " 

r for SS.fiO ; or free, u a 

: iDdtutrlousIy 
'eiiosrapti all 


Ktr nkMrlbu who ■! 

nWuUy'war'rBnt'ed''ftnd '''''"^'Ij' charged fora flrsl eJasB 
Jl,f"d »t>« tbftve, Prle?^, pwpaleL^An ixuJ'ne'n 


ij better and cheaper iluin the ordinary oblique 


SHORTHA'dO W...T..j_ 

' ttorouglUy taugbt bymall, orpeiiuii 

PIPPILS when compelenl. Oai!cTai^SOl.D 
8C«D0Krapb«ra fumUhed wtthooi ch»re( 

™"'''\ CHAPFXXroIrwifO, V T 

END 10 oeote, In iiamp*, to L. UaDASABZ. and rMelvi 
Mtnple* of hla elegant oard-wilUog. Hit addnH U 
i £. 5utl) at., New York, 

Shading T Square. 

Wi pT« berewilh Siwimen* of '''"'''"gj ij'''*/' 

■ luoeiL RupwtTDlly, C E SicKhiJi, 

Dtoiign^r and DmftmnHD. Am. UnDk Mnta Co.. N. Y 

d prtiB Ibeiii bi|<tilyi h -i 


rlonville, ODOoda^a County, New York, 

Ibher of Swirrs Uaxd hooks ov Isk Ubcipks. 


Single Copies, 20 cents. I For Sale by All Newsdealers. I Subscription, $2.50. 

Tnnohen. and nlu.lniti., l.v il.Totiii(i ..i.r i.r Uvu liouri. ..ccatiuiiall.T I" f...liciliii(! «iiliK-iipli<)nB, 

c«n r„iiy..»iT, fmni jJiOf) to !fe50 pel' month. 


400 +. "S?i,f. 'trau " B IT"'.'*""''"'' ""- 

Venmflglll0fK\&lm<:i\on Charts. 


(/. H. REED. Lancaster. Wis. 


^ ^ m\ ^ American ud Fonflipi 

or ItnmUtOD tne Coiitlu.^nt. Circulars iiialled 




ADDitKf^s ALL Communications to 

"American Counting-room," 29 Warren St. (P. 0. Box 2I26|, New York. 


,;.^vA^\';y.^vv\«A\^wS)^v"t, \V5L.\.^\ w,WK«- 



Si Series of 


'^''opdiARsrmPf^sM use ■■ . . ■ 

Used In all line Leading Colleges and Schools. 

Class-Book of Commercial Law 





Address C. E. CARHART, Principal, Albany Business College, Albany, N. Y. 






1 :0R the convenience of tho: 
* who may wish to try them, 


con'tsioiug 20 liiflerent styles of pens, with price-list of all the SPENCERIAN 

SPECIALTIES, will be sent, for trial, on receipt of lO cents. 
I^When you order, call fur Sample Card No. 11, and give the name of this paper. 


753 and 755 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

Ilie following PriOB LUl ofWriUeu 


.'ijU. A iuiid-ONI. -I .."I 

CAPITALS -I ■' ." 

■ Iowa i| tlio UdUimI Slates to t 
.r n.p, M I give Ibem a larger o 

STEEL PENS.-»»kl..'a 

GET YOUR FRIENDS TO ORDER WITH YOU, o«d olilaio •on.of the Mlowtog prtmlun..: 
roraaonl.taB.«i.llB(iio»i,l w.ll „„J rrxooe doi.o oanl., Sijle'A For oa order amounliog to |l, I will „„d 
ellber my cord iuk recipe, or i groee o( my lurorlte pen for oarU wntiog. For ud orJer amouating to $3, I wilt eond 
an exoellent plioto. of myeetf eud one doien oorde. Style 0, For on order of t^ I will eend « targe and band»>ma 
Scnipt~«.k Addieei. A. W. UAKIN, Talir, N. X. 

^HAYLO R'Sl De..Hp,l,e;i,c„llr., 
COMPENDIUM, Tli XlL ' on^reeeiH "o^ l' l.iit Hne eteet plate 


200 Miles from St, Louis, Mo, 

Peirce's Business College 






enl <K>inbitia1ionB of Ibree cb 


ing. 25 cent 
w Hnrket 








egootly wriUen.tb 







Tborouehly langhl p*rBonally, or by mail. A mote 


gooft buaineu hand tbao by coirMpuuiliog wllb thOMt 

coiTMpond tor Ibe olijeot of mutual lupniv em eot. Upon 
Sodsly, and fnrnijib you n lib aoy^uiubrr of ooirMpiind- 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

) tgtizta; Uiiu ke«pin 

II i» Invaluabta lo r11 wbo are »Mkiiig to Improv* tbel 
'JOS Broadway. N«w Vvrk. 



Vol. VIII.— No. 3. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Nl-mjiku in. 

By a. H. Hinman. 

Copj'rigbled by A. H. HinujEin. 

It will be our aim iu these Icsaoas to di- 
rect attention to M'liat eeein to ua falso uo- 
tions conceruiug pennmusliip, and to pre- 
sent sucli novel, but prnctical, methods of 
viewing ^rritiog as sball encourage broad 
and liberal ideas respecting the art. The 
capital 0, the stem, and the Capital Fold, 
are by some considered — principles. Yet 
the capital O must be altered in size and 
proportions to be made a part of any other 
letter. The stem is not found nor used 

nplete but in three letters, and the Fold 
is also altered when used in a number of 
letters. The following cut shows how the 
be altered to serve in letters. 
The dotted lines show the missing portion: 

capital letter, no matter what the style. In 
truth, the key to the success of many of tlie 
ablest teachers of the past and present is 
due to their teaching capitals by ovals, and 
curves instead of so-called capital principles. 
Oval means eggshape, aud in this lesson E 
will mean eggshape. As in cooking wa 
use eggs and parts of eggs, so in teaching 
forms, where a part is shaped like one-half, 
three fourths, or a whole egg, it will be 
marked E. In the following letters to, 
complete the parts which are marked E, 
the R, right curve; L, left curve, and S, 
straight line, will be used. 

In this lesson R will mean right 
L will mean left curve, and S will 
straight line, and the numbers will indicate 
the principles. The small alphabpts below 
may be annlyzed as follows: a Is 4-1 ; 6 is 
5-R R; cis*R-4-I; d is 4-S-I ; e isR-1; 
/isS S-K; (7is4-G; A is 5 3; iisR-land 
dot; J isR-li and dotj fcisS-L-R-l; Ms 
5-R; mis 2-2 3; Mis 2 3; o is 4; pis R- 
S-3; 5 is 4 SIl L; risRL-l; (is R-S- 
I and cross; u is RM ; ui3 2-RR; wis 
R-l-S-R R; a:ifl2-lj yi83-6j «ifl2-R-L. 

Tie letters, a, c, «, m, n. o, «, d, lo, x, 
extend one ppao above the base-line. Let- 
ters t, ;, (, d and p extend two spaces above 
tho line. Looped letters extend eitber 
three spaces above or two below the base- 
line. Letters j and q extend one and a- 
half spaces below. While, on account of 
the unreliability of tho so-called capital 
principles, we shall not see Bt to use them 
as such, there is a form which affects the 
pleasing and effective construction of capi- 
tal letters -yes, and Uourishes more than 
all the variable eB|.ital principles ever in- 
vented. That form is the Ocaf. While it 
is the only unalterahlo part of capital prin- 
ciples it ii the common part of nearly every I 


In forming capital letters it is well to 
keep their height and width within the 
bounds of one space (see Lesson I.), three 
measures in widlh and four in length. Tho 
letters E, J", and Z will occupy less than 
one space in width, and W and M will fill 
more than one space in width. In shading 
letters it is in good taste to have tho widest 
part of the shade at the center ot the curve 
or at the widest part of the oval. From tho 
widest spot shades should taper quickly 
each way towards the ends of the curve, and 
the shorter and more nicely tapered tho 
shade, the more pleasing the effect. Long 
shiides can greatly injure wliat with short 
shades would be beautiful writing, lu learn- 
ing to form capital letters it is very impurt- 
aut that one should make perfect the ovals 
they contain. Ad excellent way to master 
perfect capitaU is by the use of a sharp 
pencil and a rubber. First determine to 
make a perfect letters certain number of 
times across a page. The first letter may 
have to bo erased many times; but persevere 
tUl the task is completed. The bulldog 
wins by hanging on, and so have many who 
have mastered writing done so by the bull- 
dog plan of sticking to and whipping a let- 
ter instead of giving up whipped. 

Writing is a gift, but those who have 
grit are the givers. In tlie city schools of 
Springfield, 111., we once found the finest 
school-writing we ever saw. The teachers 
had held their pupils for sIk weeks at writ- 
ing a word containing the six principles at 
the beginning of this lesson. After that 
drill upon principles their \vritiug appeared 
almost beyond criticism. While, in the 
early part of our lesson, we desire to have 
pupils confine their study and practice to 
acquiring the knowledge and ability to ex- 
ecute letters accurately, the following in 
regard to movements is presented for oc- 
casional use. To quickly destroy cramped 
writing and secure almost at once the 
light tocuh and easy movement of the 
hand aud arm in writing, we recommend 
much practice in UTiting without touch- 
ing the fingers to the paper. By keep- 
ing the wrist up, and resting only upon 
the elbow and pen, the muscular move- 
ment will seem to come without special 
effort. After one can write with ease with 
the fingers raised, it will do to let them 
barely touch the paper, aud slide as light- 
ly as the pen. This practice repeated as 
often as tho hand and pen move with diffi- 
culty will be sure to break up the worst 
cramped writing. In writing words it is al- 
ways best to swing the hand and strike the 
pen on the paper while the hand is in mo- 
free motion throughout words. We com- 
mend those who are following these lessons 
to re read the first and second lesson occa- 
sionally, that ideas therein suggested may 
be kept in mind, both during study and 
practice. We also recommend concentr.tted 
practice as beneficial, and regard random 
practice as very detrimental. 

Replies to Questions. 
By A. H. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. 

T. H. 0. — To succeed in becoming a su- 
perior teacher of writing go to some suc- 
cessful teacher, like Mu.iaelman, or P. R. 
Spencer, or H. W. Flickiager. Dou't be 
a blind leader of tho blind, and expect to 
get there by self-teaohing. Back numbers 
of Journal contain abundant points for 
a lecture. 

F. M. H. and Others.— The left-hand 
question must he decided by common sense. 
Excellent front handwriting is accomplished 
with the left-hand, though the movements 
are difficult to acquire. The back- hand style 
is best suited to those IcfL-handed— the 
movements being more natural. We rec- 
ommend the back-baud stylo as being pro- 
ductive of better results than the fionl. 

"Newark." — The six horizontal lines 
presenting five spaces are called tho scale 
of lieigit. The letter m rests on the base 
line and tills one space; (fills two spaces 
to the dot; loops and capitals, three above 
and two below base line. Guide lines are 
questionable aids to training pupils to write 
independent of them. Call again. 

H. K. W.— If you've come to a halt, and 
can't interest your pupils, give them some- 
thing fresh. There is no crime in teaching 

by any method, oven with the copy-books 
you use. New thoughts create enthusiastic 
teaching, interest in pupils, and upward 

" Ohio." — Gripping the pen may be over- 
come by increasing the size of the holder 
with twine ( see Lesson No. I.); or by prac- 
tice in flourishing; or by not touchiog the 
fiogers to paper ( see lesson in this number). 
Rubber pen-clasps are serviceable. 

B. F. L. — In your mixed school use two 
or three grades of copy-books— but use the 
blackboard freely in explaining the different 
copies, criticisms, etc. General talk may be 
made upon position and penholdingj but 
while two grades of pupils are writing, one 
grade may witness blackboard illustrations. 
In teaching, aim at your worst writers, and 
the good ones will hear enough. 

A. N. E.— You will find the Spencerisn 
copy-slips the moat accurate. They cost 
one do'lar of Mr. Ames. The " Spencerian 
New Compendium" presents the greatest 
and richest feast of accurate and beautiful 
writing ever proacoted to penmen, and may 
be studied with advantage in connection 
with our lessons. 

Some New Definitions. 

By J. B. McArtiiur. 
What is writing! Writing is the process 
bywhich we are enabled to inform the com- 
ing generations that the United States was 
once blessed with an unlickable pugilist 
named Sullivan. 

Into how many grades is writing classed t 
Five : being good, bad, worse, unreadable, 
and Philadelphia. 

AVhat is flourishingt Flourishing is 
writing run over with a spring tooth- 

What is letter- writing! Letter-writing 
ia the means by which the young man com- 
munes with his sweetheart, whose father 
keeps a bulldog, a shotgun, and wears No. 
10 bux-toed boots. 

What is a pent A pen is a sharp- 
pointed slab of metal, which has quickened 
more good than the sword, more evil than 
a smiling fortune. 

What is a penholder? A penholder is a 
dealer who buys thirty-two dollars worth of 
pens, and eudeavois to sell them at two 
hundred per cent, profit. 

What is an autograph-album T An au- 
tograph album is a book by which we are 
reminded of the fact that Mrs, Henderson 
was Miss Smith two years ago. 

What isacomiiendiumt A compendium 
is a book, published to aid the young Am- 

wild oats, and desires to " harrow" them in. 
What is a professional penman f A pro- 
fessional penman is a species of mankind 
who makes a living by witdding a stick. 
Ho is tall, has light, curly hair, wears a 
spike-tail coat, and a No. 11 shoe. Through 
excessive twitching and puckering of the 
mouth, while executing difficult exercises, 
it now has a slight inclination toward 
Baxters. He believes that the 


hol» world should stand back when he 
to draw a bird in a neat. 

-^M^'C^*''^ <JOIJl{MAI. 

The Great Pigwacket-Center 
School Rebellion. 


The advent of Master Laugilon to Pig- 
wjiokct Cent<?r created a much more lively 
sensalioQ thau liad attended that of either 
of his predecessors. Looks go a good ways 
all the world over, and thougti there were 
several good looking people in tlio place, 
and Major [iush was wliat the natives of 
tlio town called a " hahnsoine raahn," that 
ia, big, fat, and red, yet the sight of a really 
elfigant young fellow, with the natural air 
wliich grows up with carefully bred young 
persons, was a novelty. The Brahmin 
blood which came from his grandfather, as 
well as from his mother, a direct descend- 
ant of the old Plynt family, well known by 
the famous tutor, Heuery Flynt (see Cat. 
Hjirv. Anno 1693,) had been enlivened and 
enriched by that of the Wentworths, which 
had had a good deal of ripo old Madeira 
and other generous elements mingled with 
it, so that it ran to gout sometimes in the 
old folks, and to high spirit, warm com- 
plexion, and curly hair in some of the 
young ones. The soft curling hair Mr. 
Bernard had inherited — something, per- 
haps, of the high spirit; bnt that we shall 
have a chance of finding out by-and-by. 
But the long sermons and frugal board of 
hie Brahmiu ancestry, with his own habits 
of study, had told upon his color, which 
was subdued to something more of delicacy 
than one would care to see iu a young fel- 
low with rough work before him. This, 
liowever, made hiui look' moTC interesting, 
or, as the young ladies at Major Bush's 
said, more " interestiu'." 

When Mr. Bernard showed himself at 
meeting, on the first Sunday after his ar- 
rival, it may bo supposed that a good many 
eyes were turned upon the young school- 
master. There was somethiDg heroic iu his 
coming forward ao readily to take a place 
which called for a strong hand, and a 
prompt, steady will to giride it. In fact, his 
position was that of a military chieftain on 
the eve of battle. Everybody knew every- 
thing iu Pigwacket Center, and it was an 
understood thing that the young rebels 
meant to put down the new master if they 

It was natural that the two prettiest girls 
in the village, called, in the local diale'-t, as 
nearly as our limited alphabet will represent 
it, Alminy Cutterr and Arvilly Braowne, 
should feel and express au interest in the 
good-looking stranger, and that when their 
flatteriog comments were repeated, in the 
hearing of their indigenous admirers, among 
whom were sonio of the older "boys" of 
the school, it would not add to the amiable 
disposition of the turbulent youth. 

Monday came, aijd the new schoolmaster 
was in his chair on the raised platform at 
the upper end of the schoolhouse. The 
rustics looked at his haudaoine face, 
thoughtful, peaceful, pleaaaiit, clieerful, but 
sharply cut round the lips and proudly 
lighted about the eyes. The ringleader of 
the mischief-makers, a young butcher, 
looked at him stealthily, whenever he got a 
ohitDce to study him unohserccd ; for in 
truth ho felt uncomfortable whenever he 
found the large, dark eyes fixed on his own 
little sharp, deep-set, gray ones. But he 
found means to study him pretty well- 
first his face, then his neck and shoulders, 
the set of his arms, the narrowing at the 
loins, the make of his legs, and the way he 
moved. In abort, he examined him as ho 
would have examined a steer, to see what 
he cimld do and how far be would cut up. 
If he could only have gone to him and felt 
of his muscles, ho would have been entirely 
satisfied. Ho was not a very wise youth, 
but he did know well enough that, though 
big arms and legs are very good tilings, 
there is something besides size that goes to 
make a man; and he had heard stories of a 
fighting man, called "The Spider," from 
his attenuated proportions, who was yet a 
terrible hitter iu the ring, and had whipped 
many a big-limbed fellow in and out of the 
roped arena. 

Nothing could be smoother thau the way 
ia whicli everything went on for the first 
day or two. The new master was so kind 
and courteous, he seemed to take everything 
in such a natural, easy way that there was 
no chau-e to pick a quarrel with him. He, 
in the meautime, thought it best to watch 
the buys and young men for a day or two 
with as little show of authority as possible. 
It was easy enough to see that he would 
have occasion for it hefoi-e long 

The schoolhouse was a grim, old,, red, 
one etory building, perched on a bare rock 
ou the top of a hill— ipartly because it was a 
conspicuous site for the temple of learning, 
and partly because land is cheap where 
there is no chance for rye or buckwheat, 
and the very sheep find nothing to nibble. 
About the little porch were carved initials 
and dates, at various heights, from the stat- 
ure of nine to that of eighteen. Inside wore 
were old unpainted desks — unpainled, but 
browned by the umber of human ooulact — 
and hacked by innumerable jack-knives. 
It washing since the walls had been whiie- 
washod, as might bo conjectured by the va- 
rious traces left upon them, wherever idle 
hands or sleepy heads could reach them. 
A curious appearance was noticeable on 
various higher parts of the wall, namely, a 
wart-like eruption, one would be tempted 
to Tail it. beiug, in reality, a crop of soft 
missiles before mentioned, wiiich, adhering 
in considerable numbers, and hardening af- 
ter the usual fashion of papier mache, 
formed at least permanent ornaments of the 

The youug master's quick eye soon no 
ticed that a particular part of the wall was 
most favored with these ornamental appen- 
dages. Their position pointed sufficiently 
clear to the part of the room they came 
from. In fact, there was a nest of young 
mutineers just there, which must be broken 
up by coup d'etat. This was easily efl'ected 
by a redistribution of the seats and arrang- 
ing the scholars according to classes, so that 
a mischievous fellow, charged full of the 
rebellious imponderable, should find him- 
self betflieen two non-conductors, in the 
shape of small boys of studious habits. It 
was managed quietly enough, in such a 
plausible sort of way that its motive was 
not thought of. But its eflecta were soon 
felt; and then began a system of corres- 
pondence by signs, and the throwing of lit- 
tle scrawls done up in pellets, and an- 
nounced by preliminary a^h'ms! to call the 
attention of the distant youth addressed. 
Some of these were incendiary documents, 
devoting the schoolmaster to the lower di- 
vinities, as " a stuck up dandy," as "a 

purse proud aristocrat," as "a sight 

too big foi- his," etc., and holding liim up in 
a variety of equally forcible phrases to the 
indignation of the youthful community of 
School District No. 1, Pigwacket Center. 

Presently the draughtsman of tiio school 
set a caricature iu circulation, labeled, to 
prevent mistakes, with the schoolmaster's 
name. An immense bell-crowned hat, and 
a long, pointed, swallow- tailed coat showed 
that the artist had iu his mind the conven- 
tional dandy as shown in prints thirty or 
forty years ago, rather than any actual 
human aspect of tlio time. But it was 
passed round among the boys and made its 
laugh, helping, of courge, to undermine the 
master'a authority, as Punch or the Chari- 
vari takes the dignity out of an obnoxious 
minister. One morning, on going to the 
schoolroom, Master Langdou found an en- 
larged copy of this sketch, with its label, 
pinned ou the door. He took it down, 
smiled a little, put it into his pocket, and 
entered the schoulroom. An insidious si- 
lence prevailed, which looked as if some 
plot were brewing. The boys were ripe for 
mischief, but afraid. They had really no 
fault to find with the master, except tliat 
be was dressed like a gentleman, which a 
certain cla!»s of fellows always consider a 
personal insult to themselves. But the older 
ones were evidently plotting, and mure than 
ouce the warning a'h'm! was heard, and a 
dirty little scrap of paper rolled into a wad 

shot from one seat to another. One of these 
happened to strike tho stove-funnel, and 
lodged on the maaler's desk. He was cool 
enough not to seem to notice it. He secured 
it without being observed by the boys. It 
required no imtnediate notice. 

He who should have enjoyed the privilege 
of looking upon Mr. Bernard Langdon the 
next morning, when his toilet was about 
half finished, would have had a very pleas- 
ant gratuitous exhibition. First he buckled 
the strap of his trousers pretty tightly. 
Then he took up a pair of heavy dumb- 
bells, and swung thom for a few miuutes, 
then two great "Indian clubs," with which 
ho enacted all sorts of impossible-looking 
feats. His limbs were not very large, nor 
his shoulders remarkably broad ; but if you 
knew as much of the muscles as all persons 
who look at statues and pictures with a 
critical eye ought to have learued— if you 
knew the trapezius, lying diam.ud shaped 
over the back and shoulders like a monk's 
cowl— or the deltoid, which caps the shoul- 
ders like an epaulette —or the triceps, which 
furnishes the cal/vf the upper arm— or the 
hard-knotted biceps — any of the great 
sculptural landmarks, in fact — you would 
have sajd there was a pretty show of them 
beneath the white satiny akin of Mr. Bern- 
ard Langdon, And if you had seen him, 
when he had laid down the Indian clubs, 
catch hold of a leather strap that hung from 
the beam of the old-fashioned ceiling, and 
lift and loner himself over and over again 
by his left baud alone, you might have 
thought it a very simple and easy thing to 
do, until you tried to do it yourself. 

Mr. Bernard looked at himself with the 
eye of an expert. " Pretty well ! " he said ; 
"not so mucli fallen off as I expected." 
Then he set up his bolster in a very know- 
ing sort of way, and delivered two or three 
blows straight as rulers and swift as winks. 
" That will do," he said. Then, as if to 
make a certainty of his condition, he took a 
dynamometer from one of his drawers ia his 
old veneered bureau. First he squeezed it 
with his two hands. Then he placed it on 
the floor and lifted steadily, strongly. The 
springs creaked and cracked; the index 
swept with a great stride far far up into the 
high figures of the scale; it was a good lift. 
He was satisfied. He sat down on the edge 
of his bed and looked at his cleanly- shaped 
arms. " If I strike one of those boobies, I 
am afraid I shall spoil him," he said. Yet 
this young man, when weighed with his 
class at college, could barely turn one hun- 
dred and forly-two pounds iu the scale — not 
a heavy weight, surely ; but some of the 
middle weights, as the present English 
champion, for instance, seem to be of a far 
finer quality of muscle thau the bulkier 

The master took his breakfast with a 
good appetite that morning, but was, per- 
haps, rather more quiet than usual. After 
breakfast, he went up- stairs and put ou a 
tight frock, instead of his usual dress- coat, 
which was a close fitting and rather stylish 
one. On his way to school he met Alminy 
Cutterr, who happened to be walking in the 
other direction. " Good morning, Miss Cut- 
terr," he said, for she and another young 
lady had been introduced to him ou a for- 
mer occasion, in the usual phrase of polite 
Society in presenting ladies to geutlomen — 
"Mr. Langdon, let me make y' acquainted 
with Miss Braowne." So he said, " Good 
morniiig," to which the replied, "Good 
muruin', Mr. Langdon, haow's yourhaalthf" 
The answer to this question ought naturally 
to have been the end of the talk, but Al- 
miny Cutterr lingered and looked as if she 
had something more on her mind. 

A young fellow does not require a groat 
deal of oxi)erienee to read a simple country 
girl's face as if it were a sign-board. Alminy 
was a good soul, with red cheeks and bright 
eyes, kind-hearted as she could be, and it 
was out of the question for her to hide her 
thoughts or feelings like a fine lady. Her 
bright eyes were moist and her cheeks paler 
thau they were wont, as she said with her 
lips quivering — " Oh, Mr. Langdon, thom 

boys '11 be the death of ye, if ye don't take 

"Why, what's the matter, my dear?" 
said Mr. Bernard. Don't think there was 
anything very odd in that "my dear," at 
the second interview with a village belle; 
some of those women-tamers call a girl 
" my dear" after five minutes' acquaibtance, 
and it seems all riglit as thty soy it. But 
you had not better try it at a venture. 

It sounded all right to Alminy as Mr, 
Beroard said it. "I'll tell ye what's the 
mahttcrr," she said, in a frightened voice. 
"Ahbnor's go'n' to car* his dog, 'n' he'll set 
him on ye'z sure 'z'r* alive, 'T's the saTne 
cretur that haalf eat up Ebon Squire's little 
Jo, a year come nex' Faast-day." 

Now, this last statement was undoubtedly 
over colored, as little Jo Squires was rim- 
ning about the villiage— with an ugly scar 
on his arm, it is true, where the beast had 
caught him with his teeth, on the occasion 
of the child's taking liberties with him, as 
ho had been accustomfd to do with a good- 
tempered Newfoundland dog, who seemed 
to like being pulled and hauled round by 
children. After tiiis the creature was c<Mn- 
monly muzzled, and as he was fed on raw 
meat chiefly, was always ready for a fight, 
which be was occasionally indulged in when 
anything stout enough to hiatch him could 
be found in any of the neighboring villages. 
Tiger, or more briefly Tige, the property 
of Abner Briggs, junior, belonged to a spe- 
cies not distinctly marked in scientific books 
but well known to our country folks under 
the name of " Yallah dog." They do not 
use this ex"pression as they would say hlacli 
dog or white dog, but with as definite a 
meaning as when they speak of a terrier or 
a spaniel. A "yallah dog" ia a large canine 
brute, with a dingy old-flannel color, of no 
particular breed except his own, who hangs 
round a tavern or a butcher's shop, or trots 
alongside a team, looking as if he were dis- 
gusted with the world and the world with 
him. Our iuland population, while they 
tolerate him, speak of him with contempt. 

Old , of Mere<lilh Bridge, used to twit 

tlie sun for not shining on cloudy days, 
swearing that if he hung up his "yallah 
dog" he would make a better show of day- 
light. A country fellow, abusing a horse of 
liis neighbor's, vowed that, "if he had such 
a boss, he'd swap him for a 'yallali dog,' 
ami then shoot the dog." 

Tigo was an ill-conditioned brute by na- 
ture, and art bad not improved him by crop- 
ping his ears and tail, and investing him 
with a spiked collar. He bore on his per- 
son, also, various not ornamental scars, 
marks of old battles; for Tige had fight in 
him, as was said before, and as might be 
guessed by a certain bluntness about the 
muzzle with a projection of the lower jaw, 
which looked as if there might be a l^uU- 
dog stripe among the numerous bar-sinisters 
of his lineage. 

It was hardly fair, l.owever, to leave Al- 
miny Cutterr waiting while this piece of 
natural history was telling. As she spoko 
of little Jo, who had been "haalf eat up" 
by Tige, she could not contain her sympa- 
thies, and began to cry. 

"Why, my dear little soul," said Mr. 
Bernard, "what are you worried about? I 
u;ed to play with a bear when I was a boy ; 
and tho bear used to hug me, and I used to 

It was too bad of Mr. Bernard, only the 
second time he had seen Alminy; but her 
kind feelings had touched him, and that 
seemed the most natural way of expressing 
his gratitude. Alminy looked round to see 
if anybody was near; she saw nobody; but 
a stout young fellow, leading a yellow dog, 
muzzled, saw her throygh a crack in a 
picket fence, not a groat way off the road. 
Many a year ho had beeu " hangiu' 'raouu'" 
Alminy, and never ditl he see any encourag- 
ing look, or hear any, " Behave naow ! " or 
"Come naow, a'n't ye 'shamed?" or other 
forbidding phrases of acquiescence, such as 
village belles understand as well as ever did 
the nymph who fled to the willows iu the 
clogue we all remember. 

No wonder he wag furious wlien he eaw 
the schoulinHfltcr, who had Dover seen the 
girl till within a week, touching with his 
lips thoae rosy cheelcs which ho had oever 
dared approach. But that was all; it was 
a audden impulse; and the master turned 
away from the young girl, laughing, and 
tolling her not to fret herself about him— he 
would take care of hhnself. 

So Master Langdon walked on toward his 
pclioulbouso, not displeased, perhaps, with 
his little adventure, nor iinnionsely elated 
hy it; for he was one of Ihe mitiiral class of 
the BOx-siihduors, and had had many a smile, 
withr)ut asking, which had been denied to 
the feeble youth who try to win favor by 
pleading their passion in rliynie, and even 
to the inoro formidable approaches of voung 
officers iu volunteer companiea, considered 
by many to bo quite irresistible to the fair 
who have once beheld them from their win- 
dows in the epaulettes and plumes and 
Bftslios of the "Picwacket Invincibles," or 
the " Haclimalack Hangers." 

Master Langdon took his seat, and began 
the exercises of bia scliool. The smaller 
boys recited their lessons well enough, but 
snmo of the larger ones were negligent and 
surly. He noticed one or two of them look- 
ing towards the door, as if expecting some- 
body or something in that direction. At 
half-past nine o'clock Abuer Briggs, 
junior, who liad not yet shown him- 
self, made his appearance. Ho was 
foIloR-ed byhis"yalhih dog," with- 
out his muzzle, who squatted down 
very griuily uear the door, and gave 
a wolBsIi look round the room, as if 
he were considering which was the 
phiiiipest boy to begin with. The 
young butcher, meanwhile, went to 
his seat, looking s-mewhat flushed, 
except rouDd the lips, which were 
hardly as red as common, and set 
pretty sharply, 

" Put out that dog, Abner Briggs! » 
Tlie master spoke as the captain 
speaks to the helmsman when there 
are rocks foaming at ihe lips, right 
umlor his li^e. 

Abnor Brigg.s answered as the 
hehridinHQ answers when he knows 
he has a mutinous crew round him 
that mean to run the ship on the reef, 
and is one of the mutineers himself: 
"Put him aout y'rself, 'f ye a'n't afeared 


■ for ihe othei 

" Follow your dog, Abner Briggs!" said 
Master Langdon. 

The stout butcher youth looked round, 
but the rebels were all cowed and sat still. 

*'ril go when I'm ready," he said — '"n I 
guess I won't go afore Pm ready." 

" You're ready now," said Master Lang- 
don, turning up his cuffs so that the little 
boys noticed the yellow gleam of a pair of 
gold sleeve-buttons, once worn by Colonel 
Percy Wentworth, famous in the old French 

Abner Briggs, junior, did not, apparently, 
think he was ready, at any rate; for he rose 
in his place and stood with clenched fists, 
de6aut, as the master strode towards him. 
The master know the fellow was really 
frightened, for all his looks, and that he 
must have no time to rally. So he caught 
him suddenly by the collar, and with one 
great pull had him out over his desk and on 
the open floor. He gavo him a sliarp fliug 
backwards, and stood looking at him. 

The rough and tumble fighters all clinch,- 
as everybody knows; and Abner Briggs, 
jimior, was one of that kind. He remem- 
bered how he bad floored Master Weeks, 
and ho had just " spunk enough left in him 
to try to repeat his former successful exper- 

can scarce be recognized by its originator f 
Surely our ancestors must have been pos- 
sessed of one trial which they did not be- 
queath unimpaired to their descendants, 
namely, the ability to repeat a story at least 
with tolerable accuracy. 

It was not until A. d. 1085 that the 
manufacture of modern paper was invented, 
and almost four hundred years more passed 
before Gutenburg invented the art of print- 
ing. How mighty an agent in the progress 
of modern civilization these two factors 

To 1 

the i 


printing through all its various stages, from 
A. D. 14.^5 to the present time, and to note 
its effect upon the history of the world, 
would be an interesting- task ; but in this 
brief Paper it will be better for us to con- 
fine ourselves to that branch of the art 
which has given us the modern newspaper. 
The newspaper is a prominent feature in 
this nineteenth century, and wields an in- 
fluence for good and evil not possessed by 
any other one thing. But while we recog- 
nize its advantages and usefulness, we 
would do well to ask ourselves what are 
some of its disadvantages, and how large 
a proportion of our time should be devoted 
to reading it. On© cannot help wondering 
if the great Italian painter, Leonardo di 
Vinci, could have been an accomplished 

The above cut was photo-engraved from original pen-and-ink copy execuUd by Uriah McEee, 
principal of the Comnureiat Department of the Oberlin ( 0.) College. 

The master stepjied into the aisle. The 
great cur showed his teeth, and the devilish 
instincts of his old wolf-ancestry looked out 
of his eyes, and flashed from his sharp 
tusks, and yamied in his wide mouth and 
deep red gullet. 

The movements of animals are bo much 
quicker than those of human beings com- 
monly are that they avoid blows as easily as 
one of us steps out of the way of an os-cart. 
It must be a very stupid dog that lets him- 
self bo run over by a fast driver in his gig; 
he can jump out of the wheel's way after 
the tire has already touched him. So, while 
one is lifting a stick to strike, or drawing 
back }iis foot to kick, tho beast makes a 
spriGg, and the blow or kick comes too late. 

It was not HO this time. The master was 
a fencer and something of a boxer; he had 
played at single stick, and was used to 
watching an adversary's eye, and coming 
down upon him without any of those pro- 
mouitory sjinptoma by which unpracticed 
pprsons show long beforehand what mis- 
chief they meditate. 

"Out with youl" he said fiercely,— and 
explained what he meant by a sudden flash 
of his boot that clashed tlie yollow dog's 
white teelh together like the springing of 
abear-trap The cur knew he had fonud 
his master at the first word and glance, as 
low animals on four legs, or a smaller nu'm- 
ber, always do; and the blow took him »o 
much by surprise that it curled him up in 
an instant, and he went bundling out of tho 
oi)en schoolhouse door, with a moat pitiable 
yelp, and his stump of a tail shut down as 
close as his owner ever shut the short, 
Blubbed blade of hia jack-knife. 

iment on the new master. He sprang at 
him, open-handed, to clutch him. So the 
master bad to strike, — once, but very hard, 
and just in the place to tell. No doubt the 
authority that duth hedge a schoolmaster 
added to the effect of tho blow; but the 
blow was itself a neat one, and did not re- 
quire to be repeated. 

"Now go home," said the master, "and 
don't let me see ynu or your dog here 
agaiu." And he turned his cuffs down again 
over the gold sleeve buttons. 

This finished the great Pigwacket-Center 
School Rebellion. What could be done with 
a master who was so pleasant as long as 
the boys behaved decently, and such a ter- 
rible fellow when he got "riled," as they 
called it I In a week's time, everything was 
reduced to order and tho school committee 
were delighted.— OKu«- Wendell Holmes, in 
"Elsie Venner." 

Something about Newspapers. 

By Peter Practilicus. 
Think' of a world without a newspaper! 
One can scarcely fancy a condition of affairs 
so lamentable! The daily newspaper has 
become a necessity, and, as such, is eagerly 
looked for at well-nigh every* breakfast 
table throughout the length and breadth of 
the land. And yet for thousands of years 
the inhabitants of this round worlil lived 
and died without a newspaper; they were, 
perforce, content with the scraps of news 
that came to them, slowly paasing from one 
to another, by word of mouth. Can we 
wonder that truth was so mixed with fiction 
in the earlier history of the race when we 
reflect how easy it is even now for a story 
to grow until, after only a few repetitions, it 

architect, sculptor, painter, musician, en- 
gineer, aud improvisatore, had he lived in 
the nineteenth instead of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is no wonder this is an age of 
specialists, for life is so much more crowded 
now than it was four hundred years ago 
that we have not time to study many things 
deeply; and who can tell how much of the 
hurry and bustle of to-day may be attribu- 
ted to the newspaper T 

A few statistics regarding the enormous 
increase in the publication of newspapers 
during the last on© hundred years will 
startle us, and lead us to inquire what an- 
other century of such rapid growth will 
bring forth. The first paper printed in 
England appeared in 1588; the first in 
Scotland, in 1G52 ; and the first in Ireland, 
in 1700. In 185^, in Great Britain and 
Ireland, there were only 551 newspapers; 
to-day there are neariy lour times that 
number, or about 2(J00. In 1771 there 
were, in the United States, twenty-five 
newspapers; in 1883 they numbered over 
12,000. Lamartine's prediction may yet be 
fulfilled. He said: "Before this century 
shall have run out, journalism will be the 
whole press, the whole of human thought. 
Thought will not have had time to ripen to 
acfommodatt) itself into the form of a book. 
The book will arrive too late. The only 
book pussible soon will be a newspaper." 
The average intelligence of the masses is, 
of course, promoted in no small degree by 
means of the daily newspaper, which comes 
within the reach of all, when a journal like 
the New York Times can be purchased for 
the trifling sum of two cents. 

But newspaper reading rubs ua of much 
valuable time, and sadly interferes with 
profounder study : deep learning is not ao- 

It appeal 

cessible through the columns of a news- 
paper. Moreover, one who reads them 
assiduously will most likely injure the 
memory thereby : for the great variety of 
information they contain cannot possibly be 
retained, aud, not being digested with 
thoughtful consideration, passes from the 
mind almost as soon as read. Again : is it 
not possible that the small type used in 
most .printing-otScea is so far affecting the 
eyes that .syncopy ia becoming more com- 
mon than not, and weak eyes are the rule, 
not the exception. It is also a question 
whether crime is not increased, as well as 
knowledge disseminated, by means of t)ie 
daily press. How often do we remark that 
offences of the same nature repeat them- 
selves in quick succession in different parts 
of the country, which might never have oc- 
curred at all had not the newspapers in 
the first place expatiated upon the wrong- 
doing more than was necessary. 

that the newspaper of to- 
xed good. Nevertheless, 
we would make a grave mistake not to read 
the papers at all ; and the question remains. 
How much time ought we to spend in their 
perusal f Some one has said that it is pos- 
sibl© to take in, at a glance, a whole 
paragraph just as we now read the longest 
word without spelliug it out first. Happy 
are those who have acquired so valu- 
able an accomplishment. Most as- 
suredly but a email proportion of our 
time should be devoted to the daily 
paper, and our reading of it moat be 
reduced to a syatem if we expect to 
have leisure for other and more im- 
portant reading Would it not b© 
well for us to confine ourselves to 
one or two good reliable newspapers, 
and learn to scan them in such a way 
that not more than one hour a day, 
or less if possible, shall be consumed 
m the taskt The following para- 
graph, flniten by Phillip G. Hain- 
merlon for the Chaulaitqua, may 
help us to acquire th© art: 

' The art of reading is to skip ju- 
lely Whole libraries may be 
se days, when we have 
the results of them in our modern 
culture without going over the ground 
again. And even of the books we 
decide to read there are almost always 
large portions which do not concern us, and 
which we are sure to forget tho day after 
w© have read them. The art is to skip all 
that does not concern us, whilst missing 
nothing that we really need. No external 
guidance can teach us this, for nobody but 
ourselves can guess what th© needs of our 
intellect may be. But let us select with 
decisive firmness, independently of other 
people's advice, independently of the 
authority of custom. In ev©ry n©wspaper 
that comes to hand there is a little bit that 
we ought to read; the art ia, to find that 
little bit, and waste no time over the rest." 

Whitinq and Reading.- a Btoiyuaed 
to be told of a clerk at the Custom Houae 
in former days whose duty it was to write 
coi-k©ta, or warrants as they aro now called. 
He was so bad a penman that what h« 
wrote was only read with the greatest diffi- 
culty. A day came when one of his doou- 
ments was altogether illegible. No one 
could make out a single word of it. It was 
taken to him and he was asked to explain 
what it was h© had written. Ho gazed at 
his own paper helplessly for some time, 
held it in different lights, but could make 
nothing of it. "Sir," said he at last, "I 
am the cooket-writer and not the cooket- 

How to Remit Money. 

The best aud safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parta of 
a dollar, send postage-slamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
n'or Canadian postage-stamps. 

The Art of Writing. 

Bt R. C. Spencer. 

The new posilion as mprchaat'a clerk, in 
which the future teacher aod author of pen- 
manship found himself at the age of tiflecu 
years, and the changed con<Iiti<in8 hy which 
he was surrounded, onuld nut but exert an 
intlaeDce upon his haudwritipg and liis 
views of the art. The eensaiivenesa of hia 
nature made him keenly alive to everything 
ahuut him, and to every poiut of noutact 
with life. He was an acute and appreciative 
observer of men and things. Such was the 
coDslitutioQ of his miod that it absorbed 
quickly every useful euggeption. These 
traits of his character, combined with his 
passionate fondness fur the art of writing 
manifest in early childhood, combined with 
the advantages cf hia new duties and asso- 
«iatioos, were the elements and f.irces acting 
within and upon hiui that were ultimately 
to result in the developmeot of a model style 
and system uf bu-iinesB-wriling. 

Here he was at an impressible age in 
the midst of busioess that linked the affairs 
and life of an enterprising pioneer Yankee 
oommuoity to the iodustries and iulerfsts of 
the East through the strong ties of trade 
and commerce. Business intercourse bioiight 
under his constant observation the style <if 
writing then prevalent in busiuesa. He 
marked critically its excellencit^s and de- 
tects. Hij inventive mind Suught out rem- 
edies f-ir the latter, while his good judgment 
preserved the former. His origioaliiy auH 
desire for improvement were not blinded by 
eguliem aud vanity, but were coupled with 
a reverent regard f.)r, and just apprecidtiun 
of, the work of the past, which gives to true 
progress a noble spirit of conservatism. 
Had his views and feelings been different, 
he would have h^en too sm«ll a man for the 
work that was before him in the important 
branch of art and education that he was 
destined to improve, systematize and ele- 

Pens and Pens. 

By Paul Pastnor. 
I caw a little " Ode to a Stub Pen," the 
other day, which struck me as being sensi- 
ble as well as witty. For " mental lucu- 
bration," the bard dec'ared its ''truncated 
nib " to be a genuine inspiration. The ease 
and smoothness of its moli.m he thought to 
be the nearest and most congenial thing to 
the ready flow of thought. Well, is he not 
very nearly right! Are there not pins and 
penst The delicate instrument, whose fine 
yet flexible puiut is adapted to the require- 
ments of the artistic penman's skill, is not 
always the beet pen fur the literary man ; 
nor would the literary man's pen at all suit 
the trained tiugers ol the arlistic penman. 
Here, as everywhere else, there "s room for 
fituess. The literary style of handwriting 
is as clearly marked, and as beautiful, in its 
way, I think, as the so-cailed "copy-book 
style." The great msjority ot literary men 
prefer a broad-nibbed pen. It has a posi- 
tive, honest, even stroite, which is a relief 
to the hand and a rest to the eye. No deli- 
cate lines are needed, for whose execution 
the mind must be relaxed ever so little from 
the subject of thought. The best language, 
says a writer, is that which least obtrudes 
itself upon the reader; which is simply 
transparent to the thought. If this is true 
of language, may not the same he true of 
that which helps in framing language— the 
pen? One's thought is very apt to be gov- 
erned, in a measure, by one's writing in- 
strument. The poet who writes with a quill 
will be annoyed by a diamond-p.dnted pen ■ 
and the scholar whose broad, honest chirog- 
raphy is wedded to a suit, 6tub pen will 
have some trouble in framing good sen- 
tences with a hard, needle-pcjinted E^ter- 
brook. These little things, Just like all 
i^orne to have a wonderful sig- 
me; especially, in such a ner- 
s oomposilioD, must they have 

other habil 

their influence. Atmosphere is everything 
in fine writing. Take a man oat of his ac- 
customed habits, and you limit his power: 
writing, after all, is too much of a habit, 
Dickens had to have his old familiar pile of 
blue paper to write on. Sir Walter Scott 
wanted his little abort, broad-nibbed pen. 
Uow many beautiful thoughts might have 
been lost to the world, but for the mechan- 
ical conveniences which put the writer into 
a good humor. If one likes his pen, he is 
at ease with himself, lie writes as be 
thinks, naturally and without eff..n. Half 
the labor of composition depends on that 
humble but wonderful instrument, the pen. 
Another rule works the other way, too. 
The penman caonot do himself justice with 
an instrument unequal to his demands. An 
organist cannot make good music on a me- 
lodeon— it lacks the capacities, the shades, 
the variations of tone, the power, the sweet- 
noes and smoothness of the nobler instrn- 

capable of extending the finest hairline 
into a firm, clear, unbroken, shaded line. 
He must have a peo-poinl sharp as a dia- 
mond, and smooth as oill The gold pen 
will never do him ; it is not flexible enough, 
lie muHit have the finest steel, and the best 
workmanship which the age can produce. 
There are steel pens made by machinery to- 
day, which are marvels of human skill — 
flexible, delicate, tirm and durable — a pen- 
man's delight. The literary man would call 
one of them an abomination, a faint-mark- 
ing, scratchy, sputtering, tremulous, vex- 
atious thing. It is not suited to his needs. 
There are pens and pens. He will thank 
you for H stub pen, but will fling a box of 
fine-points into the fire. Fortunately, there 
will always be Jack Sprats's wives, as well 
as Jack Sprats, in the world, to help lick 
the old platter of human differences olean : 

The Boys Do ? ? ? ? 

A Reply. 
By Geohgie a, M. Manis. 
The question, Why do girls, from the 
age of ten to seventeen, as a general rule, 
write a better hand than boyst having 
come under my observation, I shall, in my 
feeble way, endeavor to reply. 

Now, J like boys—good boys, bad boys, 
lean boys, fat boys, young boys, and— well, 
(dd boys, too, I gue-as; aud being such an 
admirer of the dear creatures I shall not 
sland by silently, if I am one of the weak-r 
vessels, and bear a great big, slim man, 
who was once a boy himself, talk so awfully 
ugly about them. What do girls and wo- 
men know by the side of hoys and grent 
big men T Nothing f What are they able 
to accomplish t Nothing? What are 
they in this miserable world for 1 Nothing t 
yes; to Work and toil; to have an aim 
in life; to accomplish it; to make every- 
body hsppy; to dye before they are ready 
— then scold about the color of things. 

Now, what made you say that about the 
boys? Cause. Well, then you will have 
to take it back, or there will be war in the 
camp. ''Cause" belongs to the woman's 
vocabulary, and you have no right to use 
the term. 

This statement has been made by the 
maji>rily of teachers in our land; but the 
fact of the statement coming from the ma- 
jority does not prove it to be true ; far from 
it. The mass of people follow suit ; there 
is nothing particularly original in them. 
They hear an idea expressed by a superior 
person; it seems reasonable to them; they 

absorb it; repeat it a great many times 

for want of something else to say— and in 
time it is a part of them ; and without hav- 
ing investigated the matter. They firmly 
believe certain things, because some one 
smarter than themselves has said so. 

ran see no reason why the average boy 
should not write as well as the average girl, 

)r why he should not be as neat in school- 

iirk, aud indeed all work. 

Boys from infancy up are encouraged 

id even taught to be careless and untidy. 

VK 1 .J<>i!i{\.v:i. 

The mere fact of his being a boy is sutfi- 
cieat grounds for all rudeness and careless- 
ness. Johnny comes home from school, 
throws his hat in one corner, his books in 
another. His loving mamma, who is al- 
ways more lenient to the boy, or terribly 
cross big sister, that's too particular for any 
earthly use, gathers up Johnny's property 
with the remark, " Why can't that hoy 
have some order or neatness about him ? " 
But Johnny is never compelled to take care 
of his books, raps, etc., nor to be orderly 
in any respect. No, it is not necessary. 
The boy goes to school the next morning; 
exhibits the poor qualitiee ; if working an 
example, his figures are large and awkward 
looking ; if at the board, he sways from one 
side to the other, or leans with back against 
the board, or has an eraser in either pocket, 
exerting every effort to appear clownish. 
The teacher threatens to give him a good, 
sound whipping ; doses out to him a scien- 
tific blessing, which the boy appreciates 
very much. So he goes on in the old path 
until he is large enough to he disgusted ; 
then he reforms of his own free-will, if at 
all, and no one claims the honor. 

All these bad qualities are excused in the 
schoolboy upon the same ground that so 
many sins are excusable in boys and rnpn. 
Encourage mode.^ty, purity, and all the Bet- 
ter qualities in boys, as well as girls, and 
we will have less need of ao many rigid 


lilted i 

I wrong, be it committed by 
d one or the other having 

the sin. 

What, under the shining sun, are our 
public schools fort Should not morality, 
manners, proper principles, and all the 
good habits re(iuisite to the making of a 
respectable man or woman be thoroughly 
instillod into the children t If the only 
object is to cram the contents of books into 
the minds— which many of them do— it 
would be better were there no schools. If 
boys and girls were trained properly, from 
the primaries up, as they should be, there 
would be no need of a human cry against 
either. I admit that in many schools the 
girls display more taste in their work than 
the boys of the same grade. The home in- 
fluence of the girl is of the nature to en- 
courage order, neatness, and many other 

real good time, for that would not be mod- 
est. She is learning all of these grand and 
noble traits, while the boy is running the 
streets, or standing on the corners, listening 
to the low talk of idle men. But leave the 
home and wander into the schoolroom, and 
all agree that the teacher's influence, if he 
is a true teacher, is greater than the home 
influence. Any teacher who discovers that 
his school is in this critical condition must 
admit his partial failure. If he has not 
awakened » pride or taste for good work he 
surely has failed in a very important part of 
his business. There is no pupil who does 
not adrnir© nice work, and would gladly 
have his so, if he only knew how. Should 
it be expected that a child would be able to 
do anything correctly without being told 
bow? He must have some pattern to go 
by, and many teachers are no embodiment 
of nea'nesB. You must explain to pupils 
how to be orderly, would you have them so. 

I can say, honestly, that there is no 
difference iu the work of either, where a 
proper and aystematic course of training 
has been pursued. I do not make a rash 
statement, but speak that which I know. 
For over two years I had the same pupils 
under my charge, when first taking the 
grade I found neatness displayed iu all the 
different alages. I saw at once that a radi- 
cal change must take place before I could 
hope for results worthy of notice. At the 
end of the 'ime I saw that patient, untiring 
labor was always rewarded by good results. 
( The work of said pupils is in my posses- 
sion, should there be any doubt.) 

Teachers, of judgment, may take differeni 
meant of producing the desired ulterauona. 

The first two weeks were spent learning 
how to prepare lessons, and to outline the 
same on the board, slate or paper. For in- 
stance : the lesson in geography is N. A, 
Would you make the children learn or 





teach by questions, but by topics. For the 
first lessou the rivers might he given. 
Now, one boy will write across the slate or 
paper, running the names together in such 
a manner that it would take an experienced 
Attorney to translate the hieroglyphics. 
His teacher examines his work, and passes 
it without any corrections, or exclaims, in 
savage tones, " Now, see, if you don't do 
better work to-morrow I'll settle you." 
The boy would gladly settle in a country 
where old schoolteaebers and schools were 
never heard of. He would he willing to 
travel by way of a first-class cyclone : 
anything for a change. He has heard the 
old harangue from the time he entered 
school. Another will write down the slate. 
That one lesson is written in every imagin- 
able way. The teacher is dicgusled, and 
hates everything connected with school ; he 
is teaching for money. Fmally, he pro- 
nounces it a hard school. " You know the 
children are of the lower class — nobody 
could teach them." But within those 
rough natures are hearts that throb in 
sympathy with any teacher who has enough 
humanity or common sense to touch the 
proper chord. 

Teacher, why did you not step to the 
hoard, draw the picture of a slate, write the 
names of the rivers — placing a dash after 
each— have each pupil arrange his work the 
same? Then make an examination, and 
see if the results were not more favorable. 
Teachers should place tiiodel lessons on the 
hoard, and let them remain until the idea 
of arrangement is established, and in time 
neatness is a second nature. 

Some big, wise specimen of humanity 
has said thaf " we must cultivate individu- 
ality ; let the child be natural." Well, if 
nature, iu the rough, is so desirable, why 
have we so many colleges, schools and ways 
of assisting her? What is more offensive 
to a refined nature than a great verdant 
somebody who has not improved nature by 
cultivating the powers he is blessed with? 
If the natural handwriting is so beautiful, 
why strive to cultivate it? If the natursJ 
voice is preferable, why cultivate it? If 
the natural human being is so admirable, 
let the advocate of this theory visit the 
Hottentots in their purity; if he is not 
swallowed up by the beauties of nature he 
will return a wiser and better man, and will 
ever prescriba the essence of cultivated na- 

The child who has spent ten or fifteen 
years in school, under rigid discipline, and 
has learned those habits of order, neatness, 
morality, and other qualities necessary to 
the making up of a good citizen, and has 
not learned anything from books, has spent 
his time splendidly; and from the fact of 
his learning to obey will make him a law- 
abiding citizen, which is preferable to a 
learned law-breaker. 

Writing, as all branches of education, 
must be taught iu a scientific manner. 
Until that day dawns we cannot expect 
other than inferior results. A concert dull, 
occasionally, is surely advisable, and may 
he made very pleasant and profitable, 
especially iu figures. 

The want of proper and regular slant in 
writing is caused by improper position of 
body, paper, and pen, also failing to con- 
nect and space uniformly. 

It is not necessary to say anything about 
double desks, as they are a relic of barbar- 

Most all instruction in writing is individ- 
ual, aud while very little should be said to 
the general class about position, an eye 
should be on each pupil, giving him Buch 

■j.Pm- Airi" JouitNAt. 

help as is needed to his particular case, and, 
as bo advances from day to day, the proper 
poailion will be acquind. 

Penmanship in Japan. 
By L. J. NoitM\x. 

Penmanship arooog the Jnpanese is con- 
sidered the most important of studies. 
The future of tbe child is judged according 
to its wriling. Nowliero else do children 
take such an interest in writing. A child 
who is able to write legibly is as proud of 
its attainments as Jay Gould la of being 
supposed to own the Legislature and Pres- 

New Year's time tbe Japanese have their 
great fete days. On the first or second those 
of the children who have been fortunate 
enough to learn to write, prepare as speci- 
mens of their penmatisbip, various inscrip- 
tions on pieces of paiter. These pieces of 
paper are fustened to various colored cards, 
and placed beroie the god shelves, with 
other paraphernalia. 

Oa January 15lh, the children havine 
previously built a large bonfire, llie whole 



Dto it. The 



from the fire, for the writer is thus informed 
that he will be an able penman. The elip 
that tbe wiud blows highest informs thoee 
present that its owner will bo the mostemi- 



as to the ownership of the slip blown high- 
est. In this case they follow the tiight of the 
paper until it deaccuds, and thus discover 
the name. 

Od New Year's tbe Japanese call on 
each other the same as we do. wilh this ex- 
ception : th«y do not bang a basket on tbe 
door. Tbe reason ibey do not do this is, 
probably, espl&ined by tbe fact that all 
those who can atfurd it carry present? with 
them to ttioee on whom they call, which 
signifies that the giver ii^ desirous of receiv- 
ing good services during the coming year. 
Persons who have Dot time or money to 
spare iu buying preaeuts, send their cards 
bj .ervaM.. 

So you eee it is to their interest to stay at 
home and receive calls, as I do not believe 
they would trust to a busket outside the 
door to receive presents as well as cards; 
nor do I think that New Yorkers would, 
either. Id fact, I think if we had the same 
practice ia New York we would be more 

likely to advertise iu all the daily papers 
that we are " at home on New Year's day." 

Another bad thing for New Yorkers, or 
some would call it a good thing, about the 
Japaneee New Year is : a oilier may call 
any time within two weeks after the 1st. If 
this was practiced in New York, I am a lit- 
tle inclined to think as long as there was any 
wine left the young men would call every 
day until the two weeks bad expired. 

The public officers in Japan are particu- 
larly careful to call upon their superiors; 
for you know these officials are much like 
their English brethrpu — they like to be 
toadied to. These ofKcials now dress in 
European style. It is amusing to see them 
parading around in very long tail coats, 
jackets, cloth and silk vests of all the colors 
of tbe rainbow, gorgeous cravats, the old- 

gloves : 
(This i 

ve-pipe hat — and, above all, 
enough to put their feet in. 
saying much for European 

)De or two men cannot afford to 
of clothes, they form a syndicate 
or corporation, and buy a suit jointly, and 
then the fut and lean, the tall and small, 
take turns in dieplajing their elegant (? ) 
toggery to those on whom they call. There 
is no watfred stock, however, in this corpor- 
ation, neither can yoii buy on margin. As 
long as the pants go below the knee, and 
the coat does not trail on the ground, the 
wearer considers himself eminently respect- 

Ways and Means of Payment. 


A very curious and interesting suhjfct in 
commercial science is the ways and means 
of payment. Whenever an obligation has 
been incuried, some way should be found by 
which to discharge it. In the world of bus- 
iness we are concerned wilh obligations of a 
pecuniary character. These obligations may 
be fiT services, or for property, or for both. 
Iu primitive society llje general sense of ob- 
ligation was very feeble for the reason that 
at that time tbe moral sentiments were uu- 
devebped ; men knew little of thoir rights 
and of the obligations which are the out- 
growth of those rights, for every right has 
its correepondiog obligation. Were there 
no rights there would be no obligations. 
The fact that the individual has the right to 
eojoy the fruitB of Ma own Ubor carriea with 

it the obligation to pay for those 
when used for the benefit of others. The 
moment that the right of an individual to 
work for his own benefit, is denied, the mo- 
ment he is deprived of that right, he ceases 
to he free and becomes a slave ; the fruits of 
his toil are appropriated without compensa- 
tion by others. But as tbe man becomes 
free, and bis right to himself, to his labor, 
and to the products of his toil become rec- 
ognized, respected and protected, he de- 
mands compensation ; and whoever receives 
his services, whoever obtains from him the 
products of his labor, must pay for it the 
price agreed upon. There is no one thing 
connected with the operations of trade that 
has shown more advancement, that has 
called into esercise more ingenuity, or finer 
intelligence, than the subject of payment — 
tbe ways and means by which, in tbe inter- 
course of trade, men discharge honestly, 
rapidly and conveniently the obligations 
which they have to one another. 

There was a time when the world was so 
backward in its knowledge of this subject 
that it knew nothing of that wonderful ia- 
atrument — money. Gradually, however, it 
began to exercise its inventive ingenuity 
with reference to finding tho best ways of 
effecting exchanges, and in making its pay- 
ments it resorted to many rude and clumsy 
devices. It used shells gathered from the 
sea; it employed cattle, nnd it used the 
coarser metals and other things for this 
purpose, until gradually, by experience, it 
learned tbe inconveniences of these things 
for such a purpose. Finally it came to a 
point where tho precious metals were 
brought into use. Gold and silver were 
found to piissees the qualilies rtqui-ite f-tr 
money; 8..mething that would measuie val- 
ues and that would be taken as an equiva- 
lent; something that would be accepted 
everywhere and by everybody in payment 
lor services or for properly. 

But by degrees the world discovered that 
the pr'^cious metals, convenient and suita- 
ble aa they were, did not meet fully tbe re- 
quirements of society in making tbe pay- 
ments which were necessary in the discharge 
of obligations arising out of trade and com- 
merce. The iutn.duction of the art of writ- 
ing among tbe more euliiihiened and ad- 
form and expression to thpir obligations in 
the shape of bills of exchange. This little 
instrument of writing introduced into the 
world at an early period in mercantile his- 
tory, in tbe history of commerotal inter- 

course, became the most important agency 
in effecting payments, and has remained so 
up to tbe present time. It is called tbe 
great instrument of commerce because it 
does the grpat work of effecting ptymenta 
necessary to be made in connection with the 
exchanges of property which are constantly 
taking plaoe. 

Were no property exchanged, if every 
man kept what be produced and did not 
transfer it to others, or others did not trans- 
fer to him, then money would not be neces- 
sary, then other ways and means of pay- 
ment would not be required. But men do 
not find it to their interest to keep what 
they have;. but better to part with much 
they produce in ordfr to obtain things which 
they want. In this way they supply their 

If every person having anything to part 
with could readily find another person or 
other person? having ju«t the things that 
he wants, who a'so wanted the things which 
he ha« to part with, then exchanges could 
be effected without the intervention of 
money or other means of payment. Prop- 
erty would pay fur property. But since it 
Sfl.iom happens that exchanges can conven- 
iently be made in this way, but must be ef- 
fected through the agency of a class of mid- 
dle men, known as mprohants, who buy 
our surplus and sell to us as we reqnire, 
money bpcomes indispensable to this kind 
of social intercourse. N"t only is money 
necessary, but these other inptrumeuts which 
[ have spoken of, the draft being the nnost 
important representative. Id your transac- 
tions here, yon have much to do with this 
instrument; you learn something of its na- 
ture, of its utility, and of the rules of law 
which govern it as the obligations of the 
parties and of the rights of those through 
whose hands it may pas«. 

There is one way in which payments are 
fff-cffd which is very interesting, and, I 
think, quite simple, of which, perhaps, you 
have not thought, and yet il is one which is 
perfectly familiar to you. You have in your 
daily work exemplifications of this method 
of payment: it is by the use of money on 
account. Not by tbe actual delivery of coins, 
or bank bills, or anything that is Ungible, 
but by the simple setting of values against 
values arrange.! in the form of debtor and 
creditor in your books of account. A«. for 
ernnple, you open an account with John 
Do -, and through the year you have current 
dealings with him, charging him od one 
side of the account with the value of every- 

thJDg that you transfer U) hiui, and creditiug 
bim with nil values which ho transfers to 
you; yon have here in this statement of 
your deatingB used monoy of account, in 
giving erpreasion to the values which you 
have parted with and which you have re- 
ceived from John Doe. At the end of the 
year you offset one eide of the account 
against the other, thug effecting a Bettleinent 
by money of account whicli gives expression 
to the values exchanged between you. Had 
you used coins to pay for everything ex- 
changed between you, a considerable amount 
would have been required for thia purpose. 
I need not remind you that gold and silver 
coins are made out of sub-iitancea, the supply 
of which in the earth is limited, and these 
substauces are only obtained by hard labor; 
that hence, in perfecting the ways and means 
of payment, any thing that will economize 
or save this vast expenditure, will promote 
the general good. 

The illustration which I have just given 
you of one way in which payments are 
effected through the instrumentality of 
money of account will sliow you how we 
economi2e in the transactions of trade. Now 
every account which appears in your books 
is conducted on this principle, which I have 
tried to explain to you. Looking at your 
ledgers in the light of this illustration, I 
think that the accounts which stand there as 
representations of the dealings which you 
have bad will rise into dignity and interest 
which they before have not had. You see 
in them a greater use than you ever saw be- 
fore, and at this poiut I had better leave the 
aubjeot to your reflect 

that 1 

est Tuesday I will 
ject, and show you how some 
and means of payment have con 
and how they work practically. 

the sub- 
her ways 

The recent rowdyism and paper-wad bat- 
tles at Columbia College have been well 
telegraphed over the country. It was Co- 
lumbia College, wasn't it, which decided not 
to admit women-students, on the ground 
that it would lower the intellectual stand- 
ard!— iVeio York World, 

Russia baa a population of 98,700,000— 
ninety-one per cent, can neither read nor 
write. Great Britain and Ireland has a pop- 
ulation of 35,250,000 — forty-six per cent, 
can neither read nor write. China has a 
population of 410,000,000 — twenty-three 
per cent, can neither read nor write. United 
States has a population of 50,200,000 — 
twenty per cent, can neitlier read nor write. 
Japan has a population of 3U,:J00,000— six- 
teen per cent, can neitlier read nor write. 
Germany has a population of 45,194,000 — 
twelve per cent, can neither read nor write. 

Educational Fancies. 

known, the 
urteny from 

Kducational Notes. 

New York. Br 

ions for this Department may 
B. F. Kkllky,205 Broadway, 
ief educational items solicited.] 

Harvard College received $173,000 froQ 

There are (i.OOO An 
Jerman Universities. — . 

the TJnivi 

tre eighty Amerii 
sity of Berlin thia 

The highest honors at Yale last year were 
borne away by representatives of Minnesota 
and Colorado. — Ex. 

The Columbia School of Arta numbers 
290 this year. Columbia's grand total is 
1,520.— College Journal 

The Freshman Class of Cornell has rep- 
resentatives from Russia, Spain, Brazil, 
Central America, Germany, Australia and 
Canada. — Ex. 

The University of Texas has an endow- 
ment of $5,250,000 and 1,000,000 acres of 
land. The co- educational system has been 
adopted, and there will be no military.— 

Mexico. — Compulsory education is en- 
forced at Matamoras. Children found on the 
streets during school-hours are arrested; if 
the parents cannot give a reasonable excuse 
they are compelled to pay a fine which goes 
into the school-fund. 

In the Salem (Mass.) Normal School 
there is a class of girls learning carpentry. 
Their teacher is the principal of the school, 
Mr. Hagar. Last year a Maine girl, a grad- 
uate of Vassar, re-shingled her father's 
house and built a porch, just for the fun of 
it.— New York World. 

Speaking of the Harvard Annex again, 
the girl studenu there take especially to the 
languages, living and dead. Of the forty- 
eight jToL-g women in the eighty Universi- 
ty courses opeu to the sex, thirty-five are 
taking Greek. Two Texas girls sold their 
binds In the Lone Star State to pay for their 
education. One lady, who received the Har- 
Tard diploma, ban established a classical 
aobool in Montana.— iV«o York World. ' 

item used in this department 
proper credit is given. A like 
others will be appreciated.] 

A medical writer says children need more 
wraps than adults. They naturally get 

Prof.: "Now, gentlemen, we will rep- 
resent the earth by this hat, which — " 
Voice from the comer : " Is it inhabited ? " 
Corporal punisliment has been abolished 
in the Toledo schools, and there is a sud- 
denly increased demand for bent pius. — 
Weekly Call. 

"How do you define black as your hat?" 
said a echoolmaiter to one of hia pupils. 
"Darkness that may be felt," replied the 
youthful wit. 

The High-school girl severely reprimand- 
ed her brother for using the phrase "Not to 
be sneezed at." She says he ought to say 
"Occasioning no sternutatory convulsions." 
Pater: "Well, my boy, and how do you 
like college ? Alma Mater has turned out 
some good men." Young Hopejul: " Ya— 
as— she's just turned me out." He had been 

" Johnny," said the editor to his hopeful, 
"are you in the first class at school!" 
"No," replied the youngster, who had been 
studying the paternal sheet, " I am regis- 
tered as second-class male matter." 

President Robinson, of Brow 
ty, remarks: "I should have i 
to opening Brown University 
except tha* it would be harder 
than before." He seems to be well posted 
touching the feminine nature. 

Nine American coUegea have adopted the 
Oxford cap. This is well. Heretofore, tlie 
only thing that distinguished a college stu- 
dent from other people has been the bad 
spelling in his letters home asking for mon- 
ey to " buy books."- £urdeHc. 

' objection 


When a Freshman doesn't ht 
the professor's question, ho says, in a sub- 
dued tone: "Pardon me, professor, but I 
didn't understand you." The Sophomore 
says: "Will you please repeat your ques- 
tion ?" The Junior says: "What, sir?" 
The Senior says: "Huh!" 

A teacher asked one of her class what was 
the first line of the piece of poetry which 
described Daniel's feelings on being cast 
into the lion's den. The youngster was 
posed. The teacher said: "Come, come." 
Thereat the boy exclaimed, Iiurricdly: "I 
know, miss; it was *good-by, sweetheart, 

School committee ( examining scholars ) : 
"Where is the north pole?" "I don't 
know, sir." "Don't know! Are you not 
ashamed that you don't know where the 
north pole iat" "Why, sir, if Sir John 
Franklin, and Dr. Kane, and Captain De- 
Long couldn't find it, how should I know 
where it iat" 

Educational Value of Drawing. 

In common schools drawing was once 
entirely neglected, because it was not 
thought to be the province of a public 
school to teach a child to become an artist. 
But the practical benefit it was to pupils 
who learned it kept the subject bef»)re the 
public, and it is now recognized that draw- 
ing should be taught, just as muoh aa 

No study develops so keenly the powers 
of observation ; the eye is constantly busy 
comparing or contrasting forms ; the mind 
is called on for judgment; thus the child 
uuconeciously acfiuires the habit of prompt 
decision ; the fingers are guided into regular 
ways of working, and order follows; the 
power of systematic arrangement grows 
and becomes habitual; neatness, however 
unattainable for some, will, nevertheless, 
recommend itself as possible to every child 
without coercion. These are the legitimate 
and natural products^power of observation, 
method in doing, and nea^ess. If it can 
thus succeed at once in training the mind, 
the eye and the hand, is it not valuable f 
Drawing will help the teacher to teach 
arithmetic. It wilt help also in all the 
other lessons, not only by relief from 
change of work, but by opeuing up to the 
teacher new avenues of approach to the 
child's mind. 

" But I can't draw ! I can't draw even a 
horse ! " said one teacher when the above 
truths wt-re stated. 

" Why don't you learn to draw a cart, 
then ? It will be easier, and just as useful." 
"No; I shall leave drawing horses, and 
carts, too, to a drawing- teacher — that is 
entirely his business." 
"Are you sure it is? " 
Drawing is now taught only as a part of 
the general plan to bring all the child's 
powers into play; not to make an artist. 
This is the very work on whicli the oppo- 
nents of this study have split. The just 
end of teaching drawing to young children 
is educational in the broadest sense; it is to 
acquaint them first with fundamental prin- 
ciples, with simple geometric forms, so that 
they will not merely observe, but, also, by 
contrasted observations, learn to know 
why ; learn to think a figure even before 
they draw it. You must first set the inind 
in motion, then through the eye the fingers 
will receive proportionate guidance. You 
should lake a broader view of this mattf-r. 
The speeiiil teacher is intended chicHy as 
your guide? He cannot, in the limited 
time allowed him, teach more than a few 
of the upper classes. Hia occasional pres- 
ence in your room is but to stimulate you 
and your pupils ; upon you rests the respon- 
sibility of teaching drawing. 

" But how could I learn to do itf " 
" Learn to do by doing — that is how you 
have learned to teach other subjects." 
" But wouldn't I have to be taught '? " 
" Then he taught. Study, and teach 
yourself. Go lo work, but begin on right 
[irinciples. Do not begin with picture- 
making. In teaching music you 
scale practice first, not on pieces. 
building the foundation must be m 
fully attended to. In teaching 
begin with geometrical forms, the 
the square, the hexagon, etc., on w 
may easily base your suet 

it; thus you will gradually advance into it 
with the certainty of finding it much ea'«ier 
to loarn than penmanship, and of course 
much easier to teach." 

" But is not drawing taught as an ac- 

"It may be, and often is; as an accom- 
plishment it is one well worth acquiring, 
but it requires long and special training, 
and scarcely one out of three hundred ever 
acquire it. You are not expected so to 
teach drawing. In your hands the subject 
is to become an educational factor in a 
general sense." 

(Note. —The teacher acted on this ad- 
vice, and found that drawing was 
a valuable means of discipline by i 
the active interest it excited, but also a 
powerful aid in forming correct taste and 
inducing general habits of neatness and 
order.)— H. P. Smith in School Journal. 

Papyrus Paper.— The 
se of papyrus paper diUes 


anufacture and 
ick to very an- 

ueed as early as 2400 B. C. 
at present in existence in a go id state of 
preservation that date back fully 3,000 
years. Its value was so highly appreciated 
that the official records of those conservative 
rulers, the Popes, were written upon it ar 
late as the twelfth century. From the Egyp- 
tians, the Greeks, Romans and other an- 
cient nations obtained this precious material, 
the manufacture and commerce in which 
formed one of the most important branches 
of the trade in those times. The principal 
seat of the industry was Memphis. It is 
somewhat singular that, although the pa- 


pyrus paper does no 
in point of durability, 
been preserved. Thia is due rather to for- 
tunate accident than to any intrinsic superi- 
ority. Many have been found in the buried 
cities of Herculanarum and Pompeii; but 
by far the greater number have been found 
enwrapped with mummies in the catacombs 
of Egypt, and preserved from destruction by 
the exclusion of the air and the antiseptic 
properties of the substances used in the em- 
balming of the dead— f?cyer's Stationer. 

A Rare 
three name 
Journal c 

Chance.— Anyoi 
I and $3 can have a copy of the 
ne year free. 


you learn that f " 
" By constant practit 
"Will you believe a 

lines in any drawing 

these that yon i 

work as it 
How did 

that there are no 
^iug more difficult than 
ke when writing t Take 
the egg-oval, or the capital stem. Hogarth 
called it the ' line of beauty.' Notice how 
accurately it is divided,in this capital letter 
S ; and that, too, without any straight lines 
to guide you. In drawing you always have 
the advantage of guide lines to help yoa 
balance the jiarts of a figure, but here you 
have none. Here is another letter made on 
the same principle, the capital stem. Thus 
you can bnild at least fifteen different letters. 
Now, in drawing, you tuust apply the same 
rule. Learn one principle and build upon 

A Flood for Sahara. — The French 
are ambitious to obtain the commerce of 
Central Africa and the announcement of 
Count de Lesseps that he will soon begin 
work on the $13,000,000 canal by which he 
hopes to pour water from the Mediterra- 
nean to flood the Desert of Sahara indicates 
that Frenchmen are solicitous lest England 
should obtain supremacy in the trade which 
ere long must How from the heart of Africa 
to Mediterranean ports. Should England 
restore the tranquility of the Soudan a rail- 
way will soon be built from SuaUim on the 
Red Sea to the last cataract of the Nile, a 
distance of only 310 miles, and thus Eng- 
land will obtain the trade of 50,000,000 
Soudanese. By converting the Desert of 
Sahara into a sea, France not only hopes 
to give Tunis and Algeria an insular posi- 
tion, but also to make it possible for her 
ships to sail directly to Soudanese ports, 
and the construction of a railway from one 
of the projected ports of the artificial sea to 
the very heart of Africa would not be long 
poetponed, should M. de Lesseps's scheme 
prove successful. Unless El Mahdi estab- 
lishes himself as permanent ruler of the 



ihe Mediterrauea 

toward the 

gress froi 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty cents for one- 
fourth gross of "Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

~:v-S"!'->''"'^»«''" -JouKNxt'; 

Some Requests Complied With. 

Fr.Mii W. H- T,, Troy, N. Y.— I have 
iiipl t'ern roadiog your editorial articles 
ou IiHBdwritiDg iu The Metalworker of 
Decfiiiler first. Tliey are good— very 
good, iodeed— but may be bettered by your 
giving a facsimile representatioD of the 
telegrapbio Btyle. Please do bo. I fancy 
that my etyle ia good. To write it, a i)er- 
8on Deeds a etylographic pea. Livermore's 
is a good one, but I think Caw's ia better. 
Now, allow me to asl:, what kind of a pen 
do you, Mr. Editor, prefer and use when 
you can t Have you a special choice of 
ink— liitlo paper f Alflo »ny mode of hold- 
ing the paper, and how do you hold the 
pent All these may seem unimportant 
trifles, but the fact is, email things make the 
most ot life, and 'Fpe Metal-worker sliould 
wield the pen aright as well as the mallet. 
If you would give a /ac-simile of your 
writing, and especially of your phiz, it 
would be tip top. 

Answer.^We are much flattered by our 
correspondent'e requests, and being in all 
things extremely good-ualured, it gives us 
the greatest pleasure to comply with them 
to the fullest extent. 

Whether the seuior editor of The Metal- 
worker writes a good hand or not depends 
upon how it is regarded. In his own Judg- 
ment it is " as clear as type," though not 
without some peculiarities and eccentricities. 
Some people affect to consider it difficult to 
read. Mr. Florence, in his character of 
Hon. Bardwell Slote, M. C, when asked, 
"Do you singf" replies, "Those who 
have heard me eay I don't." We allude to 
our chirography with equal modesty, and 
without venturing to affirm whether or jiot 
we write well, will answer; those who have 
to read it are not unanimous in conceding 
that it is the best thry have ever seen. We 
lately wrote a long letter to a friend iu 
Albany, and in the course of a week got a 
reply to the effect that he had been able to 
read mott of it. To show the entire injus- 
lire of any such aspersions, we reproduce 
herewith a psge of the Editor's average 
" copy " — the kind he makes on Friday 
mornings, "just as we go to press." It is 
perhaps a little unusual in some respects, 
but no one who reads it will be able to con- 
ceal his surprise wheu we tell him that the 
printers will persist in making mistakes in 
setting it up. We have always attributed 
this to inattention on their part, and a yield- 
ing to the almost irresistible tendency which 
besets printers to indulge iu the discussion 
of politics, base-ball and religious creeds 
during working hours. Our handwriting is 
BO nearly like that in which some of the 
dispatches sent us are written that it will 
serve for purposes of illustration of the tel- 
egraphers' style. In paesiug, we may say 
that whatever may be said of our writing, 
it is iutinitcly better than a good deal that 
comes to us. We have framed in our office 
a letter received about six months ago. It 
went the rounds of the office and then came 
back to the editors. We wrestled with it 
until patience ceased to be a virtue, and 
then we hung it up, with the following 

Five dollars reward will he paid to tlie 
person who will read this letter. 

Ten dollars reward will be paid for the 
writer, dead or alive. 

As to pens, we are sumewbat caprioiuuB 
iu our taste. We have used everything 
from a Gillott 303 to a marking-bruBb. 
We have to change oDce or twice a week. 
Just now we are using stub-pointed steel 
pens. Last week we took a turn at goose- 
quills. Souietimen a chewed stick is rest to 
the weary muscles; occasionally we try a 
lead poucil. It makes very little difference, 
ao long as we change often enough. 

Our corrcspoudent asks for our portrait. 
We had modestly refrained from publishing 
it, but since it is asked for we yield to the 
long-felt want amd give it. The artist has 
selected a characteristic attitude. The 
Editor has found on his table an eight-page 
Dewapaper which baa been eent him — not 

but neglfcts 

:change, but a copy specially 
ini personally. The sender 
o see something that is in it, 
nark the article. So he 
,d not finding anythisg of 
interest he begins a laborious search by 
pages. Our illuBtration represents him thus 
engaged. What he says when he don't 
find anything to repay the searh would 
usually be printed thuB: 

The Story of "Blind Tom." 
Early Liff. of teie Musical Prodigy. 
Eccentric, but not an Idiot as 
Ci BRESTLY Reported. 

A few days ago I accidentally learned 
that a lady, whose home is in New Orleajis, 
but who is temporarily visiting in this city, 
could tell me somethiog about Blind Tom's 
early life, and I accordingly went to see her. 
To the first question that would naturally 
be asked, she replied: 

" Yes ; I can tell you all about him. My 
father owned him. Blind Toui's father was 
foreman on my father's plantation in Geor- 
gia. A foreman, you will understand, is one 
who is placed over the other slaves on plan- 
tations where they do not have white over- 
seers. Tom's mother was our cook, and as 
such her room adjoined the kitchen. The 
slaves, as you know, have separate quarters 
and live a short distance from the house. 
The kitchen was close by, and Tom's moth- 
er, the cook, was frequently in the rear 
rooms of the house, and several of her chil- 
dren, of whom she had an extraordinary 
large number, would follow her around. Af- 
ter Tom had familiarized himaelf with his 
new surroundings, be became bold enough 
to creep from the kitchen out into the halls 
towards the parlor, where his acute ears 
w»mld catch the sound of the piano. His 
mother iu the kitchen would then miss him, 
and ruQ to drag him back, each time ad- 
ministering a severe beating. But the child 
went back, all the same, and listened. Af- 
ter a while father's attention was attracted 
to the child, and told the mother to let him 
stay where he was. When we let him come 
into the parlor, the little imp went.wild with 
delight. Before be could stand alone, be 
would draw himself up and commenced 
striking the keys." 

"How old was Tom when he began to 


"Tom could play any ordinary music and 
a few more difficult compositions before he 
was four years old. He would creep to the 
piano and play before he was able to walk, 
and could sing Scotch ballads before he 
could talk enough to ask for bread. All he 
needed was for some one to play so that he 
could hear and he would immediately play 
the piece without varying a particle. I re- 
mejuber well, a few years after, when Tom 
became more proficient and had learned to 
talk, seeing Tom grope his way into the 
parlor, and, approaching the piano, say to 
the lady who was then playing, ' I can play 
that belter than you can. I'se a gen'us, I 
is.' And flure enough he did, although he 
had never heard the music before." 

"Has he ever tried instrumenls other 
than the piano?" 

''Oh, yes. He can play on anything. 
The tlute is his special favorite. He has a 
beautiful silver flute with silver keys, of 
which be iB very proud. When he gets 
stalled he will sometimes play all night — 
until the chickens crow in the morning. 
Next to the flute the piano is bis favorite, 
but he can execute music ou any species of 

" Has Blind Tom had or needed any as- 
sistance in his musical achievements?" 

"He has the very best kind of instruct- 
ors, although it has been at limes difficult 
to obtain a teacher who would not be less 
proficient than the pupil. All that Tom 
wants IB some one to play new music for 
him, and be nuly needs lo hear it played 
once. Some years ago father took him to 
Paria to see if he could not be made to see, 

and no efi'ort baa been spared to give him 
a good education. The Btory that Blind 
Tom is an idiot in everything but music is a 
popular error. His eccentricitieB when on 
the stage are mistakeo for idiocy, when in 
fact Tom is frantically delighted or be- 
witched, if you please, over the mus 
making or hearing. Blind Tom is n 
well educated, but refined. He does not use 
the negro dialect, and can carry on an intel- 
ligent oonver&alion with anybody. He is 
affectionate in disposition and is devoted lo 
all the family, who are equally as fond of 
him. When my boy was born Tom was 
much afraid that his place in the family 
would be taken by another, and he fell very 
badly about it." 


Editors of J ovR^w.. What can I say to 
pacify the troubled Bpirit of ambition which 
seeks the herculean task of collecting the 
autographs of a nation's chirographers? I 
have written to " Jeremiah," " Mary Ann," 
and Julia of Cheyenne, to assist mo in this 
matter, but have received no response. I 
promise now, in this public manner, that, if 
more liberal returns are not made, I will re-, 
for the whole matter to Frank and George 
Washington, wheu I meet them at Roches- 
ter. Be patient, friend Vogel ; the list is 
on the ic crease, and promises a healthy 

One reason, doubtless, that more do not 
support this scheme is that they do not de- 
sire to send out their work until due prac- 
tice has been given, and they are convinced 
that their efforts will meet the approval of 
competent judges. It might be wise ( par- 
don me, for I mean uo ofi'eDse ) that others 
should profit by the silerit example, ami 
withhold their autographs until a more pro- 
Remember that this thing is in its in- 
fancy, and that it will not bear too much 
forcing. The members of the B. E. A. A. 
have not recovered from their sea voyage 
sutficiently to acquit thimselves creditably. 
Wait yet a little longer. Everybody appre- 
ciates the efforts of the Journal, and oue 
by one they will respond to the original 

I have not forgotten my promiee to (Ho ) 
zanna. Permit me to announce the grand 
international autograph exchange that will 
take effect July lllth, at Rochester, N. Y. 
If you fail to go, never complain again. 
Until then rest in peace with all men. 

With malice toward noue, and love for 
all, I remain, a friend to the entire profes- 
sion, C. H. Pbikcb. 


Friend Ames: I was amused, enter- 
tained, and delighted, but not profited, on 
reading the reports and discussions on the 
very important aubject of "Business-writ- 
ing" at the late Convention of the Business 
College Managers of America, at Washing- 
ton, D. C 

No good, or but little good, will result 
from -these discussioDB, unless they are based 
on solid facts, and reasoned from right prem- 
ises. We all agree hu this: good business 
penmanship, aa we understand it, when ap- 
plied in conducting and recording the im- 
mense volumes of business in connection 
with the manufacturing, trading and carry- 
ing interests of the commercial world, con- 
sists in legible, rapid, uniform writing, at 
an average speed of from thirty to forty-five 
words per minute. We differ, first, as to 
what really is good business-writing after it 
is executed; and, second, as to the best 
methods of teaching it in our business and 
other schools, so as to produce the desired 
results in the shortest possible time. This, 
also, gives rise to the question : Can good 
business- writing be produced in the school- 
room? or is it only developed in the nature 
of things by practice and experience after 
leaving the schoolroom, and entering upon 
the duties of business life? 

I do not propose, juBt now, to discuss any 
of these queBtions in detail; but to offer a 

suggestion, which, I think, would form a 
safe basis for future discusaiona. 

Let us have a contest at the Roobeiter 
Convention, next July, open to all who de- 
sire to compete, as follows: 

Each competing college to furnish twenty 
letters. Ten of these specimens lo be spec- 
imens of writing at the time <)f leaving 
school, and ten after leaving, time unlimit- 
ed ; or make a limit, if deemed desirable — 
say, five years after leaving. The writera 
of these specimens should not be advised as 
to the object in securing them, but to be 
written as everyday business lettera are, 
with no object of competition in view. The 
decision to be made by a committee consist- 
ing of three business college principals, who 
are not teachers of penmanship, three who 
are special teachers of penmanship, and five 
good busimen men of experience, as follows: 

{ 1 ) Which college produced the best ten 
specimens of good business- writing on leav- 
ing the schoolroom ; also the best ten after 
leaving. Alflo, which produced second and 
third best. A majority of the committee 

{ 2 ) After the decision and report of the 
committee has been accepted by the con- 
vention, have the moat Buccesaful competi- 
tor, or bis teacher of writing, explain his 
method of teaching. 

(3) To be followed by an expoaitioo of 
the method of the second and third success- 
ful competitors. 

( 4 ) Discussion of the report and meth- 
ods, by membera of the Convention. 

C. C. Cochran. 

Illegible Signatures.— It has been 
said by one of those wise acres whose name 
haa been unfortunately permitted to periah 
that an illegible handwriting is an indication 
of mental greatness. There have been 
great men who have written poor hands; 
there havo been likewise millions of great 
idiots. There is not one man in a hundred 
who writes his signature ao that people can 
read it. A gallant army officer, who was 
the swell of his regiment, used to consider 
it the thing to make two strokes in lieu of 
a signature — a little and a big flourish. He 
could affi.rd it. His father was rich. But 
a poor man cannot afford to be an ass. He 
should be competent at leaBt to sign hia 
name in such a way that there conld be no 
mistake about it. — New York Commercial. 

How TO Become A Hoosbkebpbr. — 
" Bread ! " exclaimed a Vassar College girl. 
"Bread! Well, I should say I can make 
bread. We studied that in our first year. 
You see, the yeast ferments, and the gas 
thus formed permeates everywhere and 
transforms the plastic material and then — " 
"But what is the plastic material you 
speak of ? " " Oh ! that ia commonly 
called the sponge." "But how do you 
make the sponge ?'* "Why, you don't 
make it; the cook always attends to that 
Then we test the sponge with the ther- 

mometer and hydi 
instrumenta, the i 
remember, and tin 
cook, and I don't 1 
it then, but wheu il 

a:id a lot of other 
ot which I don't 
id it back to the 
'hat she does with 
i OD the table it is 

just splendid." — Chicago Saturday Herald. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you oruer either onr 
"New Ctmipendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed on 
year; aleo, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Guide 
to Self- Instruction in Artistic Penmanship 
( in paper covers'; 2S cents extra in cloth 
Price each, separate, $1. 



Pabliahed MontMy at $1 per Ye 





To rU who remit |1. we will m^l Ihe JOURNAL one 

O " Arti.™oViaD.h?i.^^or,' for irA"«^c«py 
teand In ololh. For ti, " Ame.'. Guide (n Self-Inatruo 
cid Um "Slantlanl Precti 


foUowing: n&med work*, vii.: 

The Centennial Plotore of Progreu 22x28. 

" PIoQrUhed Eagle 24.33. 

" Boondintt Slag ^4x32. 

•' Lord'! Prayer i^\-24. 

" Oarfleld Memorial 1 t>x24 , 

- FHmlly Record 18^22. 

" Marriage Certtfloale 18x22. 

SnbMriber* can receive any olher copiw than that oi 
their ohoioe, If ordered with their ■ubeoriplion. at 25 centa 


To any pemon lendiDg their own and another name as 
■nbMribera, enolotmg f2, we will mail to earh the 
Journal and premium one year, and furward, by return 

For three namee and n we will forward the large Ceo- 
tonnlal piotnre. 28x40 In, ; reluilg for *2. Or, a oopy ol 
either >-Amet'e Guide to Self-lnRtruolion " (iuolotb), or 
the "StftDdard Ptsolical PenmHuship." 

For twelve •ubecriplloni and 112 we will eend a copy 
of "Amw'e Compendium of Ornamental Penmanghip,'' 
price t5. Or, a ivipy of " WlUiamB iL Packard's Qeme 



New York, March, 1884. 

purpose ] 
There i 

Chirographic Clubs. 
any of our cities and large viliagee 
7 organized clulie, whose primary 
t promote the cause of good 
18 is a very eomniODdable idea. 
9 scarcely a village of five thousand 
inhahitante in America which does not con- 
tain a eufGuient number of persons inter- 
ested in good writiug, as teachers, learners, 
or admirers, to conelitule a large and inter- 
dBting club. And why not let this interest 
lerve as a basis for organization and asso- 
ciation as eifective as base-ball, crioket, 
whist, and many other things of a far less 
utility, but which are honored with clubs in 
nearly every town and hamlet in the laud. 
Not only may such clubs be made powerful 
inoenlives and aids to good writing, but 
they may also partake of a social and liter 
ary character, and thus be the instruuten- 
talitiea of doing great good in many direc- 
tions to all their members. Not only would 
Buoh clubs be serviceable directly to their 
members, but indirectly to the whole com- 
munity; for they tend to popularize good 
*^\tiDg not alone fur its utility, but as an 
; .uomplisbment. A good aud well-ooQ- 
40€t«d club, in all our large cities and vil- 
l%Sn, would soon ureabe a popular enthusi- 

asm in favor of good writing that would 
reach our school-teachers with demands not 
to be passed unheeded for more effective in- 
Btructions in writing. 

Great manual skill io any art is only the 
se(]ii6Qce of a preconceived ideal. Cunning 
handiwork is performed only at the behest 
of the more cutiniog and skillful contriver 
—the mind. Thus, if the mind can be brought 
to conceive and think perfect ideals, the 
hand will be skillfully guided, and will tend 
always higher aud higher toward their re- 

Now, the discussion and comparison of 
different systems and styles of writing in 
club-rooms will serve as one of the most ef- 
fective means for the cultivation of a correct 
taste, and the formation of high ideala of 
good writiug, at the same time that the as- 
sociations will tend to enkindle and foster an 
enthusiasm and care in practice that will 
lead on to certain improvement in writing. 

We shall be pleased to extend any aid in 
our power to promote the organization and 
interest of chirographic clubs, and to pub- 
lish from time to time items of interest 
which they may furnish to the Journal. 
We believe that every special teacher of 
writing in public or private schools should 
at once initiate a movement for a club. He 
may thus not only promote his own pro- 
fessional and social ioterest, but that of 
the cause of good writing. Certainly he can 
do nothing that would tend more to popu- 
larize and dignify his calling. We shall be 
glad to hear from the fraternity upon this 

Public School Penmanship. 

Editor of the Tribune: Sir, I am as 
patriotic as Alderman Duffy and quite as 
indignant at the needless employment of 
foreign labor, but I wish to mention a small 
piece of personal experience. I have just 
had occasion to have copied an important 
manuscript. I sent to several offices for 
specimens of handwriting, presumably from 
public-school graduates, though I did not 
stipulate for such. The penmanship was in 
every instance so unfit for the purpose of 
engrossing, that I was at last obliged to 
employ " a Briiish subject," whose clear and 
elegant cbinigraphy made him the success- 
ful competitor. Alderman Duffy should 
look to it that the children in the public- 
sohools are taught something better than 
mere copy-book "systems." If we are to 
exclude the Chinese and the " British sub- 
ject" from our industries, we most see that 
our youth are as well trained. 

Yours respectfully, 

John Smith 
Orange, N. J., Feb. J4th, 1884. 

We clip the foregoing item from the 
daily Tribune for the purpose of comment. 
In it John Smith expresses a feeling shared 
extensively by all classes of patrons of our 
public schools, viz., that writing is very iu- 
differently taught. A writer in a late num- 
ber of the Teachers' Institute says, and 
we believe truly, " If other branches of our 
English education were taught as poorly as 
penmauehip, the cry would go up cursed 
be the schools of our country." And why 
is it that writing, which is universally ad- 
mitted to be one ot the most useful of all 
attaiumeDts, is thus neglected? First and 
chifjli/ this is due to the indifference or in- 
competence of school officers and boards for 
examination of candidates for public school 
teachers; by them good writing seems to 
be ridiculously viewed as a sort of a spec- 
ial gift, lilest be he who possesses it, and 
unfortunate but blameless he who does not; 
for, not having the "gift," he is no more 
responsible for bis senseless scrawls than for 
the length of his nose or the color of his 
eyes and hair. Who over knew a certificate 
to be withheld from 
from his bad writi 
teach. Can teacher 
any very great 

teaching is waited. Why trouble ourselves 
about a thing the fates have already fixed t 
And were this ridiculous idea a known and 
demonstrated fact, many school-boards and 
teachers could scarcely give themselves less 
concern about writing than they do now. 

In order that writing should be etficiently 
and successfully taught, school officers, 
teachers and parents must come to the sen- 
sible and true conclusion that good writing 
depends no more upon a special gift than 
any other branch of education, and can as 
certainly be aciuired as can proficiency in 
any other branch ; and would-be teachers 
must be held reepoufible alike for their own 
bad writing and the poor results of their 
teaching. The chief talent for good writing, 
as in all other studies, is stick-to-it-ive-ness. 
Good copies must be carefully studied, and 
patiently practiced ; and with the proper 
attention to position and movement, no pu- 
pil having common sense aud one good 
hand should fail to write a good hand. 

While we have thus taken Mr. John 
Smith for oiir text and become his advocate, 
we must not lose sight of one phase of his 
complaint, which we by no means desire to 
defend, viz., that our public schools slwuld 
graduate engrossers ; also, his insinuation 
agaiust the style of writing Uught in the 
words "mere copy-book systems." First, 
that which is generally recognized as a good 
hand for engrossing is a specialty nearly as 
much as is the Chancery hand, the German 
text, or old English, and should be no more 
taught in a public school. In the business 
and social world we often hear writing 
classed as biisines?", corresponding, engros- 
ing, clerky, literary hands, etc. Now, the 
peculiarity of style which gives ris 
designations grows out of 

practice, will certainly lead to a good hand- 

It is through such analysia that there 
comes to be formed in the mind a correct 
aud excellent ideal of writing, which the 
hand, as the willing implement of the mind, 
will ultimately acquire skill requisite lor 
transcribing. Practice will make perfect il 
we think perfection while we practic«. 

Modern vs. Ancient. 

"There is nothing new under the sun" 
was a very unwise remark of a reputedly 
wise old king. Yet how often has it been 
repeated, apparently in the siucerity of be- 
lief, by cavilers at the host of innovations 
that have ever since been coming in conflict 
with ancient doctrines and beliefs respect- 
ing every branch of human thought and 
action I Wheu Solomon, reigned, the man 
who could read or write waa so rare an ex- 
ception as to be an object of curiosity and 
mystery, Schoolhouses and education for 
the masses were unknown, nor did the 
common people possess a right to property, 
liberty, or even life itself, that he, as their 
king, was bound to respect. Tbey were as 
completely subject to the will and caprice of 
the king as were his sheep and oxen. No 
law or power stood between them and his 
will and purposes. The lives and welfare 
of an entire people were as nothing when 
weighed in the balance against the pleasore 
and purpose of a king. 

Solomon with all his wisdom and glory 
never saw a printed book or a newspaper. 
He never heard of a pust-office, sent a tel- 
egram, or talked through a telephone. He 


in the olass-i 


of after 

. the 

ons aud occupations into which the 
pupil may at some time enter. 

Now, as regards the copy-book system, 
that it might not be improved we do not 
say; but that it is really excellent, and an 
immeasurable improvement over the old 
method, wherein each teacher placed be- 
fore the pupil the varying scrawls of their 
hands for copies, we do atBrm. The first 
requieile for successful teaching and practice 
of writing is good and uniform copies. In 
this respect, copy-books at present used in 
our schools are vastly superior to any writ- 
ten copies, and through their aid, with 
skillful illustrations and criticisms by a 
teacher with some enthusiasm upon the 
subject, no pupil need fail to acquire a good 
copy-book style of writing, which will be a 
good base for any ot the different styles 
desired, and may soon be modified and 
adapted to any of the specific purposes. 


what teachei 

from endeavi 

date for teaching 
incompetence to 
peeled to attach 
iportance to the result of 
a branch, so trivial in its 
be scarcely cousiJered 
in determining their fitness to become a 
teacher? The general impression seems to 
be that having the gift, a pupil is bound ul- 
timately to become a good writer in spito oi 
bad teaohing; and not having it, good 


How to Become Proficient 
Writers and Teachers. 

Who has not beard over and over the re- 
mark, in connection with learning to write, 
practice makes perfect"? And 
: suffered annoyance 
teach pupils how to 
write, who could never be induced to do 
more than to thoughtlessly and carelessly 
practice, or, rather, ropeat the copy placed 
before them? In which case the falsity of 
the assertion that "practice makes per- 
fect " was painfully manifest. 

Practice to end in success must be with 
studious care. The object of all practice 
sliould be to overcome faults and to acquire 
facility of motion with the pen. Now, no 
fault can be corrected or overcome until it 
is first discovered and its exact character 
understood; and this can only be done by 
thoughtful criticism, a searching examina- 
tion of efforta previously made. The most 
effective method for this is to analyze one's 
writing according to prescribed rules and 
principles. We thus not only discover our 
faults, but the eye and judgmert become 
ttWoated respecting form, proportion, spac- 
i^gj ii^.int, shade, and, all the essentials of 
good writing, which, united with persistant 

other conveyance equal in comfort ac 

lodern lumber-wagon. He 
roQ plow-, a power -loom, 
mpass. While the Mrs. 
Solomons never saw a range with hot and 
cold water — to say nothiog of a sewing- 

machine, a patent washer, 

A single regiment of men, 
moderu implements of war, ^ 
almost instant flight the mo 
army King Solomon ever saw. 


armed wii 


if armed i 
No mh\B, 

r enjoyed the privilege 

al by jury, and no 

ar presumed that the earth % 

i olhei 

flat surface, around which the 
sun, moon and stars revolved every twenty- 
four hours, and that lliey were, as they ap- 
pear, mere tiny objpcts, exisling simply as 
attendauts, and for the convenience of the 
earth. Solomon veritably believed in the 
ends of the earth, and that rain was poured 
from the windows of heaven. Thunder was 
to him the voice of a disturbed deity. 
Comets and meteors were heavenly messen- 
gers presaging war, famine, pestilence, or 
other dire calamities, which were deemed 
to be the judgments of an offended deity. 

* Ames's Guide to Self-instruction 

in Practical and Artistic 


The issue of this work was delayed some 

mentioned in 

two weeks beyond the 
the February number; but it is now ready, 
and all orders will be filled by return of 
mail. During a single week nearly one thou- 
sand have been sold and mailed aa pre- 
miums to subscribers to the Journal, and 
wo are certain that our patrous will unani- 
mously pronounce this book the most thor- 
oughly practical and useful to teachers and 
learners, and especially to home aud office 
learners, yet published. Single ciqiies, by 
mail, iu paper, 75 cents. Haudsomely 
bound in stiff' covers and gold stamp, $1. 
Mailed, aa a premium (in i)aper), free t<» 
every subscriber remitting $1 for one year's 
subscription to the Journal, and full bound 
for $1.25. 

Sia^lo copies of the Journal sent on 
leoeipt of price, 10 oeuts. 

VKl .iOlUVAI. 



lii b> 

The above cut is plioto- en graved from 

Penniaoebip." This is the moet comprehensi' 

of Off hanci Flourishing, upward of forly slandard 

isU. cenificares, title pagea, etc., etc.; io ajl, SEV 

mailed free, as a premiiim, to the eender of a club ot twelve aubscribefB and $VZ 

be at libertj to return it, aud we will refund to them the full amount paid. 

ad Artistic 

■and-ink copy, executed at the office of the JOURNAL, and conetitutee a part of a page rf Ame^ 
id practical guide, in the entire range of the penmaa'a art, ever isBued, comprising a romplpic loi 

■ ornate alphabets — two of which are represented above— and over twemy 11x14 plates of commeicial dpsigns engrossed reaolui. , ™^^„,- 

11x14 ioi-li pkteH. It contains numerous examples of eve,ry speciea of work in the line of a professional pen-artist. Price, by mail, $5; 
"^ .. . . .1 ipt of the book, be diBsalisfied with it, ihey shall 

) the "Journal." We hereby agree that, should anyone, < 

The King Club 
For this month numbers sixty-two, and 
comes frum the Spoaceriaa BusloeBS Col- 
lege, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Queen Club numbers ^//y-mtie, and 
was sent by W. \V. Bennett, penman at 
the Spencerian BusineBS College, Cleveland, 

The third club in eize numbers fifty-six, 
and is eent by L Asire, penman at Archi- 
bald's Business College, Minneapolis, Minn. 

One nuuibering forty-six was bi nt by J. 
Howard Keeler from the Grand Rapids 
(Mich.) Business College. One of thirty- 
four by F. P. Preuitl, principal of Pre- 
uitt's Fort Worth (Texas) Business Col- 
lege. Thirty from W. H. Patrick, pen- 
man at Sadler's B. & S Bueiness College, 
Baltimore, Md. Iwenty-five from W. R. 
(ilen, penman at Rider's Trenton (N.J,) 
Business Cullege. Sixteen Irom A. C. 
Jones, penman at Nelson's Business Col- 
lege, Spriogtield, 0. 

Smaller clubs have been very numerooa 
— never befure equalled in the history of 
the Journal. To all who have thus 
given euch substantial evidence of their 
apprei-ialion of, and good will tuward, the 



. that ^ 

shall earnestly endeavor to 
give full reciprocation for the growing pa- 
tronage of the Journal through its own 

Who should Subscribe for the 


Every lady or gentleman who would 

make an effort for the improvement of their 

wriUng at home or in their plate of busi- 

Every teacher and pupil of ^vriiiug in our 

Every parent who has sons or daughters 
whom he would have become more inter- 
ested or efficient in their writing. 

Every school-officer who would be fa- 
miliar with the highest standards of writing 
and best methods for its instruction. 

Every admirer of good practical or artis- 
tic penmanship. 

The January Issue Exhausted. 

So unexpectedly numerous have been 
subscribers since January, who wished to 
begin with the year, that Jhe several thou- 
sand copies reserved for back numbers have 
l>een entirely exhausted ; but in order that 
the course of writing-lessons by Prof. Hin- 
man, which began in that number, may still 
be complete to those who may in future wish 
to begin with the year, we shall at onco 
reprint that porlion of the January number 
containing the lesson, together with cuts 
showing copies, reduced in size, of six of 
our premiums, viz., the Bounding Stag, 
Spread Eagle, GarBeld Memorial, Lord's 
Prayer, Family Record, and Marriage Cer- 

Business-writing Again. 

The Penman's Art Journal for Janu- 
ary c.onlaius the first of A. H. Hinman's writ- 
ing-lessons, in which he lays out his work and 
measures somewhat the ground he proposes 
to go over. Hinman is a splendid penman, 
a strong, original teacher and a fearless 
d if he does not dig up something 
new on the subject of teaching 
wnime we are mistaken in the man. The 
Art Journal is very wise in getting s-jch 
teachers as H. C. Spencer and A. H. Hin- 
man to conduct the writing-lesBons. 

Tlie Record missed the historical article 
from R. C. Spencer, and hopes the readers 
of the Art Journal may urge the writer 
to continue them umil the subject is com- 
plete. The etory of P. R. Spencer's life, and 
the subject gf writing, should be 

told I 

and I 

itable person t 

be found to tell the story th; 
cer of Milwaukee. 

The Art Journal has lately contained 
some good thoughts on the subject of 
" Practical- writing," by which we presume 
it means " business writing." We wish 
Bimie of the wise men among the business 
educators would explain just the difference 
between " praotical-writing"aud " business- 

Why is it that while the Art Journal 
and other penman's papers insist so strong- 
ly upon the supreme importance of practi- 
cal or lousiness writing, they very seldom — 
indeed, if ever— present an illustration of 
Simon-pure business-writing! They have 
little trouble in presenting every form and 
style of ornamental or artistic penmanship, 
but why such a scarcity of business -writing T 
If none of the penmen can produce snob a 

specimen, then let them borrow a slip of 
real business- writing from some book- 
keeper, correspondent or business manager 
who is known in business circles as a good 
business writer. Failing in this, let them 
call upon the students of the business de 
partmeot of the Jacbsonville Business Col 
leee, and secure a few specimens of business 
writing, with which to illustrate the subject. 
Business-writing, according to the penman- 
ship publications, is a thing to talk about, 
but never to see. What says the Penman's 
Art Journal?— /actsomui/e (III.) Col- 
lege Record. 

At the close of an article on " Business- 
writing," in the December number of the 
Journal, we extended an invitation to 
teachers and others to express their opin- 
ions upon that subject, and also upon our 
manner of treating it; and we now extend 

eludes Brother Brown — to forward speci- 
mens of their business writing, or that of 
any other persons, which present their 
highest ideal of good business- writing; also 
specimens of copies which, in their exper- 
ience or judgment, are the beet calculated 
to enable the pupil to acquire such a hand. 
If such specimens are written with good 
black ink, we will endeavor to give them a 
showing in the Journal. 

Our Exchanges. 

Sawyer^s Universal Penman, after a sus- 
pense of nine months, comes with all the 
assurance of a regular visitor in good stand- 
ing, without apology or even an allusion to 
its loug absence; but, upon the other hand, 
its editor invites notice from the Journal, 
through an article headed "A Jealous 
Spirit and the U.P.," from which we quote, 
as follows : 

The jealous spirit ( T ) who presides over 
the destinies of an excellent American pen- 
man's journal seems deeply grieved at the 
rapid and steady growth of the Universal 
Penman into popular favor and usefulness, 
and tries to carry a false impression to his 
little constituency as to the permanency of 
our enterprise. To this malicious attack 
we would simply replv that our paper has 
been published since March, 1878. ... It 
holds a poeition in Canada among Ligh- 
claas journals, at once imposing and unique. 
. Really we are Burpriaed t£al mix Amer- 

ican editor should be so blinded by his prej- 
udice or jealousy. 

Now, this is a rather long and severe, if 
not wicked, indictment, and it has several 
counts, to each of which we are, of course, 
called upon to plead. 

First, to that of "jealousy" we enter a 
full and complete denial. A thing that has 
been undeniably a corpse for the past nine 
months could scarcely excite our jealousy 
" through its rapid and steady growth," al- 
though, as one of the mourners, we might 
be open to the charge of being "grieved." 

Second, to the charge of " presiding over 
the destinies of an excellent penman's 
journal" we see no escape from a plea of 

Ihird, to the charge of trying to convey 
false impressions, etc, we plead not guilty, 
claiming full justification for all we have 
said by facts. Month after month the U. P. 
failed to come, and three notes of inquiry 
failed to bting it, or an explanation, while 
numerous mquiries came to us from persons 
who had sent their money for subscription, 
but could neither get the paper nor a re- 
sponse to their letters; and now, greatly to 
his discredit, Mr. Sawyer mails the first 
number of his new resurrection as if it were 
a regular issue, with no explanation for the 
long suspense, but rather chooses to hnrl all 
manner of charges against us for venturing 
to furnish, through the columns of the 
Journal, /mc^ for which he should have 
offered an explanation and apology. 

To convey an idea of the venerableneas 
of the U. P., its editor says that it has been 
published since March, 1ST8. Now, since 
that date there have been seventy -one 
months, calling for as many numbers of the 
U. P.; but this latest resurrection is num- 
bered fifty. The editor thus unwittingly 
furnishes a clue to the number of months 
{ twenty-one ) that hie enterprising sheet has 
passed m hibernation aince the date of it* 
first issue, an aggregate of nearly one-third 
of the numbers during its pretended exist- 
ence skipped, and, according to our files and 
mformation, its claim to fifty issues iu 
enty-oM mouths is all that fact* wiU war- 
rant; ba. that would undoubtedly be ample 
to juutify itg editor's modest but undoubtedly 

truthful claim for it, a position at once 
"imposing and uniqtte" amoogat the high- 
class CaDadiau journals." 

Now, for the final charge that we are 
blinded by "prejudice," etc, this is simply 
the edit()r's mistake. We are without prej- 
udice or ill-will toward the U. P. or its edi- 
tor; but, upon the other hand, we have 
entertained the kindliest feelings toward 
both, as has been evidenced by the many 
friendly notices which have appeared from 
time to time iu the Journal, as well as 
our long forbearance to mention or comment 
upon the capricious appearance of the U. 
P. And finally our advice to the editor of 
the U. JP. is to make a truthful statement 
of the facts, offer a suitable apology to his 
patron, and tbeu publish his paper accord- 
iiig to programme, or make a manly anounce- 
meut of bis inability to do so, and then quit. 
And should he succeed in the former, we 
beg to assure him that he will find no more 
courteous and friendly contemporary than the 
JouRNAl>. In a good and reliable Canadian 
penman's paper, the Juuhnal would recog- 
nize a powerful friend and ally rather than 
a dangerous rival and foe. 

Heald's Business College Journal, Ban 
Fraucisco, Cal., is publislmd monthly, and 
13 among our most entertaining and spright- 
ly exchanges. 

Tlie Chirographer, published, monthly, 
by E. K. Isaacs, per $1 a year, at Valpa- 
risn, Ind., is a well-edited and interesting 
paper devoted to poumanship. In each 
miiiiber are well-illuslrated lessons in Hour- 
isliing and lettering. 

The College Journal is published, month- 
ly, under the auspices of Willamette Uni- 
versity, Salem, Oregon, at $1 per year. It 
contains umch interesting editorial matter 
relating to educ;itiou on the Paci6c coast. 

Tlie Educationist is an education month- 
ly, published at Topeka, Kan-, for $1 per 
year. It is sprightly, and full of interesting 
educational matter. 

The Illustrative is a beautifully illustrated 
quarterly art jourual, lately issued by the 
Mrtss Engraving Co. of this city, at fifty 
cents per year. The first issue ( January ) 
coQtaius fac simile reproductions of fourteeo 
interesting and beautiful works of art. It 
is printed iu the highest style of the art, on 
a fine quality of paper. We are sure that 
every number of this publication will be a 
rare treat to all lovers of art. 

Clark's Commercial College Journal, Erie, 
Pa., is a fine-appearing college paper, well 
printed, and edited with creditihle ability. 

The School Journal, published weekly 
for $2 per year, by E. L. Kellogg & Co., 
21 Park Place, New York, is one of the 
leading educational journals of the country. 
Every number contains a fund of informa- 
tion of use and interest to teachers. 

The leacher's Institute is also published 
by Messrs. Kellogg &. Co., monthly, for $1 
per year. It is devoted largely to Institute 
work, and is an interesting and valuable 
edncatinnal i>ubli(:a1ioD. 

The School Bulletin is published, month- 
ly, by C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y., at 
$\ per year. It is one of the best conducted 
edui-ational papers of the times, containing 
interesting school items from all parts of 
the Empire State. 

The Business College Record, Jackson- 
ville, III., is among the most interesting 
and valuable of our exchauges. Although 
it has sometimes been slightly mixed on 
the subject of business writing, it averages 

The Cosmopolitan Shorthand Writer, by 
Bengough and Yeick, at Toronto, Canada, 
for $1 per year, is a spicy and interesting 
phonographic magazine. Its illustrationa 
are amusing and highly suggestive. 

The Educational Journal of Vireiuia is 
an in to resting educational paper. Pub- 
lished, monthly, by Wm. F. Fox and K. 
R. Far, at Richmond, Va., for $1 per year. 

The JHochester ( N. Y.) Commercial Be- 
view, published by Messrs. Williams and 
Rogers, of the Rochester liusiuess Univer- 
sity, has no superior among the college pa- 
pers of the times. Its columns are filled 
with sousible matter, edited with ability, 
and printed in%ood stylo. It is a live ex- 
ponent of B live institution. 

Home School and Business is the title of 
a fine-appearing four-page sheet, lately 
issued by Dell Morse, 79 Madison Street, 
Chicago, for fifty cents per year. 

Journal of Education, New Orleans, La., 
is ii thirty-six- paged magflzine containing 
much valuable iiiforniatiou relating to 
schools and education iu the South. It is 
finely printed and well edited. Mailed for 
$l.r>0 per year. 

The School Supplement is an educational 
monthly — the first number of which is 
before us, and is one of the most interest- 
ing of our exchanges. It has twelve pages, 
same size as Joubnal, and about the same 
quality of paper; the typography is excel- 
It is No. J in a double sense. Published 
by Eaton, Gibson &l Co., Toronto, Canada, 
for $1 a year. 

Conspicuous among our educational ex- 
changes is the Canadian School Journal, 
published, monthly, by W. J. Gage & Co., 
Toronto, Canada, for $1 per year. It is a 
well-edited and able exponent of educa- 
tional matters in the Dominion. 

The Stenographic Messenger, hy Mr. 
Stanislas Diussky Keifl' (Russia), is a 
handsome eixteen-pagcd magazine devoted 
to the interests of shorthand. In its pros- 
pectus it is announced as the only periodi- 
cal devoted to shorthand in all Russia. The 
subscription price is six roubles ($300) 
per year. 

The Exponent, by George Cross, A.M., 
and George Yeager, M.A., Bloomiugton, 
111., is H monthly publication, devoted to 
the interest of the eclectic system of short- 
hand, of which Mr. Cross is the author. It 
is a magazine that canuot fail to he of 
interest to all shorthanders. Terms, $2 
per year. 

Brown's Phonographic Monthly, for 
February, is, in its typographical appear- 
ance, far better than usual. D. L. Scott 
Brown is its presiding genius, at 23 Clinton 
Place, New York. Mailed one year for $2. 
Single copies twenty cents. 

The Notre Dame Scholastic is published, 
weekly, under the auspices of the Notre 
Dame ( Ind.) College, lor $l..50 per year. 
It is among the best edited of our ex- 
changes, while it is chiefly devoted to col- 
lege matters. Each number contains sev- 
eral pages of well-written editorials of 
general interest. 

The Agent's Herald, Philadelphia, Pa., 
is apparently impressed with the belief that 
it has a mission, and tliat to expose and 
fight fraudulent advertising. It certainly 
deserves praise for the fearless and ener- 
getic manner in which it sets about its mis- 

The Practical Educator, by H. A. Mu- 
maw, Elkhart, Ind., is published, quarterly, 
for twenty-five cents per year. It is a de- 
cidedly interesting little sheet. 

The Student's Journal, published hy A.J. 
Graham, at 744 Broadway, New York, for 
$2 per year, is the ablest and most enter- 
taining of the numerous phonographic 
journals that reach our office. Probably 
no American has brought to bear upon 
shorthand greater ability and industry, or 
contributed more to advance the interest 
and standard of shorthand, than Prof. Gra- 
ham, and anyone interested in shorthand 
will do well to send for his Journal. A 
single copy may be had for 20 cents. 

Remember, you can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; 
or & $1 book and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your MendB a favor by teUiug them. 

Win. K. Beaty is conducting a penmanship 
inelilution at La Grange, Ind. 

A. D. ChiBholm, priacipsl of Casnovia 
(Midi.) High Sdiool, haa a epfcial evening 
class iu writing, numbering fitly pupils, 

C. C. Cochran, who has tor several years 
past been principal of commercial deparltneut 
of Ceuiral High School, Pittsburgh, Pa., is 
about to go West to engage in other business, 
whillier he will carry the best wishes of many 
warm friends, among whom we wish to be 
numbere.!. He retjuests ub to Bay tu ihoBe 
who liavc seut Hiflograpbs for exchtinge that 
they will receive attention aa soon as he is 
again located. 

A. J. Uider, proprietor of the Treuton 
(N. J.) BusioeHS College, has isBued an ele- 
gant little pamphlet, entitled, "A Souvenir of 
the Eighteenili Anuivereary and Commence- 
ment" of that luBtitulion. 

W. B. Herlocker is teaching large classes iu 
writing at Freeport, 111. He is an accomplished 
writer, and is deserving of hi<i Buocess, 

In a former issue we mentioned Mr. James 
W. Westervelt as special teacher of writing in 
public Bcliools of Woodstock, Ontario, which 
is a miBtake. He is the principal of a buniaera 
college in that city. 

In a late number of the Unicn City { Pa.) 
Times, we find a highly complimentury notice 
of a 8j>ecimen of penmanship executed br Prof. 
N. R. Luce. It is described as follows : 

re pre 

lul very beautifully poi 

'n together," e 
trayB the leeeon. 

excellence, and « 

Luce stands without a riva 

skill and power over the pi 

piece of slipplfi work iu which light and shade 

are wonderfully blended, pioducing a masterly 

effect iu expression, in which each creature 

exbibite iu appenrauue the nature peculiar to 

its own epecies. 

Prnf. Luce is a* enthusiastic disciple of P. 
R. Spencer, Sr., of whom he received instruo- 
tione in the Log Academy (Jericho) at Geneva, 

J. E. Soule, of the B. &, S. Business College, 
Philadelphia, Pa., is the deserving "victim" 
of a growing, prosperity, and, therefore, needs 
more aBsistance. Any young man ipialilied for 
a good position will do well to read Mr. Soule's 
advertisement in another column. 

L. MadarasK seems to be about as much of 
an autocrat in the card-writing bueiness as is 
Barnum among showmen, and, for the same 
reason, both give the worth of the money. If 
you want a card as nice as a card cau be, send 
to MadaraB/. Several letters and card epeci- 
ed from his peu are among the very 


J. B. McKay, special teacher of writing in 
the seboole of Kingston, Ont., writes a hand- 
some letter, and sende several specimens of 
writing exhibiting the improvement made by 
pupils during a period of less than five months. 
The specimens are highly creditable to teacher 
and pupils. From the numbor we are reijuested 
to designate the one which exhibits the greatest 
mprovement — that, in our judgment, is the 
one written by Master Frank Auglin. 

Geo. K. Levy, Richmond, V«., writes a 
handsome letter, in which be says: "Have just 
bad the uumberB of the Journal from May, 
1882, to January, 1883, hound, and a more per- 
fect eeleciiou of matter relating to penmanship 
could not, in my judgment, have been selected. 
The Journal is worth five and twenty times 
ita Bubacription price to me, and many otbere, 
I suppose; and it is due to the Jouknal alone 
that I have made such improvement iu my 
penmanship in the last two years." 

G. P. Farley, lately with G. A. Gaskell, of 
Jersey City, N. J., is having good suooees 
teaching wriling-olas8e» at RockviUe, Couu., 
and vicinity. Mr. Farley is a good writer and 
brlmfull of the iiuai'»«r in tnodo ; just the man 
to take with lads and lasses. 

E. IT. Heald, proprietor of Heald's Business 
College. San Francisco, Cal., baa regnined bis 
health which for some years past has been 

A. A. Clark, special teacher of writing in 
the public schools of Clevelaud, Ohio, in a 
beautifully- writ ten letter, says: "I know of 
nothing that gives as liberal retnrns for so 
small an investment as that of your valuable 
Journal. I have all the numberB siTice itR 
publication; they have cost me $6.7r,. and 
could not be bought for ten times that sum, if 
they could not be replaced. 

Geo. K. Lansing sent twenty-eeveu speci- 
mens of tvriting by us many pupils, ranging 
from nine to thirteen years of age, members of 
his writing-clssB at the Academy, Medina, N. Y. 
We have rarely seen so many really excellent 
Bpeciraens from one class of pupils fo young; 
they give evidence of efficient work by both 
pupils and teacher. Mr. Lansing is a tine 
writer, and evidently unites with his writing, 
skill and a genius fur teaching. 

H. W. Wesco, who has for eome yeara past 
conducted the penmanship department of the 
Portland ( Oregon } BuBiness College, is about 
to retire from the profession of penmanship for 
that of music; lience, there is a vacancy for a 
good teacher. Those wishing to apply can ad- 
dress, A. P. Armstron,^, Principal, Portland, 
Oregon^ .-_^ ^ _- 

[ Persons sending specimens for notice in 
thie column should see that the packages con- 
taining the same are podtage paid in full at 
ItiUr ratf». A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come ebort paid, for sums ranging from 
lliree cents upward, wbicli, 


I pay. 


1 for a gratuitoUB E 

have befiu 


F. E. Mandeville, penman and card-writer, 
Olean, N. Y., a letter. 

E, M. HiintaioKer, Providence (R. I.) Bubi- 
nesi College, a letter. 

J. W. Harkim. of Hiuman'i Worcester 
(M«M,) Bueineee College, a letter. 

W. L. Parka. La Moile, 111., a letter. 

W. R, Olen, of the Trenton ( N. J.) Busi- 
neea College, an elegantly-written letter. 

A. G. Coonrod, Mitineapolie (Minn.) Acad- 
emy, a letter, with club of ten subscribers for 

C. A. French, PoBloffice, BoBlon, Maes., a 

A. C. Webb, Nashville (Teiin.) Institute of 
PeumauBhip, a letter, BouriBbed bird, and 

W. V. ChambelB, Cornell UniverBlty, Mount 
Vernon, Iowa, a letter. 

BuBiussB College, 

O.) BuBinees Col- 
et of capitale. 

Wm. H. Watson, Chelsea, Vt., a letter. 

Frank P. Loin, Baltimore, Md., a letter. 

0. H. Monger, Warringto 
ished bird. 

, Im 

.. n 


Mary A. Philip, Waukesha 


ftde t 

e c 


of crediting her with a letter 



ly her 

brother Robert, of Sacrammilo 




the correction, but we are i 




Mary's elegantly-written leltei 




A. B. Katkamire, Farminglu 

n. N. 


a lel- 

ter aud cards. 

J. D. Briant, Kacelaud. Li 

. Bpe 


BUB of 

birds and flourishing. 

A. W. Dakin, Tullv, a ti 

ue s, 

aen of 

epistolary writing. 

C. W. Slocum, Chilliooihe, Ohio. 


L. W. Hallelt, Millerton, Pa., a 

etter and 

several tiourished birde. 

A. M. Harris, Sharpsburg, III., a letter and 
flourished bird. 

J. H. Bryant, Spenoerian BusinesB College, 
Washington, D. C, several beautiful card 

Mort Smith, Utica, N. Y., a letter and tiour- 
ished birds. 

W. A. .lurK^ui., Nexvporf, R. I., s letter, in 
which he Bayn: "I take iliree other paper*, 
but the JoiMEXAL is the beat aad tha obeapeat, 
and would be, abou'd you raise it« price to that 
of all the others combined. 

O. Tliompaon, of the LiverpooI^CEng.) Bub- 
ineas College, a lett«r. 

B. L. Burnett, penman of the Elmira ( N. Y.) 
Buaineaa College, a Houriahed bird, a plioto- 
graiih of a very fiue Bpecimeu of pen drawing, 
eatitled, " Moses auil the Princes"- also a 
photo of his owu winning face. 

A. M. P. Drouin, 8te. Pamille d'Orleans, 



. Kelley, Nasbj, Mo., a letter and flour- 
ished quill. 

R. S. CoIIius, Goodmnii'. 
Nashville, Tenn., a letter. 

I College, 

C. O. Prince, AmberPi, Ohio, a letter and 

D. MoLachlan, of the Canada Business Col- 
lege, Oatario, a most elegantly-written letter, 
and list of subscribera to the JouUNAL. 

G. Hiirat, Lebanon, Pa., a lel 

, Ohic 

.nd cards 
., a lettei 

L. Madara 

;, oard-writer, New York, several 
en letters, and elegantcard speci- 

C. T. Marah. Londou. N. H., a letter, cards, 

T. J. Kisinger, Spencerian Businesa College, 
Detroit. Mich., a letter. He eays : "Count me 
215 pounds avoirdupoie toUd, for the Jour- 
nal every time." 

J. W. Harkios, Hinmsn'a Business College, 
Worcester, Mass., a letter, and a pholo of a fine 

B. M. Worthiugion, Lake Side Busii 

lege, Chicago, 111., a letter in superior 

F. P. Pre 

B Cnl- 


Fori Worth, Texas, a letter. 
H. A. Stoddard, Bockporl ( III.) Busineas 
College, a letter and club of BubBeribers, 

D. H. Farley, profeflsor of penmanehip and 
book-keeping in the Female Normal College, 
Trenton. N.J. .a letter. 

R. W. Cobb. Champaign ( III.) Businesa 
College, a letter and club of Bubacribera. 

J. W. Swank, Waabington, D. C, Treasury 
Department, a letter. 

William J. Allberr, a studeut at Cady's Me- 
tropolitan BuainesB College, N. Y., a letter and 
several specimens of plain writing, Mr. Alt- 
lierr'p hand is so greatly deformed as to pre- 
sent, apparently, an insuperable obalacle to 
bis handling the pen. Yet he has triumphed 
over misforliine, and now presenlB a hand 
whose aymmelry and ease a majority of hie 
i^ompanionB, blessed with a aymmetrical right- 
hand, may well envy, but elrive in vain to 

J. P. Donald, with the "Willard Tract So- 
ciety," BoetoD, Mass., a letter. 

L. A. Martin, card-writer, ConnerevUle, Ind., 
a letter and several well-written carda, 

E. C. Crichton, Atlanta, Ga., a flourished 

E. K. Uaacs, editor of Chirarjrapher, Valpa- 
raiso, Ind., a letter. 

S. A. Drake, principal of Clark's TitUBville 
{ Pa.) Busineae College, a letter. 

G. T. Optiiiger, Slatinglou, Pa., a Family 
Record and Marriage Certificate combined, 
engraved from pen-and-ink design by Mr. 
Opliuger. The print is on heavy card-board, 

-2-i X 28. 

8 an iugenioua and intereating 

W. R. Glen, penman at Rider's Trenton 
(N. J.) Business College, an elegantly-written 

If jon itesire lu have the very best aid to 
.>flf-.ioi)r.iveinent iu practical and artistic 
ppnuiauahip, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's " Guide to Self-iu.struction iu Prac- 
tical and Arti.^lio Penmanship" ( in paper 
covers) or $1 for same nicely bound in 
thick covers. It tells you all ahout writ- 
ing, liourlsliing aud lettering, and how to 
learn. If you are not pleaaed with it you 
may return it, and we will refund the cAsb 
by return mail. 

Position for Flourishing. 

A corretipoudent asks if we will not ex- 
plain the positioTi ami manner of holding 
the pen for nourishing the Italiuu capitals. 
Wo comply, as, no doubt, the information 
will be valuable to many of our readers, and 
we also give cuts illustrating position and 
an elegant set of Italian capitals, reproduced 
from '• Williams's and Packard's Gems," and 
which also appear in our " New Guide to 
Self- instructiu n ," 


The cut below represents the correct 
position of the hand and pen while in the 
act of flounsliing. 

It will be observed that the hand and 
pen is reversed so as to impart the shade 
to the upward or outward stroke of the 
pen, instead of the downward or inward 
stroke, as in the direct or ordinary position, 
while writing. 

Sit square at the desk, as close as is prac- 
tical, and uot touch it — the left hand resting 
upon aud holding the paper in the proper 
position, which must be always in harmony 


We copy the following from the Albany 
Evening Journal, of February 21st. 

Lilian Bruen Folsom. 
Last Friday Liliaii Folsom was to all ap- 
pearances the embodiment of health. Sun- 
day night she passed over the dark waters, 
and yesterday her remains were laid "at 
r^st." To her father and mother the blow 
falls with crushing, aRonizing force. Lilian 
M-as the older of Professor Folsom's two 
daughters. She was to his home circle a 
light and joy that will be missed sadly in- 
deed. We all love to think of the good 
qualities of departed friends j but words 
cannot describe the purity anTl beauty of 
childhood, or the sorrow that comes to the 
parents' hearts when their child, just blos- 
soming into young womanhood, is ruthless- 
ly snatched from them by the hand of 
death. When one like Lilian Folsom, uf 
lovable, unassuming disposition and gen- 
tleness of character, is taken from the 
home, the heart, indeed, bows down in sor- 
row unspeakable. 

* Lilian waa her father's almost constant 
couipanion ; she gave promise of a bright 
and talented womanhood, aud upon her 
was lavished all that a kind and loving 
father and mother could bestow. She in 
return gave to them the great, deep, un_ 

Autograph Exchangers. 

In accordance with a suggestion in a 
previous numbtr, tlie following-named per- 
sons have signified their willingness or de- 
sire to exchange autographs, upon the 
Peirceriau plan, as set forth in the August 
number of the Journal: 

C. C- Copliran, Ceolral Uigh Snbool, Pillsburgti. I>a. 

R. H. Mariufr. Columbus ( Ohio ) Buaioeu Collsge.' 
WilBtm M. Tylor. Mamliall Seminary. EmIod, N. V. 
J. W. Brow, Kwkak. Iowa. 
J. Vf. FUber, Brunswick. Mo. 

W. B. Ernst, Sherwood, Michigan. 

s College, Roobuter, N. ' 

with the position of the hand and pen. 
The penholder is held between the thumb 
aud first and f..refingers— the thumb press- 
ing upon the holder about two inches from 
the point of the pen. The first finger is 
bent at the centre joint, tormiug ueariy a 
right angle, and is held considerably back 
of the s-'cond finger, which rests upon the 
under side of the holder, about midway be- 
tween the thumb aud the point of the peu. 
The third finger rests upon the fourth; the 
nail of the tatter rests lightly upon the pa- 
per about one and a-half inches from the 
pen, in a straight line fiom its point, par- 
allel with the arm. The umvement em- 
ployed is that ot the whole arm, which is 
obtained by raising the entire arm free from 
tlie table, resting the hand lightly upon the 
nail of the fourth finger— all motion of the 
arm being from the shoulder, which gives 
the greatest freedom and .^cope to the move- 
ments of the pen. This same movement 
is used in striking wholearm capitals. The 
practice of flourishing will be found to 
gieatly add to the facility and grace of one's 
ordinary handwriting. Wliat dancing is for 
imparting grace and ease of movement to 
the body, Ihmrishing is to one's handwrit- 
ing. Its practice is thus of double import- 
ance, as a discipline to the hand, and as a 
separate accomplishment. | 

questioning love of childhood ; and it was 
hard to test which loved most or best, par- 
ents or child. 

The fair form of this loved one was 
scarcely leas beautiful than the flowers that 
covered her casket ( the gift of aympathiz- 
ing friends aud college students). True, 
we know that God has only taken this fair 
blossom to the home of perpetual bloom 
and sunshine. Yet, indeed, it was with sad 
hearts that we laid her to rest. 

We are sure that the readers of the 
Journal who have had the pleasure of 
knowing Professor Folsom, will join us in 
an earnest expression of sympathy in his 
very sad bereavement. 

[. K. Hosteller. Box 1603, Slerlln 
I. W. Tallman, HUlidale, Mich, 
landolpb Appleby, Jr., Summit , 

. H. Kimming. IU22 Wal«r St.. 

W. R. Posler. Troy Grove, 111. 
A. R. Kelley, careot Rilner's Basin 
W. L Mace, Mound City Commwt 
E. F. Sbsw, Plymoatb. Mass. 
O. S. Compton, Pierce. Ohio. 
J R. Diimel). Zenoiia, 111. 
W. T. Wolfe, Bryant's Dusinesi C 
Myron Ryder, Sherwood, Mich. 

Writing- Ruler. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It Is 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a re 
liable peumausbip chart and compass, sent 
by the Journal on receipt of 30 cent*. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

Tlie risk of sending properly directed mat- 
ter by mail is very sUghtj aud in alt cases 
where the remitter will hand the same to 
tlie postmaster for examination before seal- 
ing, we will be responsible for losses; and 
on the statement of the postmaster that he 
saw the money inclosed and duly mailed, 
we will cousider it the same as received by 
us. Persons directing books and packages 
to be sent by mail may have the same re- 
gistered by simply remitting teu cents ex- 
tra. All such packages are sent at the 
risk of the person who orders. 

" The Guide " { iu paper ) is now ofl'ered 
free as a premium to every persoii remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscdptiou to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound iu oloth, 
fur 25 oeuts additional. 

TuF. Pf.nman's Art Journal, devoted to 

-actical and ornameutnl peumanehip, elands 

the head of all the publicatiouH ou this sub- 

irt. It haa now reached its eighth year, and 

eeema to grow better with each issue. Every 

lover of the useful and beautiful in penman- 

ship should send $1, and secure the Pknman'S 

Art JouitNAL for one ytar.—ColUge Journal, 

Salem, Oregon. 

This is a book of eisty-foui 
eleffantly prtoted on the finest quality of 
plate- paper, and is devoted exclusioely to 
iostructioD aod copies fur plaiD writing, 
off-hand flouriBhing and lettering. We are 
sure that no other work, of nearly equal 
before the public that will 
render as efficient aid to either teacher or 
learner, in all the departments of the pen- 
man's art, as will this. Thirtytwo pages 
are devoted to instruction and copies for 
plain writing. Fourteen pages to the prin- 
ciples and examples for flourishing. Sir- 
teen pages to alphabets, package marking, 
and monograms. 

Price, by mail : in paper covers, 75 
cents; handsomely bound in stiff cover*, 
$T. Given free (in paper), as a premium 
with the Journal, one year, for ^i ; full 
bound (in stiff covers) fur $125. Live 
agent* wanted in every town in America, 
to whom liberal discounts will be given. 
Both the JouBNAL and book are things 
that take everywhere. With them agents 
can make more money, with lefs effort, 
than with any other publication they can 
handle. Subscribers and purchasers are 
delighted with, and warmly commend, both. 

Standard and Complete. 

On the occasion of delivering an educa- 
tional adtiress, President Garfield very aptly 
designated the Spencerian as "that system 
of penmanship which has become the pride 
of our country and model of our schools." 

Its latest complete American edition of 
Standard Practical Penmanship, prepared 
for the Journal by the Spencerian Broth- 
ers, is a reliable and popular publication for 

It is not sold to the book-trade, but mailed 
direct to students, accountants, merchants, 
bankers, lawyers, and professional men gen- 
erally, on receipt of $1. 

The work embraces a comprehensive 
course, in plain styles of writing, and gives 
their direct application in business forms, 
correspondence, book-keeping, etc., etc. 

If not found superior to other styled self- 
inatmctors in writing, the purchase price will 
be refunded. 

A Poem Without an E. 

John Kuox was anight ofwouilroui might, 

And tata word! ma bigh Bud .brill. 
For bol.l .ml sDnt wu IjIs Bp.rii bright. 

For tho 

ghti uitt 

Id on h 


rought b 

t pain u 

But llgh 

I at iBit 

D hia au 


Mk« lor B 


intograph hunters, in a joint letter 
to Charles Reade, asked for his signatare. 
They got it, at the end of this note: "I 
should like to knock your heads together. 
Bother autographs ! " 

A Jewish penmao in Vienna writes foar 
hundred Hebrew letters on a kernel of 
wheat, and- has written the Jewish prayer 
for the Austrian imperial family on the edge 
of a card thin enough to run through the 
slot in a three-foot gas burner. 

Short- HAND. — Isaac Pitman invented 
shorthand in 1837; in 1854 Graham pub- 
lished his "Reporters' Manual;" in I8G6 
Munson issued his "Complete Phonog- 
rapher " Munson's system is the latest of 
of the three practical systems of shorthand. 

A fragment of conversation between 
young girls; " Do you know what a pre- 
face is?" "No; do youf" "Not ex- 
actly; only I know that it is at the 
beginning of books." "Oh, well; then it 
must be the same as when we are courted 
belore entering on marriage." 

Behavior— Manners impress as they 
indicate real power. Nature forever puts a 
premium on reality. What is done for ef- 
fort ifl seen to be done for effect; what is 
done for love is felt to be done for love. A 
man inspires afledion aud honor because he 
was not lying in wait for these.— Smerfion. 

"Oh, yes," said the eldest Miss Culture 
at table d'hote the other evening, " I break- 
fasted yesterday with Mrs. Brainweight, 
and we enjoyed a delicious repast— excellent 
coffee, superior bread and piscatorial globes, 
done admirably." "What?" asked her 
friend, "Piscatorial globes," repeated the 
Boston maiden. "And what under the 
snn are theyT" " I believe, said Mrs. 
Culture, drawing herself up stiffly, " 1 be- 
lieve uncultured people call them fiabballs." 
If we could build up a solid column of ice 
from the earth to the sun, two and a quarter 
miles in diameter, spanning the inconceiva- 
ble abyss of ninety- three million miles, and 
then if the sun should conct 
er upon it, it would dissolvi 
in an hour, nor in a minute, but in a single 
second. One swing of the pendulum and it 
would be water; seven more, and it would 
be dissipated in vapor.— Pro/. Young. 

The "Guide" ( io paper) is maUed 
free to every person remitting $1.00 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the hook hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price of the book, 
by maU, in cloth, $1 ; in paper, 75 cents. 
Lib«r&l dlBoount to teaohera and agents. 

We wish our patrons to bear in mind that 
in payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
sire postage-stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a dollar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
than the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 
stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is slight — if properly directed, not 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where letters contain- 
ing money are sealed in presence of the 
postmaster, we will assume all the risk. 

1I7.V Jou, 

Normal Penmanship Depahmeni of the 
Gem City Business College, Quincy. III. 



euiin-nrly »ucc*Mfill. 

panmenl than can i>oa8ibly b« filled— aome of them com- 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
hack numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of J878 but 
December; all for 1870, except January, 
May and November ; all numbers for 1880 ; 
all numbers for 1881 ; all for 1882, except 
June; all for I8p3, but January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's writing- 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in th<? July number. Only a few copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All tbe 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 


npHUly.^".^(d''a: "* " *""°^ ow pr ee- u 

>. I. Plain Brlalolof OiltEdg* IPo. 30o. 

B. ■■ WeildiDH Briaiol liOo. 35o. 

4 1 lie lamoui'e ply. plaio bevel . 83o! «o. 


II.T.AME5. 205 HBDanwax 



LAPILINUM LStone-Ctoth). 

A $1 Book and the "Journal " one year for $1.50. 

We have made airaupements by which we cao mail the followiog described book, 
with the Journal one year, fur $1.50. Or we will mail the book, free, to anyone send- 
ing us a club of three suhscribera and $3. 

MOST usEpyi BOOK [VEO mwm 


A Perfect, Flexible Blackboard for LectarerB, [ 
Botli tlgbtlT. like ft map, ^Iboal ln,|iiry. Uneqoaled 


36 InohM wids, 1 marking »tufafx, per llD«Br yEtd, 11.50 

Pot D 

ccirreit sppllinK and 

Black Diamond Slating. 

Tht littt Li'/uUl Xlatif,!/ (without cxctptwn] 
iValis iTid iVooden Dlafkboarat. 

tiD OBOJ of rvloui BiiM. with full dlraotioM lur 


PRICES. Quart, «a; Halt-GaJIno. 93.50; Qal 


Odb qout eaiily oovere 50 tqaare feel with thi 


the Diuober uinally applied. 

Fied and gives Perfect Saiufaction 


Columbia Collefce (Scbool of Hiaee) - New Y 

ork Olt, 

Collrgeof Pbytlmena^iidSuTgeoai - 

College of tHe City ol New York - - ■ 

Col)«g« of St. Fraoois Xavier - ■ ■ • " 

Lafcyeile Colleire Ei 

St. Jubn'* College FonlUi 

Sleveoilusttluleuf Teolmology - ■ • Uobuk 

Univemity of Muiia«ippl Oxfo 

STBte Nurmal School Othk 

Biorliain Srbool Heb&nev 

en, N. J. 

nl, H.«. 

le N. C. 

N«w York Slock Exrbangei Now York Co 

100 E.. 

Coffoe Eiobange; Kon York Iron aod Melal E 


Equitable Grwn and Produce Exchange. 

In Oie Ptibtie SehooU 0/ 

WuhiDir1on.D.C.,(eiolua!Tely}. Patervoo, N 


e, N. y. 

Jeney City. N. J. Naiigatiick. 

South Orange, N. J. Knoxville, ' 




No. 1 - . • . Sito -iKJ feel .... 


:i:::: ::'^*-:. ;.;: 


Plain. Wiliioal Shelf. 

No I ISxH incbei ... 

" DUuliNlforinaBio " ■' . . 


Tkia is umvergally admitud to be the bett 
maUrial for blackboard in uae. 


IS-tf 205 Broadway, New York. 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

iLtsoclated nitb ibe objiK-tor ibp Ihought wblch 
Is Jesigneil to convey, ii may be really leurned 

e arcnmiilailon of nmele** rabhlnh ralber 

correctly noclled, phonetically pronounced ana 



;. C. H. MERRICK, 

I DOZBK cards he«t qnality. ' 


1 St., Utioa, N. Y. 

DARE BUSINESS CHANCE ! Fmm $^ 000 to tti.OOO 



S-ses St., LyoD, Mau. 

doUan for wbat would bave beeo learued by tl 

" MY FAVORiTB-PBN .eDl al »t-25 perpoM. 
IVI For iDtroduction. 35 oeota per t^oaa. Addreu 


The Double P«nbulder. receutly patebtod. admlla ol 



Sovlety, aud fuminb you w 


The 33est Fouiitaiii Pen JVIadel 

400 + 

COLi.Eev, S 

meotB, frea 
eokok. Iowa. 

400 .lop. 
fo,«3. E 




■ HonriBhe'd's.aK. niw'g.ri Inoh^foM 

9 oeoll. 
. Portland Maine. 


anI.,"hIao)t or 

in oolora." 40 
UUoa, N. T. 

ipable of producing tite flne«l 


,, . _, -7 _Jn what Is termed the Penograpb. In the Penoereph ell 

plicated coQlrlvoncesaredlapeascdnUb. AlthouKb the pen appears to be am all It 
as well aa the largest, Ii is capable of producing the flnem hatr lines aa well aa heavy 
1. The ppn Isofsolld gold, Urstquality diamond pointed. WItbb' 

above, is well calculated lo supercede all olbern-rl tin's pons aud pencils in ("ally use. lis 
„.-. i T. J ._■ J --dipping lor Ink. It la carried l' 

I The Double Penqoldeb, mailed from 
' the office of the Journal, at 90 cents per 

dozen, cna be used oblique or straight, aa 

the writer may prefer. 

Remember, that if you renew, or send, 
your subBcription to the Journal, with 
$t, yon will get a 75 cent book free, or a 
$1 book for 25 centB extra. 

Education Without Dead 

One would think Itiat tlio advocat«B of 
the classics, as the erne superior system for 
the uiifoWing »t the homan mintJ, would 
have loug »g'> aliated tlioir exclusive pre- 
teusious in face of the fa^t that such iuulti~ 
tildes fail with it, and that so iiiaay succeed 
without it. It is not found difficult to evade 
the force of the first ohjeclion that great 
nnmbers of dead-IanguHge students come to 
nothing with their classics, because it is 
said that tliey neglect their upportunitiee, or 
get far more good from this source than 
they are ever aware of. Rut it is not so 
easy to cecape tlie ohjection to the wonder- 
ful worth of defunct speech in the cultiva- 
tion of the human fflcluliea with such 
multiplying evidence as we have of great 
intellectual power acquired by a mental 
cultivation iotrt which the dead languages 
have never entered. That these studies have 
declined in consideration, and are put upon 
the defensive, and fall back upon tradi- 
tion and authority for backing, is simply 
because other inatrimients of culture in 
these modern times are not only competing 
with them but are beating them every- 
where. Accompanying the decline of the 
classics, there has arisen an outside educa- 
tion, irregular in form, unguJded by institu- 
tions, self-inspired and self-shaped, which 
is lull of great results. 

The past generation has abounded in 
nieu who have either turned their backs 
upon the universities, after tryii'g them, or 
r gone neur them, but who 
aders of thought in all de- 
ntellectual activity. The 
lio have been en- 
? loaded down with 
a knapsack of dead languages have found, 
as was very ratural, that tliey were over- 
weighted iu the competitive race of practi- 
cal life, and left behind by those whoso 
acquisiiions are better adapted to the 
new requirements of the age. 

Charles Darwin went to the university, 
neglected the classics, and made what he 
could out of it for the promotion of his 
natural history; and Herbert Spencer re- 
fused to be lured there at all. Yet these are 
the men who are guiding the mind of the 
age, while for twenty years we have been 
afflicted with the pitiful protestations of 
classical graduates ( with their incomparable 
"mental iliscipline " ) that they could not 
even understand the epoch- making hooks of 
these great thinkers. — Popular Science. 


l-Jmo.. Full Gilt, »a. 
Tt loilt make a leniaUon. 
tutbor Is without duabi tb 

who have ne' 

ed to collei 

A Tabular View. 


j's Rights. 

Bv AX Olii Bacuelou. 

The right to do 
pretty much as thoy 

The right to make 
a fuss when a follow 
stays out late. 

The right to bUinie 
everything on their 
h u s b a n d's money- 
losing or money- 
making propensities, 
just as it happens. 

The right to turn 
a house topsy-turvy 
for three weeks every 
six months and call it 

The right to make 
the old man vote any 
way they want him 

The right to a 
home, a husband and 
a baby. 

Men's Rights. 

Extra Copies ol the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 

elUve Ibat ' Cbaslity ' will s.liioHiti in riglit print 

LEWIS— "Gill- 
liumi): "Weak Luugn" ( proliuety UluBlruted) — 
Tlie Hliove liooka will be leot, poatpaid, on receipt ol 


29 WARREN ST. ( P. O. BOX 2126), N. Y. 

The Full Equipment of a -Business Man. 



The Si'FiNCFRiAN OniJtiUE Holder is approved by professional aud business penmen. 

The Spencebian Script Ruler has 
FullScript Alphabets — both capitals amUinall letters— and (en sca/es of meamrement. 

Price-list ofSPENCERIAN SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

Ivison, Blakemaii, Taylor & Co., 

3-5 753 and 755 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 

The Calligraphic Directory. 


t CaUlgrAphio " « 
e loading men in 

Thr Rkidbbb 

The "DiRPCToar" 
will Im printed on floe tinted paper, four 1 
to the page. 

AiiVERTieiNO RATES, f2.50 per inch, 
rolnmo, $16) oneooluiim, t^O. 


I, for publicaliun. Seed Id plenty ol but 
iman'B papera, college J< 

lognee, el"., will he approprlRlely acknowledged. Worka 
"Review" department. We will make the notice pay 
Cop; for pnbUoatloD ehiiuld be nent In aa aoon oa 

3-1'- C. H. RANDALL, Fairmont. Neb. 


Barcher's Assorted Colored Inks, 

Expressly prepared for the use of Penmen anil 



Brown. Cemilne. Yellow, Dark Qreen, Light Green, 

Violet, Omnge, Blue Crimson, Silver. White and Gold. 

Pill iir In one ounee bottle., eworted a. nbo.o ( except 

ge'd. ) o! ) on, doren in a tai. Sent on receipt o( tl. 

Gold, Sliver, and White, separate, by mail, 50 cents each. 


Penmanship anij Art Department 

BushneU, IU. 

iinen of Booriithlnf an 


»hip, bj 
, with In 

lapitala a 

ciplra. figures, alpha!) 

aMe-wriluig. bird*, oar 

meinorayon, paatel. 1 

oil painting, lac 


e, marine 

Peirce's Business College. 



"JVo inshtutton 
can guarantee to its patrons better results." 

ur any fiirth 

T Inforinntion you deiire. 




305 Broadway, New York. 

ved for <h 

Dirtelory, but we want a short 

Learn to Write. 


ng Shaylor'e Compendium of Practical and Or- 

pUsaaed U y 

ou would treat u ipedpl lubject at 


1 Penraanihip; designed espeoially for eelf-ln- 

i yon wilt re 

apond freely we will pay yuo well. 


ondence Una 

WEBfl F 

UMS. of the best siylejj, moluiling a Modbl 

ed deparlme 

18 will receive due allenlion. 


« Lbttkr, aeveral «y]e8 of CArrrA.lJj, Ladies' 

AddreM J, R. HOLCOMB i 

.D receipt of 15 cents, before January next, 1 will i 

I Creek, O., or Woodland 

VISITING Cards wrltlen and sent by mall at the fol- 
lowing niles : Spenoerian Script, 35 oW. per dot.-«2 

50 cte.; pen- flourished, |3. Sample*, K eta. Nothing 


thoroughly taught by moJl. or [..i-in 

$5 TO $20 

SURE! 11 


''^m M!-^''''^mn ;^^ ^^mmfmf^ ^f^ 

Modern Education. 


loriutry are begioDiog to 
see the iinportaDro of thf> practical features 
ID eilucatioo. They are no longer con- 
tented to see tlieir sons aod daughters por- 
iug over the musty tomes of the ancients, 
spending their time committing to memory 
legends of the gnds, or rhe equally fabulous 
accounts of the exploits of ancient kings 
and " heroes." Teachers are beginning to 
discover that there are brHUches that have 
a praclicftl value, the proper study of which 
will be more beneficial, as a training for the 
mind, than these old sulijects of study, 
which have for so many years constituted 
the mental food of generations now sleeping 
under the willows. When people find out 
how difficult it is to get at the exact facts in 
modern history, they begin to suspect that 
possibly some of what we have been so as- 
siduously etudying as "Ancient History" 
may not be quite accurately reported. 
Next lliey are led to wonder whether men 
who lived so long ago, before the age of 
Science or the Printing-press, could have 
been so wise as to be now the best teachers 
of the Youth of the nineteenth century. 

Teachers ( or some of them ) have found 
that hooks have been too much relied on in 
teaching, and that teaching scholars to 
think, and find out facts for themselves, 
would he better than the old methods, 
which were based oh the suppcsilion that 
the Wise Men are dead, and that the best 
thing we can do is to ga 
the stray fragments of thi 



wisdom which 
I the shape of 

" Dead Languages, 
of this age are eetting to see that they live 
in the same world in which theso vaunted 
"wise" men lived, and with vastly better 
facilities for learning facts than they posses- 
sed. Why, then, should we be so taken up 
with studying "the wisdom of the An- 
cients" to the exclusion of the vital ques- 
tions of the hour, the questions on a 
proper understanding of which our own 
welfare depends. 

We are beginning strongly to snspect 
that the useful working men and women 
are the true gentlemen and ladies, and that 
the Kings and Queens, Lords and Ladies, 
whose most trivial words and acts we have 
been so intent on studying, were only beg- 
gars and thieves, living on the earaings of 
the working people. Our ideal men and 
women now are those who do something. 
— The Practical Educator. 

Permanent Inks. — Ink-maUing has 
now become quite a high chemical art, and 
there are so many kinds of ink in the 
market that a choice is rather puzzling. It 
is very desirable that manufacturers should 
state the composition of their inks— i. e., 
of the coloring matter they contain. This 
might be done without betraying any trade 
secrets. We could tlien choose our ink ac- 
cording to its purpose. For documents of 
a permanent character, and subject to the 
possibility of intentional obliteration, the 
ink should contain mure than one kind of 
coloring matter; as, for example, the old 
tannogallate of iron plus indigo or aniline 
black, and perhaps a little copper salt. No 
Bingle chemical agent could bleach all of 
these, and neither paper nor parchment can 
stand a series of chemical aoWenta. The 
aniline inks, now largely used, are of very 
questionable durability. It is uncerUin 
whether they can endure the action of time 
alone. Supplemented with the old-fash- 
ioned iron salt, which has proved \la dura- 
bility, ihey are safe. It should always be 
understood that the indelibility of any ink 
largely depends upon the nature of the sur- 
face to which it is applied. The more 
absorbent the paper, the more difficult i» it^ 
removal, as it penetrates below the surface 
of such paper. If the paper is highly 
glazed, by covering it with any kind of var- 
nishing material the possibility of removing 
the whole surface— varnish, ink, and all, is 
increafied.— The Gentleman** Magajtine. 

Shading T Square 


iiiaiKblparflonhaliigrhentcrAdtt, wliicli rnolcnn l)e«t be alted^il byalntlnff Ihftt nmong its contribuloM are 
„_.„,_.„.. .,..- ,. T- ,....„„ ,. . MUSSELMAN, H. W. 8HAYLOR, FJELDI\0 8CH0PIELD. 


niDog and ihadioff. photo-en^ve.! lUr* 

by aid of Ibe .qna« wi.h n oommon dmfting pen. the 

line* m»y be varied, by turning a Ibumbiorew, from hki 
h> Hvsa-eLghtha of an looh. aDcTmade horicoDtollyor npon 

«Dted by the oat. We are oonstanlly luiog 

md prize them hlgbly ; a tel oJ three mailed for 20 oeot». 

II 00 per doieo. Addrau, Pkhkan's Akt Jouiuial., 



MarionvlUe, Ouoi 

daga Con 

nty. Ne 

V York, 

Otw.ral Ntwipaj. 

wr Subtcrip 

on Agtnt 


PoblUher of Swifts 




a; GrMC 

kinpa; SjinpalhelJo, 8 

kinda; Ad 

line Inka 

"CoUection No. 2" ( 

00 Recipes) 

Blaok 23 

kinda; Green, 2 ktnda 

Blue. A kinda ; Red, 7 

kinda; Conn 

ne. Quid 

:inda. Sy 



ber stampi. 

RnliDg Id 

Speolal Offer T 

be above 50 

oeDt Hand 





IUt.™.c., D. T. A. 



Something New. Novel and Practical. 


PoBillon, PenholdiDg, Muvemente. Slanta. spacing, Shad- 
ing and Forme fully tabulated and llliitlialed 
wllh over twenty cQt«, loge ber nitb a 


34-C A. B. Pabsoms, GolambDa Jnnetlos, la. 

Down to peeil any deicriplion It is aoknuwlcdgtd by all who have Bfpn it to be fqual. If 
i Iwo »1 workM la now given free to ev«ryono rrmitling one dollar — the regular sub- 

E. K. ISAACS, Editor and Publislier, 

ArtUt-Penmiui and Tcaober in the H. 1. N. School, 







For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 


The F'amous Card-writer, 

Who is well knotcn in all parts of the country, wishes to call your attention to the follmo- 
ing price-list of utritteji cards, ivhich will he found among the very finest obtainable: 


Per dot. Per 2r>, 

Style A. Plain While Bristol, good quality $ .25 $ .45 

•• B. ■■ '■ Wedding Briatol 28 .50 

'_' C. Bevel Qold-edge 30 .55 

'■ O. Slipper Uarda, aomelhing new and elegant 35 !tW 

'• H. Satin Bevel-edge, very i(yli»h 40 .7.") 

" I. Extra Heavy Bevel, 8 ply Briatol 35 ,65 

" J. The EliU, the lateat styles 35 .60 

Addreia-line«, 15 cenU per dozen extr». Elegant samples of the above cards aeut tor 15 cants. Envelopes 
Your attention is especially called to atyle E (Pon-flo aria bed). The dealgns are original and entirely new to tho 

written cards. Agents are making money rapidly taking orders for me. aa I give a lar^r commiHion than any card- 
wrilur. Send 35 o*dI» for my beautiful agent a book of samples, oonlalulng a large variety ol the moat popular »tyles, 

AUTOGRAl'fiS. For 35 centa I will tend twelve cards with yonr autograph written b twelve different 
jtylea and combinations, from which you cannot faU to choose a favorite style. 

Price, per set, 25 oenU; two seta. dilTereDt styles. AO cents; three seU, different styles, 50 cents; biialness style. St) 

SPECIMENS OF FLOURISHING, fresh fVoro the pen, S5 cents each r six aasnrtf.l speoiraen*. II 00, 
OBLIQUK FENHOLDKKS. These botdvrs are now used by all Ibe leaUiEg penman fur Ibeproduc- 

r'ewipt of° s'ZnIsTrcf .lown Yl'^l^ ' "^ ' ^ *"' """^ ""'' ' ""' *™ 

STEEL, PENS. "Dukin-a Favorite," for buBinesawridng. per oue-qiiarlfr gross. 15 oenis; (or oanl- 

DAKIM'S CAKO INK la, without a doubt, the best ink In the world for baodaome wriiiug. aa It wHtea 


mnlry. His card-writing is beaulUuI."— Pbof. A. N. PAIAIBR, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

)AKLH ; Your card-writing U very eltWBOt, and your flourishtd dwigns are very artUtlc and show 

PuoK. H. W. Puck 

[h. Pa. 

odelpUa, Pa., says: "A 

PROF. A. W. DAKIN, Tully, New York. 

PSXMAM'I) Abt Jou&hal. 



"rr;«.v...^^'^ teachers' guide. 

New Yok 


K, N. Y., A3 Second-Class Mattbr. 

D. T. AMES. Edilorand P 
B. F. KELLEV, At.oc.ale 

7Z''.°" NEW YORK, APRIL, 1884. 

Vol. VIII.— No. 4 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

NuMiii;n IV. 

By a. II. IIlNMAN. 
Copyrghted by A. .II. HlDinaD. 

The cliHracier and strength nf a wcll- 
writlen page is due Irtrgely lo an aljundatico 
of siraiglit Hues of unilonn slant. Tbo 
grace and bounty of writins is duo to 
curves. Thniughout the small alphabet 
neatly every lettirslmuld cuntain a straight 
Hue. Wo do not except the c, and e, and 
even the O and s will not appear badly wiih 
their dowawanl lines straight. See the 
fulluvriug word, voices: 

In tbe following words : 

It will be seen that the downward lines aro 
straight, «'hile the Blantiiig lines above and 
bpluff show them to be of unifurin slant 
Betn-een the slnpe-liucs the spaces areseec 
to bo of cqiwl width. All the letters lest 
upon the ^.i^e-linOj while tlio lino across 
the top slicnvs tlie shurt Ittlers to bo of 
uuifumi beiffht. The letter i is two spaces 
high ; the h, three. 

The main points to bo observed in this 
lesson aro straight uses of uniform 
slant with equal si'aciso between them. 
All letters io be of proper size, with good 
taste disphiyod in SUAUINQ. Wl 

In the next word, while the straight line: 
are f<'uud, tbey appear to be slightly intox- 

The chief fault in the following word is the 
uneven spuciog betweon the straight lines : 


Tn the next illustration tho principal fault 
lies in the imperfect 8i2e of letters : 

Id tho next, although the letters are fairly 
shaped, the bail taste in shading is the 
chief feature to 

In the following engraved words tbe lines 
are drawn across the Iftters to test their 
accuracy in straight lines, slant, spacing, 
and size, and to illustrate tho 
testing words, which wo recommend 
readers ; 

The above method of testing words may 
be applied to any word formed of email let- 
ters. As accurate writing is more due to a 
critical eye than to years nf loose rcn prac- 
tice, wc believe rapid advancemcLt toward 
accurate writiug will bo in ])ropor'ion to 
one's care iu testing and sharply criticising 
whatever he writes. To the critical eye of 
the engraver is f'ue his ability to sketch and 
ODgravo beautiful fcript, while tho general 
writing, which ho dues not attempt tu crit- 
icise, is no better than tho average. The 
slow progress of many youug peumeu is 
due to tbe fact that they give so much 
practico to the band aud so Utile to the eye. 
What tho eye fails to sec tho hand will not 
correct; and only as one maltca his eyes 
critical will his errors bo detected and over- 
come. Superior penmen are superior crit 
ics. With them tho eye is the critical 
master- the baud its trusty servant. W hen 
one imagines he sees a letter before he 
makes it then the eye will gaido the hand 
to execute it. Legibility iu writing depends 
much upoa tho Hues begiuuiug and ending 
words. The following, which some may 
call good writing, we regard as ditticuU to 

by making the first stroke of a word start 
from beliw tho liuc and carrying the last 
line of the word above the short letters, as 
Boen below : 

While tho last is an improvement upon the 
drst, wo will endeavor to show how ."lill 
greater legibility may be obtained. It will 
be seen that tho spaces between the printed 
words you are reading are erect like the 
type. This makes tho print before you 
easy to read. We thiuk that the same idea 
sliould bo carried out in writing. If the 
spaces between words Mere made, as in 
priotr, to slant the same as tho letters, the 
writing would be more legible. In the 
lirst cut below the arrows will show the 
spaces slanting about the same as the let- 




In Ihe next cut below, tho straight lini 
show the slant of letters, while tlie a 
will show the spaces bctv\cca words 
of tho slant of the lines connecting 1 
which make tho words appear to n 
g'-ther, instead of being broken apart 
the print before you: 



In the following cut the open spaces be- 
tween words is duo to carrying the lines 
beginning and ending words upward cluse 
to tho letters, instead of tUiuiing welt to 
tho right: 

E or egg-shape. In our study of inetliods 
we liave never founJ one which has been 
productive of hetter results than that of 
teaching the forms of capitals by the use 
of the E and right and left curves ; and we 
believe that those who give this method 
the proper test will find it to be a superior 
aid to grace and beauty in capitals. 

Pathetic Appeal. 

Oh I why dont people form rhelr •' 

K ought loatan 

i lor kuMednf 

Butvomodn w 

U for kiok, 

L's SDd ni> ara 


While a'»Ja»ln 

i» Old Nick, 

O'a are rarely c 


And p-» »re «taa 

[(Ky tiling* r 

(i'« might as we 


Aod r's inoaqui 

o wing: 

Some iieople m 

ke a pHMiDg 

Well, tl 

By Mary E. Martin. 

Not Antt-roa— the soul wilh oue passion 
— thatcurioiis delight of the medical fratern- 
ity, and oue that in the watching we confess 
gives tu ourselves a pleueure. It is not this 
that makes us lift a little the veil from Wil- 
liam Liodle's history. It is becjiuee we be- 
lieve so firmly that the only diflereuce be- 
tween people, small and great, rich and poor, 
is a purpose once fixed — then, invincible 
determination to do or die. A soul with one 
determination to pueh all things aside, and 
accoinplish that one. 

There was a sudden hush over the little 
town of Waverly. The wheels iu the great 
factory stopped still. The pleasant huto and 
buzz of the busy workers vanished. In and 
out of the great buildinss there was a Sab- 
bath stillness. It bad come so suddenly; 
only a few hours before all had been busy 
life. Then went through every shop jtnd 
factory the order to stop work, for the com- 
panies had failed. The workmen took down 
their coats and hats, picked up their dinner 
buckets and went out — not with the firm 
step and bappy whistle of the early morn- 
ing, but with a slow gait that showed a 
heavy heart. Their whole dependence was 
their daily wages, and where now was to 
come from the bread to fill the hungry 
mouths at home? Thny knew now that 
there was, aud there would be, a depression 
in trade, longer and more dreadful than 

It was with a heavier step than even 
many of the men moved that William Lin- 
dle approached hia own gate. As he opened 
it, be saw coming down the w»lk Maud 
Burnett. Looking up, she stopped, fur the 
expression of bis face frightened her. 

"William, are you iH> Tell me what ia 
the matter?" the girl exclaimed. 

A Bcoruful smile rested for a moment on 
the young man's face. Then he said, slow- 
ly, "No. I am not ill, Maud. 1 believe 
this world wai< only made for the rich ; a 
poor man can have bat little pleasure in it." 

" What has made you so bitter, William T 
It is not like you." 

"You will find out the meaning of it, 
Maud, very soon. There will be no more 
work in Waverly for naany a day. The 
companies have failed." 

"Maud, girl-like, could not realize all 
that meant for William. So saying, "i am 
very, very sorry," tike passed out at the gate 

which be held open — passed i 
street to ber pleasant home. 

William Lindle wat.^hed her a 
away. He knew that now he w 

uld ha 

of I 

1 asking ber to bf 

s just twonty-ono. A young 
of the iron-works. It was 

1 he was at the beginning of 
life ho should be thrown 

give up the dre 
his wife. He w 
moulder in on( 
hard that just n 
a young man'i 
out of woik. 

For several years he had supported his 
widowed mother, now old and feeble; and 
he had a dream that one day he would 
bring Maud Burnett home as his wife. Not 
to this home; but only last nigbt be was 
building his castles in air— that now he 
was a free man and getting good wages he 
would speak to Maud, and she would wait 
until he could make a prettier home. Now 
what could he offer? Was it any wonder he 
felt bitter as he turned away from the gate 
tu the hardest task he had yet before him, to 
tell his mother he was out of wornt He 
walked on to the house, and opened the 
dopr of the small room that was both din- 
ing-room and kitchen. £verythin£r about 
the room was in perfect neatness, not a spot 
on the bare, well-scrubbed fioor, with its 
comfortable rugs of home-made carpet laid 
here and there. Not a particle of dust on 
the bright polished stove or the snowy 
white curtains at the windows. Above a. 
little shelf ticked the old fashioned clock 
that his father bad bought his mother when 
they were married. On a table wilh its 

his mother bad gathered from their garden. 
In a emallchair by the window she sat knit- 
ting. All this William saw as ho opened 
the door; and his mother's sight growing 
dimmer each day, she was bending a little 
nearer to pick up a stitch when she heard 
hftr boy's well-known footsteps. She looked 
up startled, saying, "What brings you 
home so early, William t " He couhl not tell 
ber. He took all iu at a glance: the cozy 
home, the dear old mother — now no hope 
of keeping all together. He gasped for 
breatli, muttered something about being 
sick, aud went back into the fresh air. 

Ye who have even a competency, with- 
out that dread of nothing certain for the fu- 
ture, cannot know how the honest poor are 
knit together. Cannot understand how la- 
boring fur each other they love with such 
intensity they cannot bear to give each 
other pain. 

It was some time that William Lindle 
stood on the kitchen porch before be could 
compose himself sufficiently to go in and 
tell his mother. When he did, very bravely 
did the old mother meet the calamity. It 
was more for her boy than for herself that 
the tears, slowly dropped, were wiped (juiet- 
ly away with the corner of her apron. He, 
sitting, gazing gloomily before him, did not 



" Wliat shall we do now, 
said. " It would not be so bad 
had not stopped. Hundreds 
thrown out of work ; aud in 

motherf " he 
if everything 

I little town 

like this wo must starve." 

" There is One who will look out for us, 
my son," said the mother. 

"He never seems to care for the poor, 
mother. It was that smooth- tongue, canting 
Christian, Leslie, who ran off with his 
pockets full of money when he saw this fail- 
ure must come; and none of them feel it as 
we workmen do." 

" You forget, my son," his mothi 
" that these very men have given 
bread fur years, and gave work t 
father before you." 

William WAS silenced, but felt the blow 
none the less bitterly. 

How stagnant life became in the once 
busy little town of Waverly none can know 
unless they can call up a vieion of some such 
alllicted town under the great panic — early 
in 70, or they may he familiar with the 
stupefaction that creeps over Government 
employees during a dearth of work. Men 
walked listlessly about with their hands in 
their pockets, their hats drawn over their 
eyes, and with loitering gait. Some of the 

wiser moved away, and among the first 
Maud Burnett's father, who had all along 
held a good position. Poor William let 
Maud go, and ciid not tell his love— let their 
patlis separate to meet no one knows where. 

William Lindle could not leave his 
mother iu her old age, nor bad he money to 
take ber away. D iy by day, the little he had 
went. Then sickness fell upon them. Wil- 
liam himself, long depressed, fell sick of a 
slow fever. He was just able to go about, 
when his mother took to ber bed and never 
got up again. He was glad that to the last, 
no matter bow hard his own fare, he kept 
her with every comfort. At last, the tired 
hands were at rest; they crossed them upon 
the heart that would no more ache, and laid 
her away. Not one cent had William when 
the funeral expenses were paid, and all their 
little store of furniture had to go to help pay 

After all was over, he determined to seek 
some large city, and try to get work at his 
trade, walkiug, from town to town, until he 
reached the city. Numb at heart, he turned 
his back on the little town where he had 
spent all his life, trying, as he went on his 
way, to get just enough to meet his ex- 
penses. Even this he found was impossible 
— everywhere was the depression felt. He 
could not get enough to pay for what he ate; 
not yet, not yet could he beg. 

Oue evening, just before the sun had set, 
became in his walk to a small hamlet — 
jnst an inn, a small hlackemith-shop, and a 
stray bouse built here and there. Under 


, thei 

bench; on this seat Williaui threw himself 
down, perfectly exhausted and without a 
penny. The sun was aa warm, the air as 
balmy, the birds twitered to each other in 
the trees as sweetly, and the whole world 
seemed as lovely as if there was not a poor 
person in it. All this poor William felt, 
as he saw a tramp come from the back door 
of the inn with his hands full of bread and 
meat, and his pockets stuffed full for another 
oieal. William watched him as he ate; he 
would have been glad of only a small part. 
Desperately he came to the conclusion 
that he, too, would be a tramp. He did not 
care what became of bim, and be felt certain 
no one else did. He had tried to keep up; 
everything was against him. He laughed a 
hard, bitter laugh. At last he had found an 

how it looked. So, taking an envelope from 
bis pocket, with his pencil he wrote down : 

William Lindle, Tramp. 

It was written in a plain but beautiful hand, 
every letter perfect in itself, not a nerve- 
tremor showing in a line ; but there it stood 
distinct and beautiful — "William Lindle, 
Tramp." All at once, as be looked at it, 
something arose withm him ; the depression 
was all gone ; the fatigue was not felt. This 
feeling thrilled through every fiber of his 
being. A tramp t No 1 He would ho a 
business man, and through his pen accom- 
plish what he wished — never letting up, 
pushing aside every feeling, until he accom- 
plished success. Like as if he was walking 
on air he left the bench, and made bis way 
to the inn. 

Never was it more truly said that we 
never know what we go out to meet. In- 
stead of William going into the inn to seek 
what advice he could that would bring him 
employment, there met him at the door of 
the inn a traveler — a man, short in stature, 
rather thick set, with a business-like look 
out of the cool blue eyes. A man who, as 
as he lifted his hat, the bald head with its 
thick fringe of reddish hair made him look 
older than he really was. He approached 
William iu a brusque way, saying: 

" Young man, do you think It possible 
for me to find anyone, in such a wretched 
little place as this, who writes a good busi- 
ness bandt I've just come down from 

D to write out some papers, and fix up 

the business generally, for Mr. Simpson, 
who is dying. My clerk promised to meet 
me here, but he has not come. A dying 
man can't wait, sir, and what am I to dof 

Mr. Simpson is the richest man in this coun- 
try ; he has so much writing to go over, and 
I can't find a person, in a hole tike this, to 
write a decent hand. Do you know of any 
onef " 

" I have just come to the knowledge that 
I possess ability in that line, sir," said Wil- 

what I could find to do." 

"If it was to instruct these ppople, I 
should say you could make your fortune; 
that is, if they paid you according to their 
need; but let me see your handwriting f " 

William handed him tho name which be 
had written while sitting on the bench. 

"That is just the business-hand I need, 
young man; but are you a tramp?" 

"No," said William, "but had luck was 
fast pushing all the manhood out of me, I 
was on the verge of becomin,^ one when I 
wrote that; and it struck mc that any one 
who could write a plain, business-hand 


■ thr. 

" You are right, young man. My name 
is Russell ; aud, for the present, I will em- 
ploy you as my clerk. Come into the inn 
and let us have our supper, and we will 
drive over and fix up Mr. Simpson's affairs." 
In the short time it took to arrange the 
papers of the dying man, the quick-sighted 
lawyer saw William Lindle's value. After 
paying him for his services, Mr Ruesell said : 
" If you will go back to the city with me, 
I think I can find you some use for your 
ready pen." 

"It was just the place I was trying to 
reach," said William, "and I will be glad 
to go with you." 

So they went back to the city; and Wil- 
liam began his way upward, having for his 
aim only one determination — to place his 
name with the hi^best, and be no longer 
poor. He laid aside everything that would 
hinder, and kept this one thiug in view. All 
useless repinings for failures in the past was 
swallowed up in this one aim. Did he not 
B'ill love Maud Burnettf Yes. It had it 
been been nith him fur yeHrs, an ever 
present thought. The first that came to him 
in the morning, the last at night. Now he 
threw it off; even this gave way to the one 
aim. Why should he he shackled with it? 
Any youug man is weak who would waste 
bis time in a feverish dream — who would 
have any feeling stronger than himself. 

In a few years, William Lindle accom- 
plished the end he had iu view, and stood 
amongst the first in bis city. He accom- 
plished it by having a purpose once fixed, 
than to secure it or die. 

Just before dark on the day of an elec- 
tion, there was the usual crowd overflowing 
the sidewalks, wrangling with high talking 
as they hurried from poll to poll. At last 
they knew without a doubt, and before one 
of the largest hotels in the city the crowd 
stopped, and called loudly for tiie successful 
candidate to the legislature. He came out 
on the low balcony, an I addressed the crowd 
in a polished, sparkliug, pleasing speech. 
While he was speaking, two fiery horses came 
plunging down the street, the driver try- 
ing hard to hold them in. The carriage top 
was thrown back, and a beautiful woman re- 
clined amongst the cushions. Her attention 
was most given to how the driver wrmid get 
the horses through the crowd than to any- 
thing around her, until some impulse guided 
her eyes to the speaker. The lights behind 
him threw out bis tall figure to advantage. 
His face had a triumphant look upon that 
his recent victory had placed there. The 
woman drew her costly shawl about her 
shoulders, and her palo lips gave the order 
to drive homo at once. She drew closer to 
the corner of the carriage, as she murmured : 
"It is — it is — William Lindle." 

It was at a reception, a few evenings after, 
that capricious fate brought ttigether the 
two so long separated. There Maud Bur- 
nett met face to face William Lindle. Ho is 
now in a position to abk ber to be bis wife. 
Both had attained prosperity by difierent 
ways. It did not take long for William 
Lindle to show how long and well he bad 
loved this one woman. ** 

Will Mechanical Devices Do 

Away with Writing? 

Bv Paul Pastnob. 

I 8ftw, the otlier liay, bd account of a new 
"coiDpoaiuginachiae," by which, it was 
claimed, the drudgery of both writiog and 
type- setting waa tu be done away with. 
The machine consists of a double alphabet 
of lettpred keys, like a type-writer, ron- 
nected with movable types which strike, as 
the keys are touched by llie lingers of the 
npfrator, a block of papier inncbe, thug 
tocmiiig a matrix from which stpreotype- 
plates cau easily be moulded. The editor 
of a newspaper, or the writer of a book, 
can thus be bis own " composer," and 
rapidly jiroduce the required plates for 
priutine at exceedingly small expense. 

The invention of such machines as this, 
and the productioD of constantly improved 
typewriters, etc, raises the question. Will 
mechanical devices finally do away with 
writing altogether T Will the pen be dis- 
carded, aa a rude, old-fasbioned iustrumetit, 
fit to be laid away with the spinning-wheel 
and the Hnilf 

I think not ; and for these reasons : First, 
because the peu is the instrument of the 
artist. It is in the same category with the 
obiiiel ot Phidias, the brush of Haphael, and 
the graver of Hembrandt. When modern 
ingenuity devises a Better instrument f > r 
sculpture than Phidias used, or that which 
shall outdo the brush of Raphael, we will 
be ready to admit that the pen is out of 

If the pen were merely utilitarian, the 
ease would be different. Il certainly 
would be superseded by the ingenious me- 
chanical devices which have been placed 
upon the market. So far as its utilitarian 

perseded— who will say not? There are 
machines that write faster, that write more 
completely and more legibly than the best 
and most rapid peomaQ, But so long as 
the element of beauty enters into the ac- 
count, the pen, in its true sphere, will out- 
live them all. It is, and it always will be, 
an artist's instrument. If the editor can 
produce more "copy," in belter shape, 
within a given time by using a type-writer, 
he will certainly discard the pen. He 
ought to ; he is engaged in an employment 
which demands speed in composition rather 
than beauty of penmanship. But whoever 
takes pride in the artistic eft'ert of what he 
puts upon the paper— every penman, aa 
such, and especially every artist-penman — 
will retain the delicate instrument which 
his art has provided him. For him, there 
is nothing to be gained from the inventions 
of modern ingenuity. They do not, they 
cannot, intrude upon the true sphere of the 
pen. As an iustniraem for the interpreta- 
tion of beautiful forms, it will never be 
superseded. Anything which robs the 
artist of hie skill by confining biui to mere 
mechanical motions, cannot compete with 
the pen as an instrument for producing 
beautiful forms. 

The seoond reason why the pen will 
never be discarded in favor of mechanical 
contrivances ia because of its availability. 
It is the writing instrument of the people. 
Comparatively costless, always ready for 
use, easily carried, adapted in its various 
grades to every style of penmanship, never 
getting out of order, or requiring expensive 
repairs, there is no danger that it will ever be 
given np by the masses for expensive, cum- 
bersome mechanical contrivances like the 
type- writer and the composing-machine. 
These are well enough for special classes. 
There is no question that they have their 
place, and will gradually take it, and the 
pen must give way to them. But there 
will never be a writing instrument bo popu- 
lar as the pen— one which will be in such 
general use among all classes of the people. 
In view of these two facts, I think we 
may assume that there is no danger of the 
pen being superseded by mechanical con- 
trivances. More pens are manufactured 
and used to-day than ever before, in spite 
of the introduction of the type-writer. 

Whenever penmen cease to use their favor- 
ite instrumeut, and the people find a more 
available article for their purposes, we shall 
look for a revolution in the arts and a mil- 
lennium in mechanics. 

Little Scotch Beggars. 

By S. S. Packard. 

Every country has its peculiar forma of 
the begging nuisance; and no traveler in 
Europe will long be left in ignorance ot 
what some of these foims are. The most 
insidious, persistent and successful beggars 
are the sorvanle, of all grades, who hover 
about you, and run against you, and inter- 
cept your progress from tho lime you put 
your foot on the deck of an outward bound 
steamer, uutil you shake the dust of travel 
from your garments in New York Bay. 

To the American who for the first lime 
goes abroad, it would seem that the pre- 
vailiug industry of Europe is the pillaging 
of foreigners ; for be it understood that the 
European beggar is no mere receiver of 
alms at the option of the giver, but more a 
recognized official who under the protection 
of his government levies his contributions 
on all comers, and exacts his payments on 
the spot. 

At all European hotels the item of daily 
"service" is put in your bill alongside of 
the daily "cauille" that you never use; 
but this has nothing to do with the fee 

boy with a baton, who goes through his 
little " piece " like the regular machine he 
is, and next, strolling down a delightful 
ravine, through woods and across bridges, 
to Hawthomden, the once residence of the 
poet Drummond. You start back at (our, 
arriving at your hotel just in time for din- 
ner, having had a day's trip that you will 
never forget if you live to be a hundred. 

By great good lunk we chose a pleasant 
day for our excursion. To be sure, it 
rained for a couple of hours in the morn- 
ing, and several little showers occurred 
during the day, but when the sun did 
shine, it lit up the landscape with such an 
honest glow, and gave such variety to the 
tints of the greensward and the foliage, 
that we were quite content to take it even 
by snatches. But the feature of the trip 
to me inhered in the countless little beg- 
gars who beset us along the route. As we 
sped through the thickly settled parrs of 
the way, swarms of boys and girls from 
four to ten years of nge would emerge from 
the dwelliugB and the cross sireeis, and 
keeping pace with our fast Hyicg omnibus, 
as they hemmed it in on all sides, would 
look anxiously up at the face of the pas- 
sengers, extending their open bands or 
hate- those who had them — and crying 
with musical tone and cadence, " Pooroot! 
Pooroot ! Pooroot !" 

The scene, or rather the sound, reminded 
me of the peculiar wayside music so familiar 

that is exacted by every servant against 
whom you rub. At first you feel inclined 
to protest against the imposition ; call it 
an "outrage," a "swindle," aud various 
other American things ; possibly refuse to 
be put u()on in this pestiferous manner, but 
you will soon learn that the easiest way is 
the best, and like all other Americans who 
have preceded you, will settle down into 
the rut, keep your pockets well supplied, 
and scatter the shekels bountifully where- 
ever you go. 

But aside from the forced contributions 
are the numerous appeals which beset you 
on every hand : first, by the sellers of «o«- 
venir trinkets, whom in your overwrought 
enthusiasm you are disposed to patronize 
until you find yourself borne down with 
useless rubbish ; and next by the outright 
beggar whose name and devices are legion. 
Some of these, as in various parts of North- 
ern Italy and Switzerland, appeal to your 
sympathy in spite of your stomach, through 
the most hideous and repulsive exhibition 
of deformity and dirt, while others assault 
your pocket under the pleasanter guise of 
impoverished childhood, and win your pen- 
nies and your smiles by their cunning per* 
sistence and imperturbable good humor. 

While spending a week at Edinburgh 
two summers ago, I took a day for Roslyu 
Castle, which is one of the regular things 
to "do" in Scotland. The 'bus leaves 
Edinburgh at ten in the morning, gives you 
a two hours' ride, past Arthur's Seat, out 
into the open country, getting you at Ros- 
lyn in time for lunch. Here you disport 
yourself by firtt listening for a half hour to 
a monotonous dialectic description of the 
wonderful "castle" from a fourteen year old 

to the traveler by rail 
through the swampy re- 
gions of the West; and 
in fact, the resemblance 
of the little beggars to frogs made the 
jieculiar cry seem appropriate. I bad 
never read uf this form of beggary, and 
should have expected to encounter it in 
any country sooner than in Scotland ; but 
it seemed to furnish no end of interest aud 
fun to the travelers who would shower down 




their penn 

for them. No football melee, or cane con- 
test, or " push " of American college boys 
could exceed in zest or in variety of combi- 
nation this penny scramble of the little 
Scotch beggars; and the punched heads, 
and scratched faces, and bleeding noses uf 
the contestants seemed only to add to the 
fervor of the sport. I was particularly 
struck with the pleading face of a little 
four-year old baby who stood quite still by 
the wayside and held her outstretched apron 
with an apparent confidence in the Provi- 
dence that showered down money on poor 
children ; and I was glad to see how accu- 
rate was the aim of a few well filled bands 
that sought to reward this confidence. The 
little creature heard the "chink" of the 
copper in her apron, closed it tightly at the 
mouth, and went away with a beaming 

I sketched this picture on the tablets of 
my memory, and recently got an artist to 
reproduce it in a more permineut form ; 
and here submit it with my hurried account 
of the " Little Scotch Beggars." 

Extra Copies ol the "Journal" 

Will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 

The Art of Writing. 

By R. C Spencer. 

In 1815, when he was fifteen years old, 
and just before commencing to clerk for 
Anon Harmon, Piatt R. Spencer taught his 
first class in writing in the town of Kings- 
ville, a few miles east of the village of 
Ashtabula, Ashtabula County, Ohio. He 
was BO elated with his success in teaching 
that he did not stay to collect his pay, but 
hurried off to teach another class. In ibis 
he showed that fondness for imparting in- 
struction aud that unselfish interest in the 
work which characterized him through life. 

He entered upon his mercantile clerkship 
with a strong desire for knowledge, a pas- 
sion for the art of writing as the potent in- 
Btruuient of intelligence, and fondness for 

His boyish experience in teaching writing 
had quickened his active mind, roused hia 
energy and enthusiasm, and prepared him 
for the keener observation aud critical study 
of the various specimens of handwriting 
which were to come under his eye in the 
business and correspondence of his em- 
ployer, from which, doubtless, he absorbed 
much that became incorporated into hie 
views of the subject of business writing. 
Of this he seemed through life to he con- 
Bcious ; for, coupled with his originality and 
inventiveness was a wonderful impressibil- 
ity. Scarcely anythirg escaped his obser- 
vation, aud he was apt to make useful 
deductions from whatever came under his 
notice. Here, then, were the iuJiuences 
and needs of business, in their relations to 
the art of writing, working upon bis mind 
in preparing him for that mission in life as 
teacher and author which made him famous 
for his ueefulncHS, genius and skill. 

The growth aud perfecting of the style of 
writing which he gave to the world was a 
gradual process of development from the 
rare endowments of his physical and mental 
constitution and the circumstances of his 
life. A strong element leading up to the 
grand result was bis high moral nature; 
his great sympathy with, and love for, his 
kind; his benevolence and philanthropy. 
It was this that directed his talents to the 
practical rather than to the ornamental in 
the art of writing. The elements of artistic 
genius were strong in him ; and but for the 
benevolent and philanthropic 
moral nature, and his early co 
the low aud neglected conditii 
of arts," made all the more 
hiiu by his observations and 
a merchant's clvrk, he would, bad circum- 
stances favored, turned his attention more 
toward the purely artistic, and less to the 
practical. His oontribulions toward the 
improvement of the pra<^tical art of writing 
in after years, and the widespread and deep 
intiuence which he exerted upon this im- 
portaut branch of education, were the out- 
come evidently of a fortunate combination 
himself and of the 
A'hich he lived for 

of his 

m of ■' the art 
apparent to 

of elements in th< 
ripeness of the tii 
the work that be 
plish for aociety, 

Obsequies of Queen Elizabeth. 

Queen Elizabeth was buried at Weat- 
minister, on the 28tb of April, ]()0:». "At 
which time" says (StoweJ "that citie was 
surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of 
people in their streets, houses, windows, 
leads and gutters, that came to see the ob- 
sequies; and when they beheld her statue 
or picture lying upon the coffin, set forth in 
royal robes, having a crown upon the head 
thereof, and a ball or sceptre in either hand, 
there was such a general syghing, groaning 
and weeping as the like hath not beene 



of ; 

neyther doth any historie mention any peo- 

tation for the death of their soveryne." 
The funeral cost £17,428. 


An Ode to the Pen. 

Educational Notes. 

New York. iJii*-! edui 

lolicited. J 

The University of Mississippi has opened 
all ila departinenta to women. 

The largest school in the world is the 
Jews' fiee school in Spitalti..-ld3, London. 

The South i* hpginniDg to see that the 
Bpelling hook is better than the shotgun. 

Minneeota employed .5,432 teachers last 
year, of whom 1,535 were men, and 3,657 

Princeton has the honor of possessing the 
ideulictil electrical machine that Dr. Frank- 

The Dartmouth says that sixty per cent, 
of the etudeats la American colleges are 

L«t year Columbia's total revenue was 
$:3l2(J0i); total expenditure, $555,000.— 
Herald- Cnnison. 

An Indian student at a school in Hunts- 
TJUe, Tex. , was recently expelled for packing 
his clollies in a trunk on Sunday. 

It is found that there are over 3,000,000 
scholars of both sexeft iu the schools of 
Ilaly. This is the ninth part of the wh.ile 
population of the kingdoiii. — Hiyh School 

The New Hampsliire Legislature has 
parsed a bill granting §3 OOll per year tu 
DHrlmouth Cnllege, to be applied iu aid of 
indigent slU'lctit>. TIjIs is the first money 
granted by the State to the 
one Iiundred years. — 'Varsity. 

Ac.iordiDg to rece 
schools of Geimany are euff^ring from over 
Btu<ly. ]u the agricultural tchools it is avid 
that no fpwor than Iwenty-four Buljeds are 
r(qiiircd during the six or sevou years which 
are supposed to complete the ooutec. 

Hfnry Saybert l^ft by his late will $«50,- 
000 Iv) the Uuiversity of P.-nusylvania, for 
the purpose of cudowing a professorehip 
which thall invesiiiiate the phil>JBr)phy of 
epirituHlisui. Ac >inniittee of tive members 
of the Fdculty has bren appidoted to make 
the investigation. — Pennsylvama Tiacher. 

The bastinado is the common form of 
piiuiehuieut iu Syria, and it is to be med 
with much Eeveiity by the native teachers. 

A visitor at one of these Ecbools was invited 
to hear the boys recite, a'tor which the 
teacher ufft;red to whip the school, from the 
largest to the smallest, to show how well be 

It h claimed for the New Shorthand 
recently developed, that it can be learned in 
sixteen lessons, and is so simple, letiible, 
and practical, that nut only a reform, but a 
revolution is now inaugurated iu the Geld uf 
stenography. The New Shorthand Com- 
pany's oflice is at Spencerian Uall, New 
York City. 

Ikdian Territory. — The Worcester 
Academy, established at Vinita fur the la- 
dianp, by the Wtiiiiau'3 Department of the 
Home Missionary Society, has over one 
hundred pupila, all it can accommodate. 
Many have been turned away for lack of 
room. Ooe Shaivuee girl has applied f.r 
special instruction iu German and mathe- 
matics who will have to come thirty mdes 
for each recitation. — School Journal. 

^BiiiitiPM c Hefie fern. miRhl not l.e inarr">P'iH'^ 

Educational FANciEa. 

[In every iuBtauce when* the source of an 

item uaed in ihia deptirlmeiil is kiiuwii. ill 

proper credit is given. A like cuurie^y frui 

others will be appreciated.] 

What part of grammar i 

t Syn- 

If twice 11 are 22, how can twice 10 be 
twenty-two t 

Tiacher: "Now, then, stupid, what'f 
the next word ? What cornea after cheese ? ' 
Dull boy: "Mouse, sir." 

TeaeJier. " Who was the strongest man V 

Boy. " Jonali, because the whale couldn't 
hold him after he got him down." 

Ob. i 

iQT&riably o 


"A kiss," said young Charles, "is a 
nouD we allow : but tell me, my dear, ia it 
proper or common f" Lively Mary blushed 
deep and exclaimed, " Why, I think it is 

The Boston Courier : At the kindergar- 
ten—" Now, children, what is the name of 
the meal you eat iu the morning f ' " Oat- 
meal," replies a precocious member of the 

" What icfluence has the mooD upon the 
tide V asked the professor. The class wag 
replied that he didu't know exactly what 
iuBuence it had upon the tide, hut it had a 
tendency to make the untied awful spoony. 

A teacher asked : " What bird is large 
enough to carry oflF a man f" Nobody 
knew, but one little girl sugcested " a lark."' 
Acd then she explaiued: "Mamma said 
papa wouldn't be home until Saturday, be- 
cause he had gone off on a lark." 

The bny who returned home trom school 
at a BUppicionely late hour, ou being called 
to account for bis tardiness, remarked that 
be had done so well on hia li^ssons that d^y 
that hia teacher gave him an encore on his 
L'jitin recitation. — Columbia Spectator. 

"Ethel," said the teacher, "whom do 
the ancients say supported the world on hie 
shoulderi" "Atlas, sir." "You're q-.ite 
right," said the teacher." AtliS supported 
Ihe woild. Now, who sipporled Atlas f" 
" I suppose," taid Ethel, aofily — " J sup- 
poEO he married a rich wife." 

Professor in B bliral class to student : 
" Mr. B , why ia it you never have your 
leoeon f I don't believe you could repeat 
two passages of SiTiphire if your lifa de- 
peuded on i[." Student : " I ihiuk I could, 
ProfeiiBor." Prof: " Very well, let'u hear 
them." Student (-lowly) : " And straight- 
way he went and hanged himeelf. ( Pause.) 
Go thou and do likewise."— A'j:. 

A London oculist says that culture di- 
miniflhea the size of the eyes. Now, just 

listen to that 1 Everjhody knows that 
small i'a are a sign of entire absence of cul- 
ture. "That's not what I meant," re- 
sponded the professor. " Iu ancient days 
knowledge was rootiued to a few learnt d 
meu, but nowadays almost every donkey 
knows aa much as a professor." The stu- 
dents looked at each other, nodded, and 
whispered, " Thai's so." — Texas Siftings. 


Everybody is now taught to write, and 
there are probably few persons belongiog 
to what are called the respectaljle ulHsaes 
who do not imagiue that they can write a 
letter fairly, both as regards calliKraphy and 
of expresMMU. But there is an 
amount of bad letter-wriliug. In 
umber of cases, persons of goi'd 



. know 

7 to 1 

I their 

own name intelligibly. We have seen a 
letter written by a "finished" young Ittdy 
of the period, iu her ninotecnih year. Thf 
penmanship itself was ug'y, ungaibly, aud 
awkward; the spelling of aeverjvl ordi 
na'y wo.ds was incorrect; small letters 
were used where cai)ita]8 ought to have 
been ; and we wcmdend, aa we perused the 
ill Composed, badly-writttn document, ht)W 
a beiug of even moderate abilities cuiild 
send f..rth anythiog so impeifi-cf. Yet this 
young lady had been for years at a high- 
class school where masters had taught Eug- 
hsh in all its brancheo, the mistress of which 
also was a lady of cultivation and rt-fiue- 
ment. Penmanship is far too Utile attended 
to in schools, even of the best class. No 
doubt ornamental writing ia often taught, 
hut this style generally uofils the pupil f.>r 
the plaiu, every-day process. Tbe bfsi 
model /or daily use should oe placed befire 
the young lady fur at least one year before 
she leaves school, and after she has emerged 
from the regular text and half-leit copies. 
Epistolary composition should also be stud- 
ied as a distinct accomplishment, if the pu- 
jiil have no natural talent that way. 

Good penmanship is as necessary for a 
lady or gentleman as a good style of talking 

tate, with servants, money, and intlaecice at 
command, we wonder all the mure if he 
writes a mean, cramped, or illiterate hand. 
We take up his letter with a feelitg of sur- 
prise, aud say. "What! is this the produc- 
tion of So-and Sof It looks like the 
wretched scraping of Fome poor laborer, 
with a scarcity of ink to boot." Bad writ 
ing has tbe same effect upon the eye as 
dii-cordant tones iu music have upon the 

Much has been said about judging char- 
acter by handwriting. In many cases, how- 
ever, we should feel far from jiiatifi<-d in 
reading an individual's habits or dispositi-<u 
iu the writing he or she may produce. The 
uianner of writing is often a matter of imi- 
tation, but is often, also, a result of whim, 
without regard to what is neat. Tasteful, or 
iutelligihle. Perhaps it might bd as correct 
to say that it ia a result of carelessu-'ss. We 
happen to know an English clergyman of 

unreadable. Consisting of irregular scratch- 
ings, their meaning is barely gueeeul at, ex- 
cept by some one skillfd iu deciphering 
them. Ia not such writing very like an in- 
dignity towards the individuala addressed t 
We entertain an utter detestation of this 
eccentricity ia letter-writing, whether caused 
by sheer carelesanees or by perverse oddity. 
We say the same thing o' confuaed, uuin- 
telligihle signature'*. No one is entitled to 
torment correspondents by thi 

It is difficult to realize the i 
lier of those who are brought, day by day, 
into correspondence, and exchange many 
loltirs, perhaps without ever meeting; and 
aa nothing ia more misleading than written 
ci>mmunicatioDB between people who are 
pereoDully unacttnainted with ench otlier, 
tbe amount of misapprehension going on 
around us must be very great. An editor, 
for instance, may have corresponded fur 

years with a writer whom he has never 
seen, and ivhile conversant uiih his or her 
literary ability, may he a total stranger to 
the character of his eonlributor. It ii curious 
how often it ha|tpen8 that those who may 
write their thoughts and feelings In expres- 
sions perfectly natural to them, cnuvey to 
their readers ideas of their mind, manner, 
and appearance often much at variance with 
the truth Mere handwritiug has with some 
a great effect — far more than is j'lslitied. A 
crabbed writing, difficult to decipher, cer- 
tainly detracts from the pleasure of reading 
even the brightest ideas, while a free, legi 
hie hand is prefiossessiog, carries you easily 
over common- place, and enhances the charm 
of well-constmcted, sentences. Writini, may 
be allowed to be characteristic, ioastouch as 
it indicates, to a certain extent, temper and 
temperameni ; but even on thpse points it is 

command a manual dexterity suHi'-ient to 
make writing free enough to harmonize with 
their really powerful charat-ter. 

Que who baa taken much interest in wo- 
man's work fi)r women, relates that the most 
elegant, rt- fioed-looking letters that she ever 
received, interesting her depply, and induc- 
ing her, before an interview, to commit her- 
self to promise of certain assistance, were 
from a dreadful old woman of enormous 
size, dirty, ragged, repulsive, degraded— in 
a word, drunken — whom it was impossible 
to help. 

A companion -with much strength of body 
and mind was reipiired to attend to a lady 
who needed "supervision." Frun aumerous 
applicants, one was selected whose letters 
were in a Bne. bold » riting, whose sentences 
Wf ra telegramic iu their concise avoidance of 
unnecessary words, and conveyed an impres- 
sion of steady phlegmatic presence of mind 
and capability ot exercisitg control. An in- 
terview was reqtiested ; and a limp, shrimp 
of a woman presented herself, shy, nervous, 
and halting iu speech, on whom the lady re- 
<|uiring supervision would soon have "turned 
the tables." 

Some are courageous, not to say audacious, 
on paper, who in personal intercourse are 
very much the reverse. Not diffioult to un- 
derstand, this — because in foUowiog the 
train of our own thoughts we fre q'lently lose 
the sense that we are writing for any eye 
but our own ; and the mistakes ari-jing from 
this audacity lead to doubtful situations and 
perplexities. Those — and, paradoxical as 
it may appear, there are many — who have 
immoderate affections and very moderate 
passions, are the most likely to be betrayed 
into expressions of which they do not realize 
the force and interpretation possilde to them. 
0-1 the other hai d, people of violent temper 
and passions, conscious of the meaning of 
their words, are often very reticent iu cor- 
respondence. There ia little doubt but that 
the mnet matter-of fact among us are im- 
pressed with "the ideal" in a way they 
hardly acknowledge. 

Befo-e including, we would revert to the 
evils of illegible calligraphy, and offer a 
word to those who have occasion to submit 
their manuscripts to the scrutiny of others. 
To an editor, nothing is more annoying than 
& bundle of badly-written and confused 



how intrinsically goo>i it may ha 
been coudemn(d and returned to the aulho; 
unread, simply on hccouM of the villaiEom 
calligraphy. — Chambers's Journal. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending proper'y di-ectcd mat- 
ter by uuiil is very slight; and iu all cases 
where the remitter will baud the same to 
the postmaster fur before seal- 
ing, wo will bo responsible for losses; and 
on the statement of the postmiiser that he 
saw the mon.y incb.scd and duly mailed, 
wo will consider it the same as received by 
us, Persons tlirocling books ami packiigca 
to bo sent by mail miiy have the same re- 
gistered by simply rcn.itting tea cents ex- 
tra. All such packages are sent at the 
risk of the person who orderi. 


The Oblique Holder. 

By Chandler 11. Peib 

This «ee of woDtlcrfuI invention is 
its mark ia every deparhnent where 
tion hna ah; just claims. We, as a 
point n ith priile to the result of our i 
and labor, ami upon every liaud we are as- 
eured of our universal activity and growth. 
Praise comes from every quarter of the 
gl.»be, aud wo, ourselves, are not sluw to 
see that rflpid strides are being taken toward 
completing aud perfecting all that pertains 
to a very advanced stage of civilizitioa. 
One de|iartineat keeps paco wilh aD"ther 
notil, by compari*im, it would ba difficult 
to tell which has ihe lead. While those en- 
gaged in any branch are in a measure iguo- 
raot and bliod to the inlorests of another, 
yet do we see the same energy and tact dis- 
played by all that evidently furlhers the in- 
terests of each, and secures the highest at- 
tainable results. 

We are constantty being surprised at the 

13, aud ignorance with 

a often ft; 
ough a spirit ol euvy, and a desire 
tlie importance of one thing at the 
of at 
chewing of the 

advantageous and 
profitable by a 
practical applica- 
tion to every- day 
aff.irs. We hope 
to see the day when 

oMeo time." There is no apoLgy necessary 
tor the teneral and particular phape of the 
aforesaid oblitiue bidder — that unJoubtedly 
has proven invaluible to a large percent, of 
those who know how to wield the pen to 
advantage, as well as to the amateurs; and 
not a few who iimst meet the demands of 
business by proiluclng small, ligh', smooth, 
even, business writing- The shape dops no 
more than conform to the laws that govern 



ainioe, and compare for yourself. Every- 
thing looks odd at first sight, so do not con- 
demn because it looks so queer — so different 
from what yon have been used to. The 
beauty, the uiility of anything is not tloter- 
mioed by fr.aks of fancy from the faslidious. 
Something more substantial must be the 
ruling power, hence it is proclaimed by 
competent judges that the obrque bolder is 
an indispensable requisition to the highest 
afainable results. 

Toe handle of a scythe is too utterly 
>ked for anything, yet wiib all its crook- 
to produce a straigbtness 
that is justly admired and apprec'ated. The 
oblique holder, like the snath, isconsructod 
upon siieulidc principles, and has fur ita "b- 
point utility rather than beauty. Yet, 

those susceptible to it. The spirit of con- 
demnation is too often based upon know- 
nothingiam, with a tincture of total de- 

The mission of this article is not to con 
vince a man ag^iinst his will, that the ob- 
lique hoMr;r has superior merit, and that 
uuder certain conditions bus no eq<ial no 
one will attempt to palliate or deny. Like 
all other instruments it has its strong and 
weak points, and never was intended to 
serve in every capacity with rqual fftVict. 
If we concede that tine or medium pointed 
pens are at all essential, then wo must 
of necessity admit the use of the diag- 
onal holder. If oruatnent is dt'sirable, then 
shade, as a part of it, is accelerated by the 
ol.ique holder. The oblique holder was 
never intended for the use of a coarse pen. 
To those who prefer the coarse pen let them 
by all means use the straight holder. I do 
not deny but that in business generally, the 
coarse pen is preferred to the fine — hence 
ight holder the prefei 

dition of his tools. 

Whatever may be 

skill, the results mu 

t conform in a great 

asure to a general 

aw. A^ain, where 

re is no choice, nn. 

we are expected to 

what everyone else 

las condemned, it ia 

n that our tff trts a 

d the least, and our 

result* the poorest, bee luse we are conscious 
that the very worst m'lst follow, and so do 
not try. Skilled workmen invariably use 
the best tools. 

Let thoe who expect excellent or supe- 
rior results conclude that the diagonal hi Id- 
er properly usoil will serve a purpose that 
the straight never has or cin. I d) not as- 
sert that the straight holder in the hands of 
the skillful penmau cannot bo u*ed to a de- 
cided advantage. I do not contend that a 
strai^'ht scythe-handle cannot be used ad- 
vantageously. I simply assert that the di- 
agonal bolder, like the crooltfd scythe-han- 
dle, ia a very valuable improvement, and 
both are to be appreciated alike fur the su- 
perior qualities they possess. 

The adoption of the oblique holder by the 
fraterbiiy prerludes the possibility of a sup- 
position that the 0[igiual verbiiim directions 
for holding the straight holder are the same 
straight holder 


tion of tl 

e pen is 

about the 

same as 

that give 

a by the 


• 1 he ad- 



for the ob 

;que hol- 

der are, 

that the 

pen IS ma 


in the fai 

le degree 

^r lin 
h the 

holder, and the pen 
being made to stand 
equarely on the 
point all the time, 
the durability of the 
p-^n is greatly in- 
cFfased." Just Eo; 
but while this is an 
accepted facta 



The .iblique pen- 
holder is a produc- 
tion of iliis Nine- 
teenth Century, and is as much a piece 
of mechanism to be proud of, because of 
its utility, as anything else. Because its 
use is not universal is no argument against 
I the purpose 

of everyone is no cause of ju 
Bec.iuFO the representative bu: 
our country do not use it, doe 
in the least its merit or dome 
poor writers generally discou: 
will not lessen its usefulness, 
not U3»d iu all the bu 


Ueges in Illi- 
"At first, the 
I be used only 

oblique holder was desli 
by the fe ' professional pi 
but, like all other predictions of an ignorant 
and unjust discerning public, we Gud it at 
this hour in general fivor not only by Intel 
ligent penmen, but by a large force in the 
business community, who have risked a fdir 
tritl, aud fouul its inRrits great enough to 
insure a higher order of results by its adop- 

Th"! cranks whom it was predio'ed were 
to wield this " instrument of torture" have 
continued to vote the democratic tii^ket, and 
are yet wedded to the straight bolder of *' ye 

Thi above cut wat photo enpravcd J 
D. H. Farley, Principal of ihe Commercial Depa. 

while the latter has not been ignored, there 
is no claim for its use upon that score. Sci- 
entific ! yes, scientific! It is an acknowl- 
edged fact, susceptible of proof, that the 
semi-angular writing, or writing produced 
upon a shut of about 50°, is preferred to all 
others. While the bolder does not materially 
determine the direction of the writing yet 
the position of the pen in tlie bolder is re- 
garded by experts as a matter very essential 
to its most perfect acti'in. As the straight 
holder is generally held it ia parallel with 

8»rily draws the pen more upon one point 
than the other; this rend-ra the action im- 
perfect, a^d has for its (ff^^ct un satis factory 
results and excessive waste of materials. 

!. Trenton, N. J. 

the oblique, is it 
not fqiwlly true if 
the straight holder 
be held properly T 
Praw-per-Iy, yes, 

But it is a very 

difficult matter not 

— -2_only to hold /the 

correctly,' but 

adj'iBl ihc hand that 
it may rpst upon the 
nails of the third 
aud fourth fineers 

While this 

ulo, with 

and 5ue pointed pens, we will consider later 
on the exception, viz , coarse pens. Again, 
the oblique holder has an adjualahle keeper, 
which admits of the pen being placed not 
only in a manner to produce smooth and 
oven action, which secures the greatest du- 
rability ; but the composition of this keeper, 
together with its mechanical construction, 
gives an elasticity that is highly prized by 

productive of poor wr 
or fine one. C .arse, 
sizes to admit of all pn 
produce a slovenly, u 
thing that is productivf 
work disaster, and di 
Coarse pens of the var' 
stub thrown in, meet w 
yet facts go to prove 
which the pen ia indispensable, degenera- 
tion by the mass is considered inevitable. 
The cause cannot be wholly attributed to 
the pen, yet its portion should not be lost 
sight of, when it is conceded that the aver- 
age business pen found in h*>tel9, post- 
offices, exprees-offices, aud many other pub- 

ting than a mpdium 
rough foot-weir, io 
isible shrinkage, will 
icomoly gait. Any- 

taster leads to ruin. 

•IIS grades, with the 
.ih general approval ; 

that a busy life in 

i oHi ^. 


able failun 

no remedy in this ma 

tter. I am onl 

contendiug that a ci 

ar.e pen m a 

holder is not jtroduct 

ve of the bes 

and that cartdessness 

is engendered 

an extent as to prod 

ce reirojjressi 

[ offer 

than pr-gression. The eelci tion of the in- 

measuro, determine the result of the work. 
No good workman can disregard the proper 

while executing. Patbor Spencer's directions 
for hulling the pen arc in direct conformity 
to every known law goveni'iig reason and 
eoiid s'lnse, and the application of these 'H- 
rec'ions must remain the same thri'ughout 
all times, providing the straight boldpr be 
used for skillful execution. Admitting, then, 
that tUft straight bolder is gnvernod by cer- 
tain Uws, are these same lawa app icable to 
the oblique f 

If the hand assumes the correct position 
with the straight holder, will not the same 
position be incorrect with the obi que hold- 
er! Why was the oblique penholder in- 
vented 1 Surely not as a novelty ; but, if so, 
it has loug since worn off. and its utility ia 
beyond peradveuture. ** Nee ssily ia the 

mother of iuventi 

m." The oblique 

holder was a neces 

ity,an<l, as such, wa 

vented to meet the 


If the penmanship 

of 10-,lHy is funpr 

the generation that has preceded us, it 

ly ia equivalent to 

saying that llie in 

ments u"ed in ex 

culion are Bupnrio 

war to-day ia mor 

a formidable than i 

in early times, it is 

not duo to mere bra 

bu: to the means e 

mployed wbtcU iove 

has wrought. I fully comprehend that there 
are modil'yiag inflaeuoes, yet do I stand firm 
and proclaim the Bupreioacy of the oblique 

The poiition of the hand in execution ie 
not the same as with the straij^ht, no more 
than the position of the lody is the same 
in mowing with the crooked scythe-handle 
as with the straight. 

a thorough t 

Dtended for 

( N. B.— The above 
poetry. ) 

While in the one the back was made to 
asButne a much eas'er position, so in the 
other the haud dees not undergo the least 
torture. I, for one, consider the oblique 
bolder a blessiug to mankind, and I know 
that I voice the opinion of competent judges 
when I pronounce the verdict that it is not 
only a fixture, but is the vehicle through 
which the greatest good is to be secured to 
the greatest number. 

Recollections Respecting My 

Writing Teachers. 

By Geo, M. Nxool. 

IIi.w delightful art- the recollections that 
aometimes come jerking along over the 
hilU of time! The echoes ring through our 
soiiN, again and asuin, in cnusrquence of 
the great clearness of the almnsphere. In 
looking down the years we again witness 
the ojicuing dawn of daye of exceeding 
splendor, watch the thick miats of night 
diwolve into the gray twilight, and ride 
with a sort of joy on the wild billows' top- 
most wave, and in the deep dark abyss of 
waters And delightful, too, is the pleas- 
ure that comes from bringing to a halt a 
happy few from the long files that inarch 
before a vision. Notwithstanding the 
sluggishness of my disposition I yield to an 
impulse prompting me to stroll backward 
in the lapse of time and call up spirits from 
whom I have received benefits. 

George BBiCKLBr. 
My first recollection of making "pot- 
hooks" was with the old "goose-quills," 
under the instruction of George Brickley, 
who taught the Hammond district school, 
St. Lawrence County, N. Y. Even fo-day 
the oft-repeated request, '■ Teacher, please 
mend my pen," would enund strikingly ta- 
milliar to my cars. Well do I recollect 
how we spurned the steel pen, when first 
introduced, aa a thing of little account. At 
that time a common school teacher's capac- 
ity was measured in no slight degree by his 
skill in making a pen. My teacher, there- 
fore, esteemed all his other attainmenls 
more valuable on that account, and super- 
latively 80 for the neatness of his hand- 
Mr. Brickley was an eccentric man ; in 
fact, he had short spells of insanity, and 
during his demency there was, of course, 
no school. He was very learned, as we 
thought; very fiirmal, as WG saw; very se- 
vere, as we felt. Among his eccentricities 
there was none more laughable and cryable 
than his manner of inflicting punishment. 
It was a maxim with him tliat justice 
abovdd not only be done, but a -knowledged. 
And thus such scenes as the following were 
of frequent oc-urrence : 

r<!(«:/M!r—"He7.kiahWinche8ter Brown f 

Heekiah—" Preeeiit ! " 

Tea. — " Present yourself hither." " Hcz- 
kiah moves slowly and reluctantly to the 
teacher's desk.) "Ah! Hezkiah Win- 
chester, guilt is stamped upon your counte- 
nance. No doubt you felt proud and 
happy in committing the ofleuse " 

Heg.~"l didn't mean— " 

Tea—" You are likely to become the 
enemy of mankind, Ilezkiah, if your pro- 
pensity to evil is not modified by some 
wholesome discipline. Is it not so?" 

Hfz.—'^ But. sir, I did not in—" 

Tea. — " Certainly not, certainly not, 
Hezkiah." ( Taking a ferule from his 

desk. ) " Evil must be repressed, evil 
must be repressed. Hold out your right- 
hand." (Whack, whack, whack.) 

Hez.—" Oh, sir, I did'nl mean to do it." 

Tea. — "Very likely! very likely! my 
dear boy. My conscience would upbraid 
me, however, were I to deal unjustly by 
you." ( Whack, whack, whack, and a cry 
from Hezkiah.) 

Hez. — " Oh, sir, I will never do it again." 

lea. — "I trust not, Hezkiah. My hope 
is that you will in due time enjoy the 
blessings of self- restraint. Hold out your 
other hand." ( Whack, whack, whack, 
and a screech from Hezkiah.) 

See. — " Oh please don't I'll nev — " 

Tea. — " I hope you will not, Hezkiah ; 
but I fear your memory has not yet beeu 
Buificiently atrcugthened. Hold out again 
your other haud. Why don't you obey f " 
( A stroke across the shoulders.) 

Bes. — "Oh ye— ye — yes, it has" (sob- 

2'ea.—'' I fear not. Hezkiah." (Whacks, 
and screams from Hezkiah, who squirms, 
and endeavors to shield this baud within 
the teacher's firm grasp.) 

Uez. — "Ob, Mr. Brickley! don't! oh! 
please, please, don't! I'll never, nev—" 

Tea. — "No doubt, dear boy, you now 
think that you will not; bnt I fear the im- 
pression is still too light. Do you not think 
I am confeiTing a great benefit by — " 

Hcz— "Oh, no sir." 

7'ea. — "Don't, eh?" (Whacks in quick 
succession, and walls from Hezkiah.) 

Hez. — '* Oh, ye?, sir, yes, yes, yes." 

7'ea. — " Do you think, Hezkiah, I derive 
pleasure in laboring thus for your ultimate 
gooil 1 " 

i/^r.— " Ye— ye— yes, s— a— sir."( Blub- 

7ca.— " You do, do youf (Whacks up- 
on the knuckles, slashes across the shoul- 
ders, and wails from Hezkiah.) 

Hez.~" No, sir, no, no, no." 

7'co.— " Now, dearboy, do you think this 
castigation inadequate to a rightful com- 
prelitMisiou of the advantages of chastise- 
ment, and a just appreciation of my tender 
regard ? " 

iffr,— "Ye — ye — yes, sir, I — I do." 
(Siill blubbering.) 

Tea.—" Confound your obstinacy! (his- 
sing.) "Confound your obstinacy!" 
( Whacks and slashes on the most availa- 
ble parts of Hezkiah's body, and a kick 
that sends him reeling.) 

//cr.--"Oh, no— o— o, sir— r— r, no— o 

Tea.—" That's right." (Whack ) "That's 
a good boy." (Slash.) That's right. 
(Slash.) You may now take yonr seat, 
my good hoy, and cry as much as you wish, 
hut without disturbing the school." 

John B. Holmes. 

I first gave special ear unto words on 
penmanship about— without too much 
scrupulosity, say— thirty years ago, and 
culled some fruit from John B. Holmes's 
instructions that pleased me well. He it 
was who kindled within mo a fire which 
grew and grew and grew till it glowed like 
the glare of Vulcan's forge. The catego- 
ries of botli Aristotle and Kant were quite 
insufficient to express my youthful opinion 
of his productions. 

Mr. Holmes was a man of mild and pre- 
possessing manners, agreeable humor, and 
possessing substantial accomplishments. 
He afterward went through the curricula of 
tlie higher schools, and in due time the 
degrees of A.M. and LL.D. were conferred 
upon him. He conducted for some time 
the phonographic department of D. T. 
Ames's business college, Syracuse, N. Y.; 
afterward ho filled the several positions of 
literary and political editor on one of the 
principal Chicago papers. As a writer for 
the press he is splendidly equipped, and 
while endowed with a naturally bright in- 
tellect, yet by hard, unremitting and enthu- 
siastic study, ho developed it to a splendid 
vigor; for only by varied reading and earn- 
est application is it possible to attain the 
stretch of encyclopedic knowledge he pos- 

sesses. His wealth of knowledge and ex- 
perience, his versatility, and his superb 
mastery of the pen ought to make him 
truly a powerful leader of public thought. 
He is now conducting a business and phon- 
ographic college at La Porte, Ind. 

Geo. W. Eastman. 
The glorious beams of a vernal sun 
which rose majestically above the horizon 
shed its exhilarating influence in a flood of 
light and warmth upon me as I sat in a 
vehicle coursing my way to a depot, miles 
away, in Northern New York. Lazily, in- 
deed, the horses seemed to move their slow 
length aloDg as bright visions intoxicated 
me with accomplishments available in the 
immediate business of life I was about to 
secure, in a brief time, through some de- 
terminate means, at Eastman's Business 
College, Rochester, N- Y-, whither I was 
journeying. "Ere time had rolled earth's 
fields round twain" my agreeable epecula- 
tioua of worldly advantages had taken 
flight, and my miud was weighted with the 
bustle, and seeming confusion, and the 
beauty of the ouly city I had ever visited. 
Some hours sped by before I went up to 
the temple of learning. Alas I the illus- 
trated circular which I had received and 
the real college broke companionship as 
suddenly as Pliable and Christian in the 
Slough of Despond; and evc-r afterward 
made each other appear ridiculous by ex- 
aggeration and caricature — the circular ex- 
aggerating the college, and the c ■llfge 
caricaturing the circular. Like Chrisiian. 
when he espied Apollyon, I began to cast 
in my mind whether to go home, or to 
stand my ground. I decided to venture, 
however, and, throwing my soul into the 

work, my progress was Modesty liere 

clutches my pen. Week after week were 
notched in the stick of time, and not a 
glimpse had I caught of the great Eastman 
himself. It was told to those who had the 
curiosity to inquire that he was passing a 
brief time at his country-seat. With a 
thrill of gratification I had seen, however, 
his splendid pieces of workmanship, and my 
eyes had beamed with a bacchanalian lustre 
upon the largest number of empty cham- 
pagne bottles I have ever seen together. 
They were heaped in a corner of his pri- 
vate office, where no " bad boy " was ever 
permitted to enter except by giving the 
jauitor the right-hand of democracy, and 
some token at early morn that would afl'ect 
the muscles of his consequential face. One 
morning the school was slightly agitated 
by a report that Eastman had returned ; 
shortly thereafter my eyes were riveted up- 
on, I verily believed, the greatest penman 
of the age : dressed in a spotless suit of 
snowy white, standing alone, erect, immov- 
able for at least ton minutes in the efiective 
pose of a Grecian statue; liis raven hair 
and piercing black eyes in agreeable con- 
trast to his immaculate suit. Had he but 
turned on his heels and left the room with- 
out utterance, the tripping fairies would 
have burnished for me a goldeu dream. 
But, alas! ho opened his mouth, and 
speech bewrooght his fall. His egotism 
made me wretched, at the same time his in- 
telligence impressed uie with good things. 
Verily his brain was disordered by vain 
conceit; bis imagination conjured up the 
greatness of / in all his outgoings and in- 
comings; the burden of his private talks 
was /. and his Insti uctions were but a re- 
frain. But who does uot withdraw, in 
more or less degree, from the direction of 
superior wisdom, and bring unfortunate 
consequences upon themselvesf Notwith- 
standing Eastman's weaknesses be was a 
man of no mean ability ; ho left his good 
deeds to chronicle themselves in the grateful 
and aficctionate remembrance of those who 
knew him best and can better appreciate 
his sterling qualities and goodness of 
heart. Beguiescant in pace. 

J. V. R. Chapman. 

Jupiter, graciously bending his ear, 
heard the prayer, and J. V. R. Chapman, 
of Rochester, N. Y., was made Adonic in 

personal appearance, and given notes that 
delighted with their musical power. At 
his feet I sat, and listened with the great- 
est attention to the most thorough analytic 
treatment of letters, and complied with his 
command. *' Slide one, slide two, slide 
three!" etc. Mr. Chapman was a <levotee 
to penmanship in the juatest feuse of that 
word. Ho did not imagine himself supe- 
rior to all others, nor create dissatisfaction 
and distrust of one's own natural powers. 
He was the man to please, and encourage 
one to feel " that Nature sets her gifts on 
the right-hand and on the left"; his 
graceful praise and ingenious criticism flat- 
tered the hope till the timid hand became 

Two or three years after my pupilage 
with Chapman I visited him on the third 
day of the State Fair which was being 
held in bis city. His grave aspiration to 
complete, for his own gratification, an 
equestrian pen-picture of Washington — 
instead of the Evil One, as it appeared to 
me— so thoroughly weakened his desire to 
visit the fair that he peremptorily declined 
accompanying me thither— evtn after uiy 
ofi'er to procure a hack, and treat him to 
vino de grosella and sidra. I looked with 
compassion on the man as he ardently la- 
bored merely to invoke, unconsciously, the 
censures of both this and the spirit world; 
for no mortal could ever hope upon a 
guardian in the spirit of the " great illus 
trious" so long as that overcharged picture 
remained intact upon the earth. If exam- 
ple be necessary to prove that assiduous 
toil unaided by competent assistance does 
not develop the bigliest possibiliiy, refer- 
ence may be made to the life of Chapman. 
The beauty of his ordinary writing caught 
the eye ; his merit and amiability as a 
teacher — the heart. 

Professor GoirNLOCK. 
It was impossible not to be struck with 
the contrast afforded by Chapman's and 
my next teacher's letteriug and ornameutnl 
work— Prof. Goui.louk, of Preston, Onta- 
rio. While Gounhck was never pleased 
to hear the skill oT another dexterous pen- 
man depreciated, he had himself a stentorian 
voice and a vocabulary that somelimes 
hurled the most ludicrous prujectiley against 
bis competitors. At one time he was all 
rage ; at another, all sarcasm ; at auuther, 
all humor ; at another, vowing never 
again to exhibit bis work in publir His 
unframed masterpiece -^ a work of great 
merit— was marked with a competitor's 
fire. By reason of its having beeu awarded 
only second prize, at a pr<.>vincial exhibition, 
he was possessed with the idea it was un- 
worthy of a frame; therefore somewhat 
soiled. At fir?t my sympathy was so 
wrought upon, e.^pecially by the frequent 
allusion to the above grievance, 1 feared it 
would prove a hindrance to my improve- 
ment. Gounlock's likes were strong ; his 
dislikes, intense; -he M'as a fiue classical 
soholar, a capable teacher, and a consum- 
mate " John Bull " in habits and thought. 

C. B. Knowlton. 
I retain a lively recollection of my next 
teacher, C B. Knowlton, Buflah., N. Y,; 
instructor at the time in Bryant & Strat- 
ton's Business College. Althougli a fiue 
penman, he gave something of the fop to 
tlie terminating lines of his small letters — 
the compound curve appropriating for 
every Hlo all the degrees of right and left 
inclination, I thought the conceit elegant, 
and in the spirit of imitation kept my owq 
pen aloof from the short right- curve ter- 
minal till my Conception supplied a better 

Knowlton was a nu>st indefatigable 
worker, nervous in manner, and constantly 
showing symptoms of an interesting state 
of agitation over the probable pecuniary 
results of getting eugravtd the productions 
of his pen. A few years afterward he 
found time, even while tilling the position 
of writing-teachor in the public schools of 
his city, to graduate both in medicine and 
in law. I was informed, a year or two 

\Kr ,r<>l KVVI 

ago, that he had grown finftocially, " solid,*' 
and was, io a measure, suspicioued of enier- 
tairiing loose, vague, and contradictory no- 
lioDB relative to the acme of terroatrial hip- 
piaeHj ; for the simple reaaon that 


Op» wide thy beul and aaoioDt 

Warren Platt S 
I next made iinprovemeut, iu Buffalo, 
under the iustruction of Warreu Platt 
Spencer, nephew of Platt K. Spencer, orig- 
ioator of the Spenceriaa peniiianship. He 
WHS horn in Geneva, AsliWhula County, 
Ohio, and the years of his majority were 
spent upon his father's farm, located upon 
the shore of Lalte Erie, in the same county. 
Soon after hecoiiiiiig of age he entered au 
academy at Twin^hurg; Ohio, where, dar- 
ing ahout two years of earnest student 
life, ho made excellent progress. Ho 
supported himself at the academy by 
teaching peuinanship. 

Hi.t kuowledge and skill in penmanship 
lio Kccured under the instruction of his 
uncle Platt. It la said that Mr. Spencer 
had very little natural aptitude for the art ; 
indeed, he was not at first regarded as a 
promising pupil by his unolo ; but later he 
developed a stability of purpose and such 
steady perseverance, in working his way 
onmird and upward, that lie became a 
first-class penman, a most excellent teacher, 
and one of the finest blackboard writers 
this country has produced. 

He retained a wondrous hold upon the 
affeuliuns of his pupils ; even after years of 
separation his powerful influence protracted 
a correspondence which he seemed to re- 
gard as time most delightfully spent. His 
letters were never too brief j they satisfied 
by the manifest interest he took in his cor- 
respondent's welfare by his excellent coun- 
sel and by the seemingly abundant leisure 
he had to commuuo with friends. 

The experience that Spencer gained 
while clerk for his uncle in the Treasurer's 
Office of Ashtabula County, helped to give 
to his handwriting the plain business 
oharaoteristics wliich he always retained. 
Ahout the year 185G he completed a two 
years' course in law at Albany, receiving 
his diploma. Subsequently he taught 
writing, for several years, in the city of Buf- 
falo. He did his last teaching in 186(!, 
when be left the schoolroom to take the 
editor's chair. He was principal owner, 
and the editor of the Geneva limes about 
fifteen years. After the death of his wife 
in 'li'3 he lost interest in business, and soon 
after sold his paper and retired to a neat 
little cottage within sight of his birthplace 
to spend his days of leisure. About a year 
ago he passed into the spiritual world to 
rejoin wife, father, uncle, and hosts of 
others whom ho loved here. 

Warren P. Spencer was a strong man, 
and left the impress of his vigorous per- 
sonality wherever he went. He was a man 
of fine literary tastes, which he pursued 
witli uutlagging enthusiasm. He was con- 
tinually a student, a poet of considerable 
merit, and a clear and forcible speaker. 
His naturally strong mind carried the 
adornments which varied readiog adds, and 
his happy convci'sational powers scattered 
them with a geniality born in a warm 
heart, and rendered his presence in a 
coterie of bright men always welcome 
No one who knew him could forget him 
and bis kindly greeting, his cheery voice, 
his firm friendship — though now no more 
possible — have loft among his numerous 
friends a resemblance so tender that the 
mention of his name will always touch it to 
the sounding of grateful beuisons, so strong 
that it will hold his memory fresh when 
years have gone by. 


My last teacher was the noted A. B. 
punton. In ^ departments of the art h" 

was the greatest Roman of them all. To 
be in his company the best of penmen 
could afi'ord to pay a handsome sum an- 
nually. Fault after fault would soon so 
haunt their pens that either the last con- 
vulsive throes of death would silence their 
scratch, or infuse a determination that 
nothing could surmount. He could hiut of 
more subtleties, and explain more secrets, 
way off iu the deep, broad ocean of the art 
than a score, together, of most mariners 
who have sailed upon its bosom. His 
skill as a penman is sufficiently known for 
me to omit testimony in proof of his pos- 
session of genius. 

There Is no point of view in which the 
ludicrous, expressive of ferocity, can be 
seen to greater advantage than in an en- 
graver's room if Duuton be only present 
and critically examining proofs of his 
copies. He is a perfect terror to engrav- 
ei-s; and to see them together, au illusion, 
to the inexperienced, would be prolonged 
that their strong emotions were kindled by 
some powerful stimulant; and, in the an- 
guish of his soul, perhaps, Dunton would 
be heard to exclaim; "I never knew but 
oue engraver who could do me justice I" 
Speaking of illusions reminds me that but 
few professionals could equal Duuton in 
legerdemain. As an illustration : One 
lovely afternoon, in June, as he and I were 
strolling together in B>Bton Common we 
approached a pond whore a score ot boys 
were playing with a small terrapin ; Dun- 
ton asked permission to hold it in his band, 
which was readily granted. Interrogating 
the boys as to what it was, its habits, etc , 
and receiving ready answers, he said : 
■' Well, if it lives in water, in water it be- 
longs," and threw it to all appearance far 
into the poud. The boys, of course, ex- 
pressed their seemingly well-grounded dis- 
approbation, and bestowed epithets as only 
augry boys can sometimes do- After their 
passion had somewhat cooled. I remarked 
that if the terrapin had fallen in the water 
it should have made a splash, and there- 
fore suggested their seeking for it iu his 
pockets, clothes, etc. For a few minutes 
he was besieged, and every portion of his 
clothes was examined. After they gave up 
the search Dunton walked over to the 
owner of the freshwater tortoise and said, 
ia a loud impulsive uuiuner, " There it 
haugs now," and, suiting bis action to 
hia words, seemingly grasped the terrapin 
from the lad's nose. Never shall I forget 
the boy's momentary fright, his sudden 
start, and the utter amazement of his com- 
panion. Dunton could at any time be- 
ly as children. 

and the advertised reward of twenty dol- 
lars having f*iilcd to iufiuence the thief to 
return the canis, I suggested the propriety 
of his consulting the "spirits," in whom 
he fervently believed, ro'ativo to his loss. 
'* I never thought of it ; I will go at once," 
said he, and immediately departed. In 
about two hours ho returned, in a state of 
great agitation, and decl^<red that the 
"spirits" had communicated to him mat- 
ters horrific. He was told, however, his 
dog would be returned to liim within a few 
days; which was prophetically true- I 
asked him if he had interrogated the spirits 
coucerniug our money; receiving a nega- 
tive answer, I expressed a wish to inter- 
view the person with whom the spirits 
were on such tUmiliar terms, and, receiving 
the address of Mrs. Hardie, I sallied forth, 
an incredulous iuvestigator; but returned 
with eyes dilated and hesitatingly skepti- 
cal. Things past, present, and tliiogs to 

wilder adults i 

He was wont to boast that in case of a 
neighboring fire he would never leave his 
bed till the walls of his own dwelling be- 
came so heated that he could feel their 
warmth. One cold midwinter's night in 
'67, while living in Philadelphia, the ad- 
joining teuement to his caught fire ; the 
noise of the fire-engines, the trumpet 
voices of the firemen, and the importunities 
of his wife moved him not ; the man of 
iron nerve untroubled lay, like one with 
worry drowned in pleasant dream. Sud- 
denly, as " smoke, that rises from the kind- 
ling fires," he bounced from his bed when 
the first slight whiff of dark exhalation en- 
tered his apartment. Words failed me to 
convey au idea of hia utter demoralization, 
as described to me by his wife a few days 
after the occurrence. The recollection of 
wbeie he had hung his clothes had become 
a desert iu his memory, his boots had 
glided from his recollection, and his cries 
were like the ebullitions of a mighty tide. 
To the credit of Dunton be it said his de- 
nial was less irrisible, but more irascible, 
than his wife's assurance. 

Some twelve years ago I assisted Dunton 
in filling up about fifteen hundred diplo- 
mas for the public schools of Boston. 
After our work was completed it appeared 
doubtful whether the "city fathers" would 
make au appropriation to meet our account. 
While waiting in suspense Dunton lost his 
superlatively diminutive black and tan dog; 

self and family; some of wliich I doubted 
till subsequent inquiries confirmed their 
truthfulness. I thought it at the time, 
impossible for any person iu Boston to 
supply the iuformation ; but now, after the 
lapse of some years, this inquiry rubs itself 
atjainst ray miud : Was not Duuton, indi- 
rectly, iho invisible agent that excited me 
to become the dupe of a facetious caprice? 

S. S. Packard. 

Upon reflection it can scarcely be said that 
A- K. Dunton was the last person iustru 
mental in improving my handwriting. 
Hour after hour have I sat in copying S. S. 
Packard's announcement " To the Friends 
of Education," aud the forms aud super- 
scriptions in " Williams Sl Packard's Gems 
of Penmanship." In view of this fact I 
am influenced to number him among my 

It is well known that Packard's accom- 
plishments are diverse and numerous ; that 
his pen alternates between the schoolroom 
and the editor's sanctum; that his fame is 
wide-spread, and that he acquires readily 
whatever he undertakes to Uarn. Not 
many months since there appeared a notice 
in the Art Journal that Packard had 
just learned telegraphy. Now, the opinion 
prevails that he acquired the art as quickly 
as old Hessian believed his sons could 
learn the higher mathematics — in three 
days' time. I regret it is my duty to djs 
pel this widely extended impre.'.sion, aud 
hiut that only in the acquisition of this art 
has ho ever shown any degree of dullness. 
Twenty years ago he clicked the key of the 
instrumout, aud how much longer before 
that time his memory alono runneth to At 
that time I was leacliing in Buffihi for 
Dr. J. C Bryant, who came into my room 
one day and casually remarked that Mr. 
Packard was in tlio office. I soou found 
myself, like " Old Mortality." wandering 
lonely and desolate, from table to table, 
seeking in the office for soiriL'tliiug I liad 
no desire to find. Were I to sketch the 
jpcrsonal appearance of Packard as he sat 
at a table, with his face to the wall, i*o iu- 
tcutly engaged in learuiug teh'gniphy as 
never to look up, nor iu any way distracted 
by the noise of a heavy object I purposely 
let fall upon the floor, I could unt, pvesunt 
the extraordinary and unnatural si/o I had 
previously conceived of him. He first im- 
pressed me as being a sort of hybrid 
*' Wandering Jew," resulting from the 
Nephilim niingling with tho bcfiutiful 
daughters of men — the head retaining the 
size of the giants, and in ail other points 
tho marks of tho beautiful daughters of 

[By THE Editor. — Our correspondent 
is in error in saying that Packard learned 
telegraphy at J. C. Bryant's college, tweuty 
years ago. On the contrary, be was a prac- 
tical operator, nearly thirty years ago, hav- 
ing charge of a telegraph office, iu couueo- 
tion with his editorial duties, in Weau-rn 
New York, in 1855. But he never classed 
himself with oporutors, simply because with 
all his facility for acquiring knowledge he 
failed to become ai) export "sound" 

Concentration of Effort. 
By J. W. Hahkiks. 

Concentration of effort is an indispensable 
requisitiou to success in any vocation. 

At the present time, the field of art and 

ience is so extensive and varied, that, as 

Sydney Smith says, "It is necessary to have 

the C'jurage to he ignorant of a thou^iand 

other things, in order to be proficient in any 

It is a fact to be deplored that men of one 
idea are so ofteo ridiculed. But how many 
have risen to distinction who have not been 
actuated by some master passion f 

A noted penman ia the South, in dwell- 
ing upon the death of the Governor of Geor- 
gia, put the inquiry to me: " Which voca- 
tion requires the moat application and hard 
work iu the attaiument— that of the poli- 
tician or penman f And if one of our leading 
penmen should die, would he receive the same 
honor, and be mourned as universally '(" 

Bo that as it may, tho devotion of one's 
entire energies, and the use of strenuous ef- 
forts, for the attainment of some worthy 
object is deserving of honor in whatever 
capacity it may he, aud our great peumen — 
great because of concentration of effort — 
deserve and should receive a general com- 

At this day, when so many things are be- 
ing forced upon the mind, to obtain success 
it is absolutely necessary to devote all the 
energies to a single purpose. 

The scattered hours, wasted in idly draw- 
ing the pen over paper by some visionary 
penman, would make, if rightly directed, 
not a Spencer or a Flickinger, but an ex- 
cellent penman. 

Pope says on this subject: 

One »eUac.e only will one geni-u. flt, 
So wide is arl, so narww humau wit. 

To aspire to become a Spencer, a Fliok- 
enger, an Ames, or a Hinman, it is neces- 
sary to remember that the successful man in 
any calling, whether literature, art, science, 
or business, is he who can say with Paul, 
"This oue thing I do." 

Selected Miscellany. 

In answer to a request for his autograph 
to be sold at a bazaar for the benefit of the 
Chelsea Hospital for women, Lord Teauy- 
son recently wrote: "Sir — I send you a 
stanza from a poem of mine — written half a 
century ago — as you say you wish for a verse 
of mine: 

Oi.D Hickory's Orthography. — 
Somebody has been unearthing a lot of old 
depositions in a Kentucky clerk's office, and 
takiug notes of the bad spelling of some of 
the great men of the past. A deposition in 
the handwriting of Andrew Jackson con- 
tains such spelling as "retference," "depo- 
nante," "until," " ballance," " valine," and 
"difieult." Old Hickory's use of capitals 
was quite remarkable. Such words as 
"Dollar" and '-'Money" he capitalized, 
while he also wrote '* alm'ghty god." 

Many of th? saloon-keepers of Kansas 
have gone where tho woodbine twineth, 
and some to jail. Both classes are monrn- 
fully chanting tho chorus: 

TJi€ Educationist. 

Ttie IiulKiili' of gnal m-aa, rouohed and hepl, 
W'n» not atlaluea by sudden a\gbt; 

But they, n-bile iheir companlona atepl, 
Wero tulliug upvud io the niybt. 

There is oo temptation more seductive 
than that which leads the teacher to be sar- 
castic, attempting to discipline the school by 
rasping the feelings of the children. TklB 
can never be vindicated, and always indi- 
cates weakness ou the part of tho teacher. 
It should bo avoided with the utmost care, 
— American TeacJicr. 



PabHshed MonUily at SI per \' 

Single MplMi Pf lbs Jovksal leot on rwelpt of lOo. 
SpTOimen oopiM Inmliilied lo AgonUi fie: 


Slnglo Inwrtlon. 30 eeaU per line nonpareU. 
oolomn...- ^lOOO' |6a.m »120.ob |I7S06 


We hope to reod*r lUe Joi'RSAL BofflcieDlly inI|.r«i^ 
ing and Bitrarllve lo .erare, ''",'„^''ly ^["^ '^JV^^"' 

To all wbo remit |l, we will mall the JOL'IWAL one 

f Progrea aSKfiS. 

Tho prire ol «Ph of I 


The "Journal " and Its Purpose. 

The Journal is a penman's paper. ItB 
editors have each had pracliutil experieace 
as penmen, teacbem, at-d authors ol worlo 
upon writing, exlending over a period of 
more than a ti'iarter of a century. Their 
comliined experience is far beyond that rep- 
reseDtcd by any other penman's paper that 
has yet been published. Tliia, with the 
fact that the Journal is at least twice the 
size of any other paper of ils class, has 
placed ii. quite beyond rivalry. When it 
was first issued its patrons werecontined 
chiitly to i)rufr8sioDal penmen. It soon in- 
cluded amateurs ; then pupils and teachers in 
public and privMlo echool#; ecbooUtficere ; 
then clerks, accountants, and men of busi- 
ness. Thus it has widened the sphere of 
its patronage until it has now become a 
paper of the massf £ ; it is scarcely less wel- 
come io tlm home and couuliug room than 
in tho writipg-school.andtitthe profetsioual 
penman, lu.lfed, it is quiteFaf. to S!iy that 
amoug its present 8ubscril)erf<, not oLe-fifib 
would make any claim to wiitiug as a t-ptc- 
ialiy. It baa been the aim of its editor, 
while striviug to malio it altraciive, inter- 
eatiugj and iuslructiroas a peamau's paper, 

not to have it barren of otlier entertaining 
and useful matter. Sixteen large pages all 
dtvoted to penmanship would be a surfeit, 
and could not bmg be tolerated, certainly, 
by any one not wildly enthusiastic upon the 
sul'jt'cl; hence considerable space in each 
number has been filled with a carefully pre- 
pared or selected miecellaDy pertaining to 


etc., thus imparting to the Journal a fea- 
ture alike acceptable to the profeeaional 
penmaD, and to others ; and making it wel- 
come alike in the schoolroom, counting- 
room and home circle, thus widening the 
scope of its patronage until there is now 
open to it a possibility as grand and honor- 
able as that of any class of journalism. 

Our location in the great metropolis 
places at our comtnand every facility re- 
quisite fur making the JOURNAL emiuenlly 
tirst of its class, and it will be our earnesi 
endeavor to draw to the fullest extent upon 
.til tho resources at our command for making 
the Journal more and more attractive and 
valuable to all classes of ils patrons, and 
we -can only ask that they shall be as 
apprrciative and earnest in their support in 
ilie future, as in the past. 

The Convention. 

The Business Educators' and Penman's 

Convention which convenes at Kochester 

the second week io July, will probably be 

the largest and most enthusiastic convention 

er hel.l 1 

J that el« 

as c 

f educ 

tors. All 

ni]g the li 

ue there 8« 


to be 

a determi- 

Btion to a 

tend, and 


e than 

the wsual 

imberol o 




ve already 

auouDced their intent 


o he th 

ere. This 

very enco 



had he 

ped for an 

but it ha 

ho i 

imucication from the Executive 
reporting progress for this issue ; 
ot come to hand. It will probably 
)n for the May number. Also, 
1 who propose to be present, are 

all penmi 

n quested to cor 

chairman of the Penman's Section; also 

state what part, if any, they will desire to 

take in the proceedings, and give a brief 

description of specimens, either of writing, 

or the result of school work they propose to 


Remedy for Writer's Cramp. 

Somebody who has tried it gives the fol- 
lowing as a cure for writer's cramp: Twke 
tincture of capsicum four ounces, spirits of 
turpentine one ounce, mix them and apply 
to the hand and wrist once or twice a dav. 
BO as to keep up a glow on the surface. If 
ihe turpentine proves too irritating, diminish 
the quantity of it or omit it altogether. 

The above is simon-pure nonsense. To 
cure writoi's cramp first remove its cause, 
which is almost invariably to be found in 
a small, polished, metallic holder, whicti 
necessitates a tight grip to bold it in place, 
together with a cramped fiuger movement. 
Substitute for theee a large sized rough 
penholder and the forearm movement, and 
there will be no writer's cramp. 

Another Penman's Paper. 
In a late number of the Gazette, Mr. An- 
drew Cox, who announces himself as the 
"Author of the Penman's Amalgamator," 
eajs that he is thinking that ho mny some 
time start a penman's paper, become the 
author of a Compendiim, Hand book. 
Guide, etc, thus ho a rival of the editor of 
the Gazette. We trust that Mr. Cox will 
pardon us for suepesting that when he 
comes to the authorship, and especially of 
his " Hand-book," that he make a pilgrim- 
age to Mount Ararat and see if perchance 
among the sweepintis from the famous insli- 


ed tht 

Some label, tag, or other scraps bavin 
specimens of chirographic art by the Meesn 
Ni.ah, whith ho might photoengravo an 
incorporate into his book, and thus treat lii 
ccnleraporaries to something new and prac 
tical. These cuts be mi^ht also from tim 
to time use to embellish the pages of hi 
paper, this making his riuairr/ complete. 

The f.dlowing item tb-uld have appeared 
in the March number of the Jouunal, but 
was misplaced, and hence omitted. 

Club Item. 

In a general competition given by the 
" De LhS.IIo Penman's Club," of the Com- 
mercial Academy of Quebec, on February 
2:Jd, last, Mr. D. L. Power, book-keeper for 
the Efiiigration Society, took the premium 
— a silver cup — ofi'ered by the Club to any 
oue in the city of Quebec or Leris, over 
fifteen years, who presented the best speci- 
men of business ponmauship. 

Master Tancred Kidfret, aged thirteen 
and a half, a pupil of the Intermediate 
Department, was the successful competitor 
in application writing for pupils under tiftt^en 
years. A.special mention was discerned by 
the judges to Mr. M. J. Morrison, secretary 
to Hon. W. \V. Lynch, minister of Crown 
Linds; to Mr. T. Lambert and Mr. Ed, 
Batterton, of the senior members; and to 
Marcus F. Girard, S. Picard, A. Drolei 
and J. Hamel of the jinior members, all 
pupils of tlie Commercial Academy. 

The judges were seven of the most im- 
portant merchants in Qiiebec. Hundreds 
of fair specimens were presented, and the 

The members of itie above Club intend 
giving in a few months another prize which 
will be open to all penmen in America. 

Teachers' Agency. 

Teachers wanting situalii-ns, and those 
wishing lo employ teachers, frequently ap- 
ply to u", and in flint way we are often able 
to be of service to both classes. But to do 

eand . 


iv of the great 
hose who secure either a 
good situation or teacher, wo have thought 
it proper to announce an agi-ncy through 
which Ihe names of all persons wishing 
either situations or teachers may bo regis- 
tered, and have all the assistance we can 
render by remitting $'Z. 

Sketches from "A Schoolmaster 

Mr. Packard, of the business college, 
leaves for Europe on the S4'h inst., to be 
gone four months or so, and everybody 
wishes him a pleasant journey and safe re- 
While abroad he will write some letters for 
the Journal descriptive of the countries 
he may visit and the people wilh whom be 
comes iu contact. We expect they will be 
good letters and worth reading, and as he 
proposes to send sketches of striking scen- 
ery and events we shall reproduce some of 
them as illustra'ive of the text. The ar- 
tide entitled, " Little S* otch Beggars," 
which we print in the present number, is a 
foretaste of what will follow. The letters 
will run throi'gh a year of the Journal, and 
will make a unique feature of our publica- 

Responsibiltty for Mail. 

The risk of sending properly directed 
matter by mail is very slight; and iu all 
cases where the remitter of money to us will 
hand the samn to the postmaster f. r exami- 
nation beforo sealing, we will be responsible 
for losses ; and on the statement of the poet- 
master' that he saw the money inclosed and 
duly mailed, we will consider it the s^me as 
received by us. Persons directing books and 
packages to be sent by mail may have tho 
same registered by simply remitting ten 
cents extra. All such packages are sent at 
the risk of the person who orders. 

"The Guide" (iu papt-r ) is now offered 
free as a premium to every person remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscription to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound In cloth, 
for 25 oeuta additioual. 

The King Club 
For this month numbers Jifli/, and was 
sent by W. E. Dawson, penman at the 
Miami Commercial College, Dayton, Ohio. 

The Queen Club numbers /«r///-s«-, and 
was sent hy A. S. Osborn, penman at the 
Rochester (N- Y.) Business University. 

The third club in size conies from Bry- 
ant's Buftalo (N. Y ) BuPiiiess College, 
and was sent by* S. Van VHet, the penman 
of that instituiion. 

A club of thirty comes from W. W. 
Chambers, penman at Cornell College, 
Mount Vernon, (Iowa). A club of !u;««(y- 
fioe, H.II. Aaker, Willmar, (Minn). Eigh- 
teen from the New Jersey Hnsiuess College, 
Newark, N. J , sent by L. L. Tucker. A 
club oi fijteen from D. H. Fariey, penman 
at the State Female Normal College, Tren- 
ton, N. J. 

An unusually large number of smaller 
clubs have been received, while about one 
thousaud single subscripiioos have been 
added to our list, and fr^tii nearly every 
civilized country on tho glohe. 

Mrmphis, Tbnn., Feb. 21, 1874. 
Mr. D. T. Ames. 

Dear Sir: Inclosed find some cards and 
a stamp. Please write vmr name on one 
and mine on another. You will do me a 
great favor by so doing, as I dtarly love the 
art of fine writing. I am a subscriber to 
ihe Journal, and am deriving great bene- 
fit from It. Hijpiog you will favor me by 
granting my request, 1 remain. 

Yours, truly, 

F. W. Wilcox. 

The above is a very simple rP(|uest, and 
to the writer, no doubt, so reasouabte and 
proper that, should we nt)t comply, he 
would think u?, to say the least, unobliging. 
Were Mr. Wilcox the only one, or one 
among a few, to ask such a favor, we 
should, no doubt, think it a trille and com- 
ply with his request. But were we to at- 
tempt to do so with all eimilar reqnesls, we 
might work the entiie time, and then leave 
a multitude to call us unobliging, and with 
considerable reason, were we to send epeci- 

Persons who have no knowledge of the 
facts cannot imagine the nuuiberwho solicit 
from us such favors, and when we consider 
that were each applicant to succeed, and 
BO report to his acquaintances aud friends, 
such requpsis woubl be greatly multiplied, 
we are compelled to decline to send speci- 
mens to any one, and we also deem it proper 
to hero say that in no case can we send 
specimens of penmanshipi and for the rea- 
sons above stated. 


Before tiR is a iluelj engraved note, which 
readd aa folluws: 

" Your presence is requested at the marriage 
«f Mi>«8 Lotliv Hill to Mr. Silas S. Packard, 
Thursday morning. April 24ih. at eleven 
o'clock, Central Congregational Church, Mad- 
ison Aveime aud Forly-sevt-nih Street." 

To a very large number of our readers theHfl 
contracting pailit-s have no need of an inlro- 
duolioii. ViBilors for many yeaia past to the 
Packard Business C-jJeg^ |,ave not fHJIed lo 
note ft qiiiH, unasfntnit.g. vet a VHv business, 
like little lady in charge of ibe hft-irs of the 
<.ffiue. as Mr. Packard's secretary. Tliis was 
Mi^s Lottie Hill, who now euterx into rbe more 
oouHdenlial relations of a partner iu the firm. 
The pariuers are each Ihe fortunate aud happy 
possessor of a witle and nuiueroUB circle ot 
t"ii.*iid8, whom we are sure will join ub iti 
wishing that the years of the uew Hrai may b» 
mnuy, and be ladened to the end with all the 
ble8>*ing8 of prospeiiiy and love. 

Oq the evening after the marriaize, Mr. 
Packard with his bride will sail for Europe, 
where he will mbke a honeymoon tour of 
about four months, during whi< b he will be a 
regular coninbutor to the JounxAL. His 
sketches will he fully i1ln>-lrated. That these 
sUeiclies wilt lorui a very inleresliiig feature of 

need not say to tho»e who>are iu thw least fa- 
miliar with the emanatioua of hj^ rich and easy 


[ VoAfT this hfad answers will be giva 
h\\ qiieei ions— the rfptit^e to wlikh will b 
ralu« or general inlfrrBl to readers. Qufel 
wbicb are penonal.or to which Answers w< 
be wiiboiit i;<.-neral intereet, will receive n< 
lenlion. Tlii« will explain to many who 
pound questions why no answers are givei 

J. M. S., Gray'i Mills, Pa— Can the 
lit] lie buMer be used tu advantage in Bour 

log I 


Di) profeesional penmen make the 
fonnine the top of a Houriahed bird's t 
with the pen reversed t 

Avs. — As a rule, yea; although m 
do Dot. 

D, S. Eaton, Me.— What is the best f 
of exercise for acquiring ihe muscula 


M. L., Hyde Paik, III.— I h«ve seen it 
staled that iho pen Bh»uld be m held as to 
pref«8 equally up m boiS poioin, but I know 
gunii pemneo who do nut si> hold iheir pens t 
and I do Qol toe huw a peti caQ be held so. 

Ans. — It ie quite true that good-appear- 
ing Writing limy be wriiten with a pen in a 
bad po^iti(^n, i. e., wilting having the letters 
well f.»rined, and uuiform, and graceful in 
tbeir coml.iualion, but iho pen will unt glide 
as smoothly, or make as good a quality o( 
line in any other position as when it is so 
held as to equartdy face the paper, and thus 
place both nibs under the eame pressure. 

It is also true that a tnaj-irity of writers ex- 
perience a difficulty in holding the pen in 
Ibis position, to do which, reqiires the hand 
to be turo-d toward the body until the 
holder points over the right shoulder, whii-h 
is a forced position ; it xt to obviate this dilti- 
culty that the oblique pens and holders have 
been introduced, and for which they serve a 
good purpose. 

J. W. A , GreenBeld, Mo.— Why not ap- 
pend the autograph « f each correspondent 
of the Journal to their artirlesf I think 
your readers would be pleaded to see tbem. 

^ns.— We see no objection to this, and 
have no doubt that such autographs would 
lend additional interest to articles; for un- 
doubtedly, next to the face an autograph is 
one's most telling and faithful reprcaenta- 
tive. We shall be pleased to act upon this 
suggestion where curreapondents will either 
fuinish an autograph cut or an autograph 
in suitable f.'rm for photo-engraving. (2) 
" Why n«jl always croii the t vriih a straight 
line, instead of carved line above itf " We 
suppose that the curved line is used for ar- 
tistic trtoct; but in any writing other than 
that which is strictly professional there is 
no good reason why the t sboald not be 
crossed wich a straight line. 

J. K— (1) Would you insist on correct 
penholdiug by small children f (2) At 
what age would you cuinmence to teach 

Ann. — It has been our experience that it 
was best to insist upon correct pen-holding 
at the first etfjrts of a child at writing with 
a pen. We do not believe that anything, 
as a rule, is gained by putting a pen into 
the hand of a mere child. There should be 
a considerable development of strength, dis- 
cretion and will-power before writing with 
a pen is attempted. We believe that all 
efforts at teaching the average child under 
eight years to write with a pen is simply 
time and labor wasted. 

H. W. T- New Carlisle, Ohio.— In Avrit- 
iug long words, do good pHDinen stop the 
pen, and either move ihe arm to the right or 
the pap^r tu the left? If tint, what is the 
fault iu, and remedy for, writers who do not 
have to olianee position of either the arm 
or paper to complete a long word f 

Ans. — In writing with the 6oger move- 
ment, long words cannot be written without 
a stop and a hitch of the hand ; but where 
the forearm or muscular movement is used, 
and the hand res's U]H>n the n^iils of the 
third and fourth finger, as they should, 
there is a continuous movement of the entire 
hand forward with the pen, and there can 
be no word so long that it would not be 
completed ■ without a stop or c'lange of 
movement. Indeed, an entire line may 
thus be wriiten continuously n ith ease. 
This is one of the advantages of the fore- 
arm movement. 

J. B. D., Morning Snn, Iowa.— Can the 
forearm inovemeutbeemployed in executing 
capilala to good advantage i (2) About how 
many words per iiiiuute do penmen write, 
when doing tbeir best work f (3) H 'w do 
I write tor a " b«iy " wlio has tieuer taken a 
lesson in penmanship except through the 

Arts. — Yes; it Is //te movement to be 
employed, except largo capitals in super- 
scriptions and headings, when the whole 
arm may be used, and, if made on a large 
scale, should be used. (2) An exceedingly 
rapid writer writes thirty words per minute. 
The average is about twenty, {'•i) Your 
writing ia excellent, and doea you great 

Replies to Questions 

Sent to A. H. Hinmam, Worcester, Mass. 

[Mr. Hinman will be pleased to receive 
nnd answer through the Journal all jirac- 

the cumiunauce of his lessons.] 

B. S. S —II you are " crazy " to own a 
gold pen, buy one, then give it to some 
lienmau you want to excel. Stick to a 
steel pen, aod while iho sharp point will 
make you earef .1 to write well, the smooth 
point uf the gold pen will gradually spoil 
his writing. 

W. P. C— Your "principal faults " are 
faulty principles. Your cramped movement 
may be overoi'ine by writing with the fin- 
gers and hands welt raised, and by the U60 
of the counting movement, counting with 
the up strokes. Dou't simply read iny les- 
sons. Ri ading a doctor's prescription woula 
do no one no good. My lessons studied, 
and faithfully practiced after, will bring 
your wriliug to perfection. 

A. J. W. — Why teach eggs or ovals in- 
stead of curves ? Eggs are forms that you 
can shut your eyes and see; principles arc 
the same ; letters are the same ; but lines 
are not. With a perfect idea of forms, your 
lines will shape them. Lines don't govern 
form, but forms do govern linos. Think of 
the forms you are trying to make, and your 
lines will take care of themselves. The 
more you practice by first seeing perfect 
let'ers iu your mind before you make them, 
the faster your writing will grow. 

N- L. H. — Your right liand can be made 
to execute as fine ornamental penmanship 
as any one's right. The eye must first be 
trained to fully appreciate accuracy of form 
and artistic cfi'ects ; then, and not till then 
will the baud act to suit you, 

H. A. R.— No, flourishing won't hurt 
your writing, but will help it. Flourishing 
will tniin your mind to carry your arm 
lightly, and thereby secure that delicate 
easy movement and light touch required to 
write with skill. 

J. F. L— To write well upon the black- 
board stand close to it, feet spread apart, 
make stnmg hair lines, count on the up 
strokes, write even with your chin, and roll 
the chalk in iho fingers to keep uniformity 
of lines. Shade quickly, and with power 
to get brilliancy and strength. Don't prac- 
tice patching np shades. For different col- 
ored craj-ons dip the white crayons in col- 
ored inks, iheu let them dry. Heat them 
to make them soft, and wet them while 
using to make your writing strong and 

Exchange Items. 

The Chirographer , by E. K. Isaacs, Val- 
paraiso, Ind., for April ia at hand. Its ap- 
pearance is very creditable, on good paper, 
well printed, and well edited. Our friend 
Isaacs ia really developing considerable ed- 
itorial genius. Those who have not seen a 
Copy of the Chirographer should not rest 
until they have done so. Subscription price, 

The We&Urn Penman, by A. N. Palmer, 
Cedar lUpids, Iowa, thirty-four cents per 
year, is a big thing for the money. Seal 
for a copy, and see. 

The St-tdenVa QuarUrh/. published by 
J. A Weber, at Walpole," N. H., for ten 
cents, is a very reaJible sheet; the single 
number before us is worth the price of a 
year's subscription. Send ten cents, and 
judge for yourselves. 

The Printer and Penman, published by 
T. M. Oiborn, 77 Nas.^au Street, New 
York, for $1 per year, makes a good ap- 
pearance, and is well worth the money. 

The make-up of the Penman's Art Jourt- 
N'AL is ibe beet we have ever seen. No othtr 
penman's paper compares with it. Besides its 
able editors, there ia a list of wide-awake con- 

of the word. — IVoodstock (Onl.) College 

The Penman's Aht Journal, edited and 
published by D. T. Ames, N«w York, is one of 
that oIbb4 of papers which no progressive 
teacher can do wiihoui. The teacher who 
dues not take it is behind the times, at least 
on the 8ul'j-ct of peamansliip, and t-liould send 
for it immediately. — formal Criterion. 

The Pexman'8 Aht Jouknal, by D. T. 
Ames, of New York, ie one of ihe moat Huely 
i]liislratt<d aud bust edited papers it is our 
pleasure to receive. The Jouknal ia iudia- 
peuaablt. to all who would teach the pen-ait or 
live by the pen.— Si. Joseph ( Mo.) Commercial 

Autograph Exchangers. 

In accordance with a suggestion in a 
previous numb r, the following-named per- 
sons have signified thtir willingnecs or 
desire to exchange autographs, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as set forth in the August 
number of the Journal; 

C. C. Codirao. Centrat High Srhoi>l. Pitlnhurgh. Pa. 
R. H. Miiriiig, Culitmliui { Otiio ) BiuiDCU College. 




Dr.deo, N. Y. 




er, Cave Spring 


"«■ Ott»mv>i, 1 




tl." Sli«wood, M 




ihfl, Waxahftobi 




uni. CbHIIixiibe, 




ur. Ba-loeM Col 




elier, Bi.ji l"U3. 



iiiao, IlilUiUle. 



Apiileby. Jr.. Si 

. llnrvt!/, Uaylle a Uuml. CollegB, Dubuqae, 1 

Q. B J«UM. Bergen 

The "Guide." 

This is a book of sixty-four large pager, 
elegantly printed on the finest (pmliiy of 
pUle-paper, and is devoted exduhivily to 
iustruction and copies for phiin writing, off- 
hand fi mrishing and lettering. We are 
sure that no other work, of nearly fqual 
oust, is now before tie public that will render 
as ethcieut aid to either teacher or learner, 
iu the departments of the peniuau's ait, as 
will tbia. Thirty- two pages are devoted to 
instruction aud copies fir plain writing. 
Fourteen piges to the principles and ei- 
ampl's for Hjurishiog. Sixteen pages to 
alphabets, package marking, and mono- 

Prio ^, by mail ; in p^jper covers, TU cents ; 
hindsomely bound in stiff covers, $1. Given 
free (in waper ) , as a premium with the 
Journal, one year, for $1 ; full bound (in 
stiff covers ) f*ir $1 25. Live agents wanted 
in every towu in America, to whcun liberal 
discounts will be given. Both the Journal 
aud book are things that take everywhere. 
With them agents can make more money, 
with le^s eflori, than with any other pobli- 
calion they can handle. Subecribers and 
purijhasers are delighted with, and warmly 
commend, both. 

A new invisible ink has been introduced 
by Dr. Wideman. It is made by intimately 
fixing linseed oil one part, water of ammo- 
nia twenty parts, and water one hundred 
parls. The mixture must be agitated each 
time the pen U dipped into it, as a little of 
the iok may separate and fioat on the sur- 
face, from which if takeu up by the pen a 
staiu would be lift upon the paper. To 
make the writing appear all that i^ needed 
is to dip the manuscript iu water; when the 
paper dries the writing will vanish.— (?<y. 
et's Stationer. 

No. 8 New Spenccr- 
ian Compendium. 
We are in receipt of the 
proof-eheetB nf No. H of Ihe 
above - uamed publication, 
wliicli completes the work. 
To thofle who liave seen the 
previous numbers we need 
not say that it is in the finest 
style of the penman's and 
engraver's art. Like its pre- 
decessors, it coueistB of nine 
platea (9x12 inches). The 
first is represented in this ont, 
reduced oiif-half; the second 
is composed of fifteen speci- 
men autographs; the third, 
alphabets and writing in the 
angular hand ; the fourth, 
the same in the "French 
Round-Hand" which is also 
known as the " Chancery," 
" Engrossing" and "German 
Round-hand"; the fifth, a 
very gracefully tiouviehed bird 
and a specimen of practical 
writing; plates six and seven 
is a double sheet presenting 
an iu^enioualy and practi- 
cally constructed scale fur let- 
tering ; the eighth is an or- 
namental alphabet showing 
each letter in outline and 
finished; the ninlti is an elegant allegori- 
cal scene representing Science crowning 
the arts and iudustries. Upon the whole, 
this last part is fully the equal of its prede- 
cessors, and all together represent the most 
finished work upon the art of penmanship 
the world has ever seen. Any or all the 
parts mailed, post-paid, from the office of 
the JouiiNAL at sixty cents each. The en- 
tire eight parts sent by expi 
at the office, for $4. 

And School. Items. 

GuB HuUizer, a peamaii of considerable 
uote, ifl now on« of the pubiisherB of the 
fr«i/y ScnlhKl, at Toulon, 111. 

D. H. Farley, principal of Ihe commercial 
department of the State Normal College, Tren- 
ton. N. J., has prepared a "Model Guide and 
Copy-book Cover," which will be very con- 
venient and useful to all pupils of writing. See 
notber column. 

F. L. Welden is teaching writing-classeB at 
WincbeBler, Ky. In a well-written letter he 
acknowledges the receipt of our new Compen- 
dium, and Bays: "It is the finest work on 
penmanship I have ever seen." 

J. B. Duryea is teaching writing al the 
Morning Sun ( Iowa) Academy. He writes a 
handsome letter, and saye he has nevnr taken 
a special lesBon in writing beyond those given 
in the Journal. 

Geo. A. Swayze has just completed his sev- 
enth jear as special teacher of writing in the 
public Bcbools of Belleville, Out. 

C. C. Cochran, for many years past profes- 
sor of commercial science in the Central High 
School, Pittsburgh, Pa., has eaiabliBhed a 
buBineea college at Sioux City, Iowa. He has 
bad extensive experience aa a teacher of com- 
mercial college branchflB, and will, no doubt, 
win favor and success in bis new enterprise. 

J. P. Wilsoa, artiBl-penman at the Sherman 
House, and also special teacher of writing in 
several of the echools in Chicago, HI., has ac- 
cepted the Western agency for the JOURNAL 
and our publications. Residents of Chicago 
and viciailj whu wish to become subscribere 


• Mr. 

Wileon, at the Sherman House. 

D. L. Musselman, of the Gem City ( Qui 
vy. III.) Business College, is enjoying 


Penmantihip Deparimt-nt is full to overflowing 
with sludeutn. It is really a grand success, and 
vttf are doiisg some tine work with our stu- 
dents." Oo another page will be found a set 
of highly complimentary resolutionB, lately 
adopted by the students of the college. 

The graduating exercises of the Meadville, 
Pa., Business College, conducted by A. W. 
Smith, occurred on March a7th. The list of 
graduates numbered thirty-one. 

C. H. Randall, of Fairmuunt, Nebraska, has 
nearly ready for publication a Calligraphic 
Directory, which is advertised in another 
column. Price, by mail, ten cents. 

G. A. GaBkell desires the aBsiatance of a 
skilled and faithful penman at bia Business 
College in Jersey City, N. J. Penmen wishing 
a situation will do well to read his advertise- 
ment in another column. 

C. H. Lage ia teaching a large class in writ- 
ing at Three Kivers, Mich. 

P. B. Shinn, who has fur Bome time past been 
connected with the American Normal College, 
at Loganeport, Ind., is now leaching in the 
New Albany ( Ind.) Commercial College. 

[ Persons sending Bpecimena for notice in 
this column should see that the packages con- 
taining the same are postage paid in full at 
tetter rates. A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come short paid, for sums ranging from 
three cente upward, which, of course, we are 
obliged to pay. This is scarcely a desirable 
consideration for a gratuitous notice.] 

Noteworthy specimens have been received 
as follows: 

L. A. Barron, of the Rockland ( Me.) Buai- 
nesB College, a set of skillfully-executed capi- 
tals, and two bird specimens. 

PhotographB, imperial size, of the two large 
pieces of pea-work; one. in form of a memorial ; 
and the other, of an engrossed testimonial by 
J. W. Swank, in the Treasury Department, 
Washington, D. C, have been received. The 
artietio skill displayed both in the de^igu and 
execution of those works is of a high order of 
n^erit. Around one of these is the border, copies 
of which Mr. Swank advertiaes in another col- 
umn for sale. It is certainly very artistic. 

E. L. Wiley, office of the Clerk of the 
Courts for Belmont County. St. Clhirville, O., 
a letter. 

T. J. Collins, Utoka, Onl., a letter. 

C. A. French, in the Poat-olfice, Boston, 
Masa., a letter. 

George N. Cobb, Steward, III., a letter and 

J. C. Knapp, Itushville, 111., a letter and two 
flourished birds. 

W. H. Patrick, penman at Sadler's B. & S. 
Business College, Baltimore, Md., a letter. 

T. J. Kisingi^r, penman al the Spenoerian 
Business College, Detroit, Mioh., a letter, and 
club of subsoribere to tbe JouitNAL. 

Dyer B. Huletl. Pawlel, Vi., a letter with a 
club of subscribers to the Journal. Mr. H. 
writes a really good hand, which be saya is 
due chiefly lo the instruction given in the 

S. Van Vliet, penman at Bryant's Buffalo 
(N. Y.) Business College, a letter. 

A. G. Coonrod, Minneapolia (Minn.) Acad- 
emy, a letter, 

G. W. Wave, South West City, Mo., a letter 
and flourished bird. 

J. T. Henderson, Baldwin University, Berea, 
Ohio, a letter. 

H. T. Lonmis. a photo of a Memorial of 
Mary Duty Spencer, ibe lately deceased wife 
of Piatt R. Spencer. The Memorial wae from 
the Students of the Spencer Detroit (Mich.) 
Business College to Mr Spencer. The engross- 
ing, which was by Mr. Loomis, is a very cred- 
itable piece of work. 

One of the most elegaatly-wrilten letters and 
cards, received duriug the month, ia from A. 
M. P. Drouin, a member of the Chirographic 
Club of (juebec. Canada. 

S. C. Williams, special teacher of penman- 
ship and buok-keepiog in the schools of Lock- 
port, N. Y., an elegantly-written letter. In it 
he says: "You deserve the thanks of every 
teacher and student of penmanship in the 
country, for putting into their hands such a 
publication as the Jouhnai,. My family are 
about as much interested in it as I am." 

W. L, Howe, principal of the Oskaloosa 
( Iowa ) BusinesB College, cards. 

J. W. Nicholson, Pleasant Plain, Iowa, a 
letter, a set of capitals, and several well-written 

Andrew Danieln, a lad of fifteen years, of 
Albert Lea, Minn., a letter and specimens of 
flnuriahing quite creditable. 

A. S. Oflborn, penman of the Rochester { N. 
Y.) Business Uuivei-eity, a letter. 

P. A. Wealrope, penman and teacher, Grant, 
owa, a letter and several card specimens. 
I. T. Daniels, London, Eog., a letter. 
C. H. Rand, Epsom, N. H., a letter and 
ipeoimens of buBiness-writing. 
W. D. Rockland, Union Springs, N. Y., a 

Carl Lyeing, Sauk Centre 
(Wis.) Academy, writes a cred- 
itable letter and Bays: "Three 
months since, when I com- 
d taking the JOURNAL, 
ircely write my 

L. L. Tucker, penman at the 
New Jeraey BuBiness College, 
Newark, N. J., a letter. 

L. R. Denham, teacher of 
penmanship and book-keeping 
at Alma College. St. Thomas, 
Ont., a Buperbly-written letter, 
and Hat of subscribers to the 

M. P. Moore, penman, Mor- 
gan, Ky., a flourished biid, and 
a splendidly ■ written letter, in 
which he says: "The JOURNAL 
is the moBt valuable of all the 
penmen's papers published." 

A. A. Anderson, Catholic Col- 
lege, Pittsburgh, Pa., a letter 
and card. 

J. E. Gustue, Mcpherson, 
Kas., a letter. 

J. H. Biyant, penman at the 
Spencerian Business College, 
Wanhington, D. C, a letter. 

N. S. Beardsley, special 

teacher of writing in the public 

ssbools ol Council Bluffs, Iowa, 

a letter, and club of subscribers 

to the Journal. 

A. W. Dakeu, penman, Tully. N. Y., a letter. 

J. M. Benisb, of the Island City ( Galveston, 

Texas ) Butiness College, a letter. 

S. M. Gibson. Greensboro, Ala., a letter, and 
specimens of written cards, and a flourished 

N. E. Ware, Sharon, Ga., a letter and fiour- 
ishedbird. He says : "The Journal has been 
a great help to me for the last four years. I 
wish it were in the baud of every teacher in 

G. W. Ware, South West City, Mo., a letter 
and copy- slips. 

J. A Willie, penman at the Yadkin (N. C.) 
College, a lelter, which for a tad of ihirleeu is 
something remarkable. He says: "TbeJoUR- 

J. H.Cbappe 

I, St. Roach, Quebec, a letter. 
I letter and 


N. Y., 

ird specimens. 

Kurance agent, Lowell, 

S. C. Chapman, Bayli« 
lege, Dubu<]ue, HI., a lett< 

lege, Boston, Mai 
E. K. 

a Cunimeroial Col- 

aaacs, editor of the Chirograpltei 
Valparaiso, Ind., a letter. 

D. £. Blake, a student al Musaetman's Bus 
nesH College, Quinoy, 111., a letter 4nd set i 

P. B. Shinn, American Normal College, Lo- 
gansport, Ind., a letter and bird specimea: 

L. J. Moser, Wurlemburg, Pa., a lelter. 

H. D. Smith, Elk Rapids, Mich., a lelter. 

L. G. Lorriman, Port Robinson, Ont.. a lel- 
ter and card. 

Emily Sabine, a teacher of penmanship in 
the advanced school, Ulica, N. Y., a letter in 
most excellent style. 

H. Blackwood. Halifax. N. S.. a letter. 

C. A. Bush, Philadelphia, Pa., a letter and 
several specimens of tlourisbiug. 

John Smith, Philadelphia, Pa., a good spec- 
imen of business-writing. 

W. V. Chambers, Mt. Vernon, Iowa, aleli«r. 

H. A. Stoddard, Rockford ( 111.) Bualness 
College, a letter. 

C. H. Pierce. Business College, Keokuk, 
Iowa, a letter. 

W. W. Burnet, Spencerian Business College, 
Cleveland, Ohio, a letter in splendid style. 

A. L. Gilbert, Spem 

M ilwauket 
C. R. Cr( 

Bnsbnell (III.) 

■•tter and set of fluuriBhed capitals. 
II, A. Oetrom, New York, a specimen of 

A. B. Capp. Heald's Bu; 
, CaU, a letter. 

I College, Saa 


Robert H. Vytv, Troop II.. Second U. S. 
Cavalry, Fort Cualer, M. T., a letter. 

G. B. Jones, Bergen, N. Y.. a letter. 

H. P. McDonald, Boston, Masa.. a letter. 

Fred Johnson, Manchester, N. H., a letter. 

R. W. Cobb, Champagne ( 111.) Business 
College, a littler aud Uouriabed bird. 

J. O. T. McCarthy, penman in the W r 
Department. Washington, D, C, two phoio- 

grapbn of elaborately eogrosBed teslimotiialB, 
in wliich in manifeHted cutiHiderable artistic 
skill botb iu design and execulioD. 

A. J. Taylor, of Taylor's BusineBB College, 
RocIieBter, N. Y. a spleiididly-writtea letter. 

J. C. Sheath, at Ibe MetropolilaD BusineBa 
College. Chicago, III., a letter. 

The " Williams and Packard's Guide to 
Practical Penmanship/' and "The Cong- 
don Normal System of Flourishing and 
Lettering" are out of print. Neither of the 
works wilt be reprintpd. The " Williams 
and Packard's Gems of Penmanship" is 
also out of print, but in the press is a new 
edition, which the publishers promise to 
have ready soon, when orders now stand- 
ing on our books will be promptly tilled. 

Educational Clubs. 
Editor of the Journal. 

Dear Sir: In the last issue of the JOUE- 
NAL you very wisely presented views favor- 
ing the organization of ehirographic clubs. 
The necessity of effecting such organizations 
throughout the country must be conceded, 
and how to carry forward the mission is a 
question of vital importance, which should 
receive caudid consideration at the coming 
meeting of the Educational Association at 
Rocheeter. AU the processes in education, 
from the Kindergarten and primary up to 
the graduating grade of the Uuiveraity, are 
interwoven with the art of writing. In a 
broad and intelligent sense all scbooU have 
become writing-schools, since the exercises 
of both elementary and advanced educatioo 
are attended step by step witli written as 
well as oral processes In the mastering of 
the words of any language they must be 
given written structure. The young reader 
often writes out the lesson, that his educa 
tion in reading m^y extend to the written 
as well as the printed page. The student 
writes out liis arithmetic, indites his gram- 
mar, records pages of history, presents 
essays and written examinations. The pro- 
cesses of eiiucaiion carried to a definite re- 
sult should find the sludeut passiug from 
lower to higher grades in hii work, carrying 
with him well written books or parts of 
books, written in long or short hand, bear- 
ing upon the title pages his own imprint as 
compiler of the volumes. A large blank 
volume should accompany every text-book 
for school use, and as the studeut gathers 
knowledge from the one he should make 
record of it iu the other. The graduate 
should be able to point to his hand-made 
library, each volume bearing his name 
showing bis responsibility for the work, 
however imperfect or meritorious it may be. 
This process is more successfully maintained 
in our leading business colleges, than in any 
other inatitutioDB of learning. 

One pari of education is the acquirement 
oi knowledge, and the other cousists in 
giving expression, circulation and 
to thoughts, views and opinions, 
tield of agruulture sending forth annually 
it« wealth of productions to feed the world, 
shows the uianifeslalion of the mental and 
physical power of man to touch the forces 
of nature and gather therefrom her fruits in 
thtir time aud season. The cities of the 
world are but the mind of man wrought 
iuto tho form of edifices through wood, iron, 
bricks aud granite. His mind has assimi- 
lated the forces of steam and electricity, and 
periorms through their alchemic agency gi- 
gantic labor in manufacturing and distrih- ' 
uting the fruits of skill and industry to the 
nations of the earth. The farmer, artisan, 
merchant, financier aud professional man, iu 
proportion lo their virtue, intelligence and 
industry, contribute to the pi ogress, achieve- 
ments and glory of the age in which they 
live. Their endeavors and activities make 
up the business of the world and develop 
civilization and government. 

The acquiring of knovrledge, and thereby 
disciplining the mind, is the province of ed- 


ucation. Its use and application finds force, 
expression and manifestation through the 
innumerable vocations which make the great 
sum and volume of the world's business. 
Oral and written speech form tho inalienable 
concomitant of both education and business. 

Educational clubs should be multiplied, 
and fostered as an aid to tfie agencies for 
technical training now existing. The ses- 
sions of these clubs are usually held at 
night, and invite the presence of those em- 
ployed during the day. Persons of good 
moral character, whether young,middle-aged 
or old, are eligible to membership, if in 
need of instruction or review in practical 
branches essential to industrial life. The 
study and practice of practical writing at all 
times form an important feature of the 
work of Educational Clubs. 

The reports of these organizilions through 
the Journal will, it is to be hoped, appear 
often to interest and encournge its many 
thousands of patrons. 

H. A. Spencer. 

About Exchanging Autographs. 
JSrfi(oro/(Ae Journal. 

Becoming interested iu the matter of au- 
tographs, and thinking it very fraternal, I 
sent to Prof. Peirce, of Keokuk, and many 
others, my autograph written uyou uurnled 
paper, size, 4x!) inclusive, without folding, 
as directed in the August No. of the Jour- 
nal. Tlie autograph I received iu return 
from Prof. Peirce, aud some others, failed 
in every point, except that it was truly a 
gem of writing. It seems to me that the 
"Electric Light of the West" is not very 
effulgent or the Professor would be able to 
see clearer, and carry out more accurately 
his own suggestions. It would be impossi- 
ble to bind int J an album some I have re- 
ceived without spoiling tho appearance of 
tiie book by so many irregular loaves. Let 
us all be as careful as we are generous. 
Dubuque, loioa. C. S. Chapman. 

"Poor Jeremiah." 
To the Editor of the Journal. 

Sir: The Petiman's Gaeette is getting to 
be s funny paper. I speak of it beoaoie 

no one would mistrust it by anything whii-h 
has hitherto appeared in its columns. In 
the May number, however, the accomplished 
editor juet strikes out from the shoulder, 
and the character of his ever-brilliant self- 
advertising sheet can no lonjjer be in doubt. 
He says he would like to "help drown 
some of the rabble that write up and print 
their own sketches and then quarrel together 
over their respective merits." Isn't that a 
little rough on Jeremiah Jones, who furn- 
ished two or three columns of this sort of 
mush for three consecutive issues of the 
Oa:ettei Can it be that Gaskell contem- 
plates suicide I Or does he mean simply to 
walk ofi' the ffrry-boat by mistake some fine 
moonlight night f If it were not fixed in 
the decrees of Fa*e that he was never born 
to be drowned, it might be well to notify 
the police. It would be really too bad to 
lose Gaskell. Judge. 

Portland, Me., March 26th, 1884. 
D. T. Ames. 

My Dear Sir: The inclosed, clipped 
from your excellent paper of last issue, will 
be likely to convey a false impression if not 

Short-hand.— Isaac Pitman invented 
shorthand in 1837; in 1854 Graham pub- 
lished his "Reporter's Manual"; iu I^IK! 
Munson issued his "Complete Phonog- 
rapher." Munson's system is the latest of 
the three practical systems of shorthand. 

The present system published by Isaac 
Pitman bears not so much resemblance to 
his original invention as the other systems 
above mentioned. Benn Pitman is nearer 
like the original I. Pitman than any of the 
leading systems, and has a greater follow- 
ing in the U. S., but Isaac Pitman's is the 
"latest" of the loading styles of phonog- 
raphy, having been revised as late as 188:). 
Yours truly, 

W. E. H iCKCOX. 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the " Slandaro 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Guide 
to Self-InstruclioD in Artistic Penmanship" 
( in paper covers; 25 cents extra in cloth.) 
Price each, separate, $1. 

Women as Accountants. 

They Make Fewer Mistakes and a 

Far More Honest and Reliable 

THAN Men. 
Altho'igh hundreds of woi 
tinns of financial trust in th 
have yet to hear of one of thei 
of embezzlement or delalcati' 
denoe clearly 
who believe t 

n hold'posi- 

beiog guilty 

. The evi- 

the position of those 

sn are qualified mor- 

ally, physically, and intellectually, for the 
handling of money in stores or in banks. 
Gi-n. Spiuner, wht) first introduced women 
into the United States Treasury, left on 
record a striking testimonial to the efficien- 
cy and integrity of the sex, and no one 
ever had a better opportunity to study the 
question than he, who at one time had one 
thousand women under his direction, en- 
gaged chiefly in handling money. He tes- 
tifies that they count more accurately and 
rapidly thau men ; that their ability to de- 
tect counterfeits proved to be superior in 
almost every test ; that they were, without 
an exception, honest, aud were invariably 
more careful and painstaking in their w^.^k. 
Complaints of inaccuracy aud carelessness 
on the part of men were made frequently 
during Gen. Spinner's administration of the 
United Stales Treasury, but such complaints 
against lady elerks were few. Th© shrewd- 
est and quickest detectors of counterfeit cur- 
rency were women, and, in case of dispute 
as lo the genuineness of money. Gen. Spin- 
ner invariably took the judgment of a Miss 
Grandin, who was for a long time employed 
in his bureau. Iu speaU'ng of her ability 
iu this particular, one day Gen. Spinner 
said : " If I were a believer iu clairvoyance 
I should say that she possessed that power ; 
but I am not, so I call it instinct." Although 
there are several thmsaud women employed 

by the G>»vernm 

eut as clerks, accountants. 

post-mistresses a 

nd in other capacities, not 

one has ever pro 

od unfaithful to her trust. 

Many have been 

discharged for incapacity 

and for other rea 

ons, but never for dishon- 

sty.- -Albani/ Journal. 

hing to have their address 
changed, should be careful to give both tho 
old and new address. 

The Schoolmaster. 

The u[i.-errrtin propUec 

J- ol lieit 


He teHBel Ibe mitten 

■inded e 


PU, ea OPOM ph.. on .t 

y nnrle" 


SsDff long*, and lutU « 

t nliat 1 


In uaMie Dntrinnuih » 



To i>eitdtfl ifare* I 
Or lUro.i»h Ihe to, 
In lonely Lowlan.l 

The Hawkeye Humorist 
Tells of a Doo that 'iVext oip akd 
Lost Uimselp. 
Oa the Wejlern fttrm where much of the 
suminertiine of my life wa? passed we had 
a d,.i. There b^iiig two or three boys on 
the fann, we had seven or fight di>g8, as a 
tiialter i-f fart, hut there was one parlicular 
dog, wilh whoee tail I desire to point a 
moral. He wag a hunter. Morning after 
morning, summer and winter, he went forth 
to hunt. Night after nij^ht he came linck 
hoTne, his hair full of hura, his feet cov^^ed 
wilh Btone bruiaea, and his ears pendent 
with wond ticks. Fur foven long years 
that d'g lived on the farm. Pie gnawed 
not the bone of idleness, Dfilher was he 
wise in the conceit nf ihe sluggard, because 
in all ihose seveo years he hunted all the 

the slothful he " roasteJ not thai lie took in 
hunliug," ( Prov. xii., 27), because he 
never found anything. N^t one single, 
one solitary, lost thing did he find in'all 
thfse seven yeara" hunting. Never found a 
thing. But we kept him, because we bo- 
lieved, indeed we knew, tliat the dog's in- 
tentions were ^ood. lie meant well. 
Every morning as he went forth, happy and 
confidentf he hoped to tind something and 
to bring il homo with him jnyoua and tri- 
umphant. But he never did. And at last, 
one keen, clear, bracing November day he 
went down in the ferny glens and lost him- 
eelf. We never heard that he died ; no- 
body ever saw him or heard anything of 
him again; his bark came back no more; 
he was just lost; he had wrapped the drap- 
ery of ihe unknowable about him and 
joined the innumerable caravan of intangi- 
ble things he had been hunliug for years 
The mural i,f this pas'-ago is self-evident. 
There are men, even in your own circle of 
acq'iaintancp, who hunt all their lives and 
never tiud auything. They are iuduMrious, 
patient, hopeful, and yet never arcompliab 
anythiug. Tiiey take the Congressional 
Record for its jokes and read the iVadon 
for political iusiruclion. IIo goes to the 
minstrel (.how for amuspment and reads the 
Washington papers for news. IIo goes to 
a sdiniiier boarding-house to get cool, and 
takes a vscition that ho m:*y rest. He 
goes to the country for cream and fresh 
eggs, aud kpeps a horse to save street-car 
fiirc. In all this he doeth foolishly. He 
hunts well enough but not wisely. You must 

know, my boy, before you go hunlinp, 
where to hunt for what you want. You 
might go deer elalking all over Coney Is- 
land for twenty years and never bring home 
a pair of brrmching antlers to hang in the 
ancestral halls of the Hat io which you live. 

i been 

[ Appla. 
19, thei 

e mistaken your 
I will not or can- 
ire early and laic 

The Causes of Failure. 

Wo clip the following from a report of 
an Address lately delivered, by the Hon, 
Chauncey M. Depew, before medical stu- 
dents in New York city. 

" In our American vocabulary and popu- 
lar philosophy everything almost is ascribed 
to luck and opportunity. The country is 
cn.wded with men whose careers h 
wasted or wrecked by the speculations, fe 
erish anxieties, lack of tfxed purpose a 
persistent industry, and the hopes and d 
appointments thus incurred. While th( 
elements form part of the phenomenal si 
cesses which astonish the world of busine 
the prizes in the professions belong only 
<hu8e who honestly win ll 
Crowded as ate all the ai 
ways about as much roo 
is able to occupy. Failu 
causes: one that you hi 
calling; the other that y. 
not work. The meu who 
at their vocation, who are alert to take ad- 
vautagn of every opening, who are not 
swerved to the right or left by weariness or 
dpsire for change, who do the best they 
know how whatever they attempt to do at 
all, f<irm the minority which invariably 
wins. [ Applause ) Commodore Vanderbilt 
once remarked to me in regard to an excep- 
tionally brilliant man, who fell continually 
exasperatiugly short of what his friends ex- 
pected, *■ There is a cog loose somewhere 
in his machinery." The old Couimodore 
was not a metaphysician or mental philoso- 
pher, but with his usutl keen, hard sense 
he pointed out the difficulty of the mass of 
pn.fe-^Monal failures. Their mental eq.iip- 
inenl is f.-r some other purjiose. Tlie mo- 
ment a man discovers that nature intended 
him for something else, let him stand not 
on the order ol his going, but go at once, 
before starvation drives him and orders hiiu 
up. [Applause] The sooner a poor doc- 
tor, lawyer or tlerygman recognizes that 
his genius is for merchandise or types, the 
skilled trades or accounts, the better for 
himself, the professiou and the world. 1 
have secured positions fur two lawyers — one 
as a brakesman, and the other as a freight 
(dork, and both a'e advancing with earnest 
strides and confident antiripanons toward 
the presidency of the road. [ Liuj^hter ] 
The disappointments and heart-burnings in 
a career come largely from our false sland- 
ards of success. We are over-educated in 
the views that wealth, income and expen- 
;3 only indices. lu the absorbing 
ore money come the tampering 
wilh trust funds, peculaiions and suicides, 
which are the sociological problems of the 

"But when properly trained and fitted, 
as certain at the rising and setting of the 
sun. eo sure is the doctor of position and in 
come suffii-ient for a clean and healiliful life, 
and its opportunities for usefulness and 
honor. The first few years of self-denial 
and struggle are not the dreaded evils they 
are pictured, but rather the athlete's train- 
ing, the soldier's discipline, their hardships 
forgotten, their experience and value hap- 
pily remembered after the victory. [ Ap- 
plause,] We lawyers are accustomed to 
saying that we owe to you the most lucra- 
tive part of our practice— contesting the 
wills aud settling the estates of your vio- 
tirns." [ Laughter. 1 

A recent adveriiseinent read as follows: 
" If the gentleman who k'eps the shoe sto'-e 
with a rod head will return the umbrella of 
a youuK lady wiih whalebone rilis and au 
iron handle to the slate-roofed grocer's shop 
ho will hear of something to his advantage, 
as the same is the gift ol a deceased mother 
now no more, with the name engraved on it." 

rush for i 

Lively Correspondence, 


School Officehs. 
West New Bhigiiton, N. Y., 
Nov. 2Ist, 18^3. 
J. G.Clark, M.D.: 

Dear Sir: — Your favor of the I-Ith Inst, 
has been duty received, and as yot* have 
wiitten one of similar Import tu School 
Trustee A. C. Wood, it is assumed that 
you have written your letter to me as being, 
in some sense, a representative ol the peo- 
ple of the school district, and I will "oblige'' 
you by publicly answering it. Ycur letter 
is as follows : 

W. N. BmonTOM, 

Nov. 14ih, 1883. 
Mr. Hunt : 

Bear Sir :— Will you be good enoueh to 
explain to me why my school tax is $42 55 
more than last year f 

I think it is an unfair thing for people, 
who can aft^ird to ray for thoir children's 
scho.diug (aud a mean thine, too) tn be 
sending them to the public schools, which, 
as I understand it, are (-t the children of 
poor people who cannot atford to pay any- 

Aq answer will oblige, 

Yours, respecifully, 

J. D. Clahk. 

In reply, I beg to say : 

The school tax is higher than it was last 
year, because at the aunual school meeting 
the voters decided, for the benefit of the 
children, to raise a larger sum this year than 
they did last year, and to spend il in pur- 
chasing new desks, seats, and in making 
other permanent improvements, and in pny- 
iog two additional teachers and rent rooms 
for them, and la paying the necessary inci- 
dental expenses, in order that 2:il of their 
children, in Miss Haggerty's and .Mi?" Per- 
ry's roomi, could attend school a whole diy, 
Instead of a-half of a day, as they have been 
doing for the last year. 

Your proportion of this additional tax is, 
I assume, $42 5,5, and I assume that you 
have to pay il, because you have practiced 
uipdicine io this neighborhood fur a long 
time, and have accumulated in tlds school 
district a large property, including nine 

You occupy one of your houses, and rent 
to tenants the other eight. Because there 
are good schools in the neighborhood, are 
you not receiving more rent lor them, and 
thus getting your money back f 

I am Dot entirely clear as to the meaning 
in the remainder of your letter. Whether 
you think me a "mean" man for sending 
two children to the public school, or whether I 
you intended so to stigmatize nearly every 
family in the district. 

If you intended, because I send children 
to the public school, to characterize me per- 
sonally as " mean," it would be unnecessary 
to '• oblige " you with an answer ; but if you 
intended to include almost every household 
in the district, an answer could be filly given. 

The language seems to include many be- 
sides myself; but that view is a little con- 

to hide ynnr manhood behind a dollar, and 
the dollar appears to be ample fur the pur- 
Is it not posfible that you have been so 
engroFsed in your vocation that you have 
bfcome " rusty " concerning the traditions, 
the genius, and the taws of government un- 
der which you live! 

Sir William Berkely. Royal Governor of 
Virginia from 104 1 to ICtlO, in reply to the 
commissioners sent to icquire in the Colo- 
ny, said, "Thank God! we have no free 
schools." Doctor, have you heard that some 
very interesling events have happened since? 
C. W. UutiT.—School Bulletin. 


Washington as a Wrestler. — Great 
pommanders have not, as a rule, been not- 
able for the possession of extraordinary phy- 

1 of treat slrer 
) a looker-on a 


1 exception, 
n his youth 
fslling con- 
'porl, threw 
) eLJny his 


Piace, renting for $:((iO each. The tenants 
send children to our public school. 

Shall we assume that families that pay 
you $300 per annum for house rent could 
not atford to pay anything for their chil- 
dren's schooling f Or shall we consider that 
you let your houses to people that you know 
are "mean"! Or would we be justified in 
thinking that public schools are not, and 
were not, intended to be exclusively a ren- 
dezvous for pauper children, and that you 
are writing letters on a subjcot you know 
nothing about ¥ 

For fifteen years I have lived within a few 
hundred feet of your residence, and If you 
ever attended a school meeting, or spent 
an hour's time or one dollar in money for 
any public purpose, that has not been forced 
from you by taxation, it has failed to come 
to my knowledge. 

It will, no doubt, seem to some of your 
neighbors, as it dofs to me, that your brand- 
ing almost every family on Slaten Island as 
" uufair" and "mean," comes from eniirely 
mercenary motives, and that you are trying 

test, and, growing weary of 
himself at the foot of a tn 
book. By-and by he was challenged to try 
a fall with the hero of the occation. At first 
ho declined, but finding bis refusal attrib- 
uted to fear, he entered the arena, and, 
without taking oS' his coat, grappled with 
his opponent, and after a brief struggle 
hurled him to the ground with such force 
that the best wrestler iu Virginia was in 
much the same predicament as the Duke's 
wrestler when he tried conclusions with Or- 
lando. Liter on in life, while watching 
some young follows contending at throwing 
the bar, Wasliiiieton asked to be allowed to 
try what he could do; and, grasping the 
bar, sent it flying throU£;h the air, to land 
many feet beyond the limit attained by any 
of the competitors. Aud slill later, when 
he might be said to be getting old, he 
showed that he had not lost his strength of 
arm. Taking a morning ride, he saw three 
of his workmen vainly endeavoring to raise 
a large stone. Jumping off his liorse, he 
pu:«hed the men asidn, and without any ap- 
parent etf.trt, lifted the stone to its proper 
place, and then remounting, rode on. 

A Lawveu's Novel.— Prof. Swing, of 
Chicago, iu an address at the Aclon, Ind., 
assemblage, approved of j idtLMHUs novel 
reading, aud told this anecdote: *' I heard of 
a Chicago lawyer once whose wife read two 
novels to him when he was sick, and he 
said to her : ' I have been eotirely too much 
wrapped up in law, and have forgotten al- 
most everything else. When I get well I 
shall lay aside my statutes and write a nov- 
el,' aud so he did. The first chapter told 
about a nice young man and a pretty young 
woman. The second told how they fell in 
Itve. The third, a very pretty chapter, told 
how they took a w;dk together in the even- 
ing, and how they got outside the town be- 
cause the sun went down and they couldn't 
see the corporation line. It was a very ro- 
mantic story, but he spoiled il in the next 
chapter. Afier the lovers were appropriate- 
ly seated in the shade of a spreading oak, 
although it was night, the young man said : 
' Adelaid", I can no longer conceal my feel- 
ings. I love you madly, di.-tractedly, wild- 
ly. I cannot live wiihout you. Your image 
is in my heart by night and by day, and 
without you my life is incomplete.' Now, 
thai was all very pretty, but — would you 
believe itt— the .awyer commeu'-ed that 
maiden's answer to that burning declaration 
with : ' The other ])aTty responded substan- 
tially as follows,' and that took away all the 

Jails and State prisons are the complement 
of scbooU; so many less as you have of the 
latter, S'» many more you have of the form- 
er. — Horace Afntin. 

Fine Oblique Gold Pens. 

We have recently examined and tried a 
lot <•{ eohl pens mad^ by H. Gries- 
haber of Detn it. which appear l<i be all that 
can be dei'ired in that kind of pen ; the 
I ointa were firm, fiuo, clear and smooth, 
and iu every way worthy of commendatioD. 

Sy/THlL-'PKSMXy'S \T,-|y^AKT JOUK.MAL,'7t> 

••^'JiPiJK- '"«»'^'" 

What is Said of the "Guide." 


t ot ibfulmoit ImiMHianm t 


TAnoemcnl. o 

>.rr.>nl« mora •■IlirAiriinD 

S M 



reading, ipel 

quind by any one by patleu 




B " !■ a book of rlxlyfonr lar 

e« r 

^Dlly prlDl*d 

.inll.eflne.tq..*ilyol ptBie 


I (ITU nlll rarely be fuund. — Jfotre Dame Stho- 

«,,l« r,f plain Md omftmenlal penmaofchlp."- 
i S. J )Dails, Journal. 

QCEER Book- KEEPING. — Our readers 
are dniibilesa raiuiliar with the olJ auecdote 
deBcriptive of the original way io which a 
certain country merchant kept bis books. 
A cuanniipr once tisserted that he never pur- 
chased the " one cbeeso" charged to bim in 
his bill. The merchant looked over hia one 
book, which was day-book, journal, and 
ledger. " You're right," he said. " It should 
have been one grindstone; I forgot to put 
a dot in the circle." In hia btok-keeping a 
circle stood for a cbeeee, but a circle with a 
dot in ilB center meant a grindatone. Queer 
as was this system of kf op ng books, it 'n 
parallflpd by the folUtwing entriPS made in 
1817, 1818, and 1819, and copied verbatim 
from the books of Scott &. Laurie, dry gooda 
merchants in New York : 

The tailor in Chapel Street owes 48. 

A hlHok gill owee Vi 1 2c. 

Fttt man, Custom House officer, 1 pr. gloves, 

The woman who loel ber ebawl at her 
brolhtr'a funeral, 1 pr. gloves, 2« Gd. 
A colored woman in Auibuny Street owes 2s. 
A lillle girl. 7 Thomas Sire*-t, sundries, 33. 
A ojlHti, 20 Author; Street, owes seven and 

The gii I over ihe wHy owes eleven pence. 

— louth's Companion. 

Who should Subscribe for the 


Every lady or gfintlemaD wbo would 

make an efl'ort for the improvement of their 

wriiiog nl homo or in tbuir place of busi- 

Evcry tencber and pupil of writing in our 

Every parent wbo has 6ons or daughters 
wboin ho would have become more inter- 
ested or ellicient in their writing. 

Every school (.nicer wbo would bo fa- 
miliar with Ibc l.igbest standards of writing 
and best methods frr its lustructiou. 

Every admirer of good practical or artis- 
tic pcumansliip. 

If you want a good and durable poQ of 
medium fineness, seud thirty cents for one- 
fourth gross of ''Amee's Peuman'a Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

A Story of Justice Waite. 




When Chief Justice Waite starlfrd to go 
to B<illimore to ke^p an engagpineut the 
other afterno'H, and had reached the licket- 
office, he discovered, to bis horror, that he 
had only a few pennies in his pocket. He 
had neglected to provide biirself with money 
fur the trip. He looked around the waiting- 
room of the station, and he saw no one be 
knew. What was to be done must he done 
(I'lickly. His engHgemtnt was an important 
one, so be filed up in the line to the tirket- 
office, and when he reached the agent the 
Chief JuMice sujiled an awful smile across 
the full width of bis enormous mouth and 
asked the ticket-agent if be knew him? 

"No, I d<m't," snarled tho agent, "and 
what is more I don't want to. What do you 

" I want a ticket to Baltimore and return. 
I am the Chief Justice of ibe Sopreme Court. 
I have no money with me. It is purely ac 
cidental. I can give you my personal check.' 

*' Oh, I know you. I know all the bloods, 
but that dodge won't work on me. I have 
jist h»d two members t f the Cubinet try to 
bilk me out of titkets, and no Chief Justice 
d<idgo gets me. Take your ugly luuij out 
of the window and get out of the way of 
people who have money." 

The Chief Justice glared. He could not 
fine the young man fjr contempt of court. 
He felt cheaper and worse than if he had 
been a real fraud, and he blushed and per- 
spired so that the agent bad bis firm belief 

The Chief Justice dashed out of the sta- 
tion to see if he couldn't find some one to 
identify him. He had only five minutes left. 
At the entrance to a saloon he accosted the 
proprietor with the frantic inquiry of, " Do 
jou know met" 

" Ycr bet yer head I do, yer Honor," said 
a Fbort-haired, freckled- faced man behind 
the bar. " Yer are the boas of Ibe Shuprame 
Coort. I see ;e ivery day guiu' by here on 
the cars." 

'•WillyoQ cash my check t I have no 
time to explain." Here the Jus'ice grabbed 
a piece of paper and a pen on a desk near 
by and began to write hurriedly. 

" Shure I will. I have seen ould boys ofi" 
on a tear before get out of money. Trusht 
me, sorr. It is a $20 ye wantt Here it is. 
Will ye have a drop before ye run f " 

But before any further explanation could 
be made the Chief Justice bad grabbed the 
money and was running across the street. 
In some way the lickel-aEcnt had learned 
of his blunder during the Judge's absence 
and was all jioliieness when ho saw the 
money. Mr. Waite barely made the traiu. 
— Washington Letter in Chicago News. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Reinember, that if you or or either our 
"New Compcudiuin of I'ntclical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship, " or the "Guide to Self- 
insiruciiun," and they arc not saiisfdctory, 
you iiiiiy return them, and we wiJ refund 
tho entire amouut puiil. 

Si»j:le copies of the Joubnai, sent i 
leceipt of price, 10 cents. 

Penmanship op British Rotalty. — 

An expert in handwriting as oxpreeeive of 
character has '•written up" the marks of 
sundry British ttatcsmea The members of 
the present cabinet, with the exception of 
Sir Charles Dilke, do not write hands. 
Tho calligraphy of the l»t© Lord Beacons- 
field was elegant, bold and dignititd. But 
of all the writing of ministers, that of the 
tlder Pitt stands pre-eminent f^r its beauty 
and symmetry. Lke Addison's, his hand- 
wrliiug reseuibled copperplate. 

The royal family of Eogland have gener- 
ally written good hands, that of her present 
Majesty being remarkable for its ease and 

grjicefolofss. Iler predecessor, Kme Wil- 
liam IV . wrote legibly and well. The writ- 
ing of Q'iron A--.ue is Urge and tiiajestio 
She tinned herself "Anne R." The first 
letter of the naine was usually a moderately- 
sized capital, hut the succeeding ones grad* 
ually increased tleir dimensions until the 
fiual letter reached eometiuirs almost an 
inch in height. Her irate Majesty was wont 
to rise on her dignity in ii uch the same way. 
M^ry of Scotland figmd btrself neatly and 
prettily, " Marje the Quetn," Both of the 
Charletes wrote plainly ai:d "like gentle- 
men." The same may be said of the four 
Georges, although that of George I. is 
rather etiif and pi dantic. Tlirre is a good 
rieal of pompous display in tho writing of 
Queen Eiizdbfth. Her signature especially 
is resolute but showy. —£'x. 

Normal Penmanship Departm't. 

flctd Prot Sibi 



We can ntieerfully coininend Ihii n^partm^nt to young 

iiiiiga Ibotuugb Knowle.lg-of any or all ul Ibe Depart- 
iQls ul Plain aud Oroameutat I-enmaufthtp. 

U 8 Judt. W. P. Holt, 

J F SluLbleBeld. J A.Walker. 

II. W. We«co. John R. Lober. 

P. H, ScUual'ger. Frack M< Kay 

Luther Audruu. II. M. Sbe«r. 

CbaB. II. Libby. A. H. 

Writing and IVIeasuring Ruler. 

. Wood for 15 oil. 



YOUn nnniK nnlleD on A doreo rnrd-. In iin ^^*ll 
I***.! M)!^, Iur25«.uti. W. UUHLLy. P O Bu 



400 +.T 

\hl HURLEY. 

PriDcipa) of Canada Ba'incM Collpge. Chatham, Oct. 

Learn to Write. 

MS. of ito bf.1 .lyle.. i.oluJing s Mou 
L8riB... .,v.»l .(yie. o( CA1-1TaL8. LaUII 

Addreae J. R. UOLCOMB It CO-, 









JikiiIhi. tree. Au elegut 

2 i'ine St . Pu.llund Malae. 

CENDaiccDts for 8pecl(Boci {(.>r ihort time only) to 

enleO byr 
8p«aoeriao ObUoi 





The Cost of "Going to La 

Stories, the rnornl of which is, " D( 
to law," are uumerous, but not 

iiiK "theCd like Daniel," wbi«h is toM by 
the Boston Globe. When Webster was at 
ihp zenith «>f bis career, the Globe aays a 
geutleman waited upon him one day to en- 
gage bim for tlie defense iu an important 
m^e at law, the amount at stalte in the suit 
l>eiu« $80,000. The geatleman asked Web- 
ster what the retaining fee would be. 

" A thousand dollars." 

"A thouaaod dollars!" exclaimed the 
old gentleman. 

■'Yes, Rut think for a moment what I 
engage tu do, sir. I do not only bold iny- 
8fitr at your service in this matter, perhaps 
for -x mouth or more, but I debar myself 
fiMin accepting any offer, no matter how 
laree, from the plaintiff." 

The applicant was satisfied with this ez- 
plauatiou, wrote ont a check for the amount 
and gave it to the great expouuder, who, 
after he had put it in his pocket, said : 

"I will now give you a bit of advice 
gratis. If you can compromise this business 
upon fair terms with the plaintiff, you had 
biMter do so." 

The client express'^d his thanks and took 
his leave. In a few days after, the gentle- 
mttn called upon Wnbater again, and told 
him that a compromise had been effected, 
and the matter satisfactorily settled. Web- 
ster duly congratulated his visitor on the 
result, and would have turned l» other bus- 
iness, but the visitor seemed to have some- 
thiug further on his mind. 

'■Of cimrse " he ventured after a paose, 
"I shall not rerjuire your services, Mr. 

"Certainly not, sir." 

" And— bow about the thousand dollars I 
paid you?" faintly asked the gpntlemau, 
who was not quite reconciled to paying such 
a sum for services which were never to he 

"Oh, ah," responded Daniel with a bland 
smile, "You don't understand It is very 
simple. That was a retaining fee — called in 
law a 'retainer.' By virtue of the contract 
I also bf come a retainer. What should I re- 
tain if nut my feeV—Des Moines Trade 


The Original Manuscripts. 

Few people kuow that the original Dec- 
laration of Independence is kept in the Li- 
brary of the State Department. It is in a 
cherry ease and under glass. But the doors 
are thrown open all day long, and strong 
rays of light are eating up its ink day by 
day. The Declaration is written on parch- 
ment. The text of it is in a hand as fine aa 
copperplate, and the ink of this part can still 
be plainly read. The signatures, however, 
are written in a different ink, and they are 
very fast disappearing under the action of 
the light. The bold signature of John Han- 
cock is faded almost entirely out. Only a 
J H and H remain. Two lines of names 
are entirely removed from the paper; not a 
vestige of ink remains to show that names 
were ever there. Ben Franklin's name is 
entirely gone. Roger Sherman's name is 
fast fading. I could not find the name of 
Thomas Jefferson, and Elbridge Gerry has 
lost its last syllable. Robert Morris, Benja- 
min Rush, Charles Carroll, and John Adams 
have been scoured off by the light, and only 
eleven names out of the fifty odd can be read 
without a microscope. 

Just below the Declaration lies the origi- 
nal of it in Jefferson's writing. It is on 
foolscap, yellow with age, and worn through 
where the manuscript has been folded. The 
writing is fine and close, and the whole Dec- 
laration occupies but two pages. The ink 
is good, and it remains as fresh as when it 
left the quUl of Jefferson over one hundred 
years ago. It is full of erasures and inter- 
lineations, some of which are in Franklin's 
handwriling, and otliers in the strong script 
of John Adams. These show but little 
change, however, from the Declaration as 
adopted by the peop\e.~ Author's Eeview. 


Peirce's Business College, 


Shading T Square. 

1 -ilarnte Id rigbl [irinoiiile* in 
■ i-iry 0/ the JVeiu England 




me. Few 


neflton (he tiaiiigg«ne 
,D. C. 






B»'" (prolugely ilkii 



29 WARREN ST. ( P. O. BOX 2126), N. Y. 

The Presses are Working off 






"No institution 
can guarantee to its patrons letter results." 

Mo, PKIKtR's BuaiNFBS C0LI,R0R !■ locoled in thi« 
beaulinil city, aod liaH long itnce been eilabliBhed ai oue 
of tbe 1 adiDg i>iitiliilSunB nf its kind in the Uniled 
Stalee. Tbe new ■choulroQiok are large, ligbl and airy 

only »;(5. 
nken alone, »20. 



O gant Kamples of hla ci 

_(;>END 10 cents to A. E. DE^THUaST. aod reoelve e 
3f:Blm St., U(ioB,N.Y. 


lanufaclHrer of tbe celebrated Oblique Gold Pen, \ 

t^rially 10 iU beaiily aod 

1 others. Directory and i 
nen, busineM col leges and 
tens of penmaoabip, and i 

Single Copies. 10 cts. (aiiver); Six Copies, 50 els.; 
Fifteen Copies, \\. 

C. H, RANDALL, Publisher, 

Fairmont, Nebraska. 

Everyone Wants a Copy I 

■i-l'- Only a Silver Dimel 

The Office of the HEW SHORTHAND CO. 






qulr^fl at< 

.xp.rimM,d ma 


"■ "^"^ 

nitr, oa 


CPEC1MEN8 A SPECIALTY.— Send 26 oeola and 

please. Auy numUei ..I d«ign.."i^m 25 ceouMl tach° 
4-1 M. D. MooiLK, Box £7, Uorgao, Ky. 

"■'■""■ " ' •'■- giriog 

prioes and description, 

D. T, 


We give berewilb Spepime 

s of 

eograTed directly from ruling i 

,ne by 


oly 27, 1B80. 

D. T. AMR8— -DMr Sir: In t 

^e great 



signed. Reapwctfully, C. B 

Designer and Draftsman. Ai 

n. Bank 


D. T. Amk8. Esq.— pMr Sir 



lave appUed It. Very 

truly yoQTB, Kiiwakd E 


Dewgnor and Draraman, 


epi. H, 1681. 

hand safely J and, afler putting 11 

we ar* deligbled with the perfec 

hon of 

the work done 

W I thoief.iie able to fill ordeni promptly. See adi 


drawing of bir'«, frnlt and a..wers; Coat of Arms of 
Pennsylvania, in Honrishiug, one ol two net* ol resolutione. 


Barcher's Assorted Colored Inks, 

Expressly prepared fot the use of Penmen and 

t on receipt of tl. 

d get ntty gill edge osnlx in an eltgaot silK ptosb card- 

J, V. WliJiOif, Sberuian Uotiss, Clilcaga, 1 

1 DOZEN cartls. best nuallty, 18 cents i twenty-five, ; 
i oeuls. A. E,DKWUUKoT.3tf Elm St., Ullca.N. ' 

/I81TINO Canls wrillen and sent bv m.nX\ at the fol- 
lowing ratw: Spenoertan Script, ;16 ots. per dos.—*i 
or hundred : Itf different designs, fiuv^slinlle* of pen-work, 

Kindness vs. Harshness. 
I)! DI I) stands for dunce!" So 
(mo r>f " Her MajVaty's Sctiool Tn- 
mall b.>y,fttaTH>3t8n!iQation 
ShplRel.i, Enclaml. Tlip 
iDBpPclcir ( who hud mme from Loodou U> 
test thp echools of SlifffieM. that he might 
compare them with tLoso of the Metropn- 
lie), in ortlfr to pxamine a lare« cinss of 
boj8 in nrithmetic io a way that shonhl 
prflvenl them from aiciiwe one another, di- 
vu]pA them into four sortione, by asisigniug 
) the letters A, B, C. 
was lo l.e given to all 
) all the R's, and so on. 
A modest little boy, who had failed to ap- 
piehend what letter bad been assigned to 
liim, raised his hand. "Well, what do 
you want t " said the inapeetor, impa- 
tiently. " Please, sir," answered the 
trembling lad, " what is my letter t " Then 
followed the brut«l words, '•D! D! T) 
stands for dunce .' " The boy dropped to 
his seat overwhelmed with mortification. 

I looked at that inspector with feelings 
of amazement and indignation, and my 
tboughtsi ( for obvious reasons unexpressed ) 
ran thus: "You have the honor of being 
one of her Mejesty'e School Inspectore, hut 
you are not a gentleman. You have 
nsulted a helpless boy. WIjii 




Bryant & Strattorr 
Counting-House- Book keeping." 






JTO 121 WiujAST Street, New York 

.ruelly i 
right ha 

all hi. 



you do not know what decent ci 
mands of you in the discharge 
duties, you are the dunce, not that 
if you had justice done you, this 
yotir last day as a ecbool inspector. 

This inexcusable language of th; 
in authority brought to my mind 
stances of incivility on the part of aoiiif 
teachers that I have known. Indeed, tlie 
abuse of children by impatient and un- 
gentlemanly teachers, is so common as to 
demand attention and severe rebuke. It 
children are to he trained up to maoQers of 
civility and courtesy, their teachers ought 
surely to be models of true jiolitencss and 
gentleraanliuesa. A buy is a small man, 
and improper treatment affects him in pre- 
cisely the game way, if not the same degree, 
that it affects a full -grown man. An insult, 
whether inflicted upon a boy or upon a 
mun, deserves condemnation. In fact, it is 
a meaner thiug to insult a bny than it is to 
insult a man, for the latter can defend him- 
self, the former is helpless. To call a pupil 
a dunce or a blockhead, is nothing less than 
a shameful outrage. If he be one by na- 
ture, he is to be pitied, not to be blamed ; 
if he is not one, and is so stigmatized by 
the teacher, he is a slanderer and deserves 
expul.iion from the office which he dis- 

The snccees of a school depends largely 
upon the relations which exist between 
teacher and pupils. Independent of all 
the principles and methods of education 
that may be adopted in a school, the bear- 
ing of the teacher towards his pupils is an 
element of vast importance. Mutual con- 
fidence cannot exist in schools unless mu- 
tual kiudneaa and courtesy are constantly 
practiced. If tlie teacher is harsh, satirical, 
overljearing ; if he tails to sympathize 
with all hia pupils, to be patient and kind 
towards the dullest of his charge— he is 
sure to he regarded with dislike or even 
with bitter hatred, and ae a necessary con- 
seipience, hi« infiueuce for good, morally 
and iutclleolually, is weakened, perhaps de- 
stroyed. A teacher's acts and words in the 
8choolnnun ought to he such that if every- 
thing he doex and every viord he utters were 
to be faithfully reported by the daily press, 
he would have no occasion to feel ashamed. 
When a teacher thinks he has caoae to 
punish or rebuke a child, let him imagine 
that the parents of that child are sitting by, 
and then let him do and say no more than 
he is i^uite willing tht-y shall see and hear. 
Were this done by every teacher, I believe 
that there would be a wholesome improve- 
ment in the manners and language of many 
lohoolrooms.— J/« ICducationut. 


American Popular Dictionary 

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Entzrbd at the Post-Offick op 
Nbw York, N. Y., as SocoifD-CLAfls MATran. 

NEW YORK, MAY, 1884. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Number V. 
By a. H. Hinman. 

Copyrighted by A. H. Rinman. 

Much of the beauty of smaU writing is 
due to parallel lines, or lines extending in 
the same direction. In the following Ex- 
ample No. 1 the lines slant in various di- 
rections, while in Example No. 3 the lines 
ofa kind are parallel. 

^'■^ /////// yyyy/y /T/y^ 

In Example No. 3, where the curved linee 
slant in various directions, the letters ap- 
pear irregular, while in Example No. 4, 
where the curved lines are parallel, there 
is system and regularity. 

Vol. VIII.— No. 5. 

In our last lesson we directed attention to 
the slant of straight lines, but in this we 
hold tiat more faults in writing are due to 
the curved lines than the straight. Curved 
lines of uniform slant produce uniform spac- 
mg, as may he seen by the iUustrations in 
this lesson. While in some letters there 
are exceptions to the rule, we believe that 
most of the beauty and uniformity of small 
letters are secured by parallel upward and 
parallel downward lines. EspeciaUy should 
they be parallel where they extend through 
the first space or that occupied by the short 
letters. Beyond one space, as in loops, 
the curves tend in the direction of the 
straight lines. While practicing after the 
foUowiug, one should give a uniform direc- 
tion to all upward lines as well as count 
upon the up-strolies. 


Right here lies the point which 
writers are most particular about, as well 
as the point where amateurs fail. To pro- 
duce the turn with accuracy and ease ne- 
cessitates the slowing of the down-stroke 
at the turn to almost a stop, then a quick 
up-»troke will produce the desired short 
turu. Careful attention to this point will 
eBect a wonderful improvement in the writ- 
ing of all who have never given it special 

Although for many years we have been 
searching for superior methods of criticising 
penmanship, we have found nothing that 
has proven so effeclive in detecting errors 
as the one we will now present, and which 
»e commend to all who wish to write with 
positive accuracy. 

A space is the opening between, at least, 
two boundary lines. In the following il 
lustration the small openings which end in 
points we term minor spaces, and the 
larger openings with rounded ends we term 

'"IWh 7/7/7/7 

arrows; the o by the small o, and I will 
represent the loop. 


As these major and mirmr spaces are found 
in nearly every perfect letter one's aim 
should be to form these openings perfectly, 
for wliere they are imperfect the letters 
must bo so. In the following ( hyminuhy ) 
it will be seen that the letters are composed 
of lines which bound major and minw 
spaces and loops. The dots are seen in the 
major spaces, and the arrows point towards 
the mitior spaces. 


By counting upon the up.strokes . „. 

curacy of direction wiU be secured, as well 
as shorter and more perfect turns at the 
baseline. There is no one thing that is 
the cause of so much inaccurate writing as 
the rounding of turns at the base of letters. 

Until one has mastered the nbility lo shape 
these openings with precision he cannot 
bring his writing tu perfection. Hero is a 
may for those who have the mil. Besides 
these openings there may be seen below two 
others which we will term the o and the 
LOOP. The MAJOR spaces will contain dots. 
The MINOR spaces wUI be shown by the 

By the use of the above four spaces 
nearly every part of any word may be per- 
fectly criticised, and when one can write 
through words making these four openings 
perfect there will be little else essential to 
the most positive accuracy. Whenever one 
is determined to weed out every error in 
his small writing we commend practice 
upon the above four spaces. The excellence 
of this method is due to the fact that in 
studying the openings we train tlie eye to 
perfection of form. While it is true that 
lines must be governed entirely by the form 
one has in mind, then not through a knowl- 
edge of lines but through a perfect knowl- 
edge of forms is the way to success. 

The capitals used with names in this les- 
son present the following features. They 
are composed of graceful curves, are of 
uniform height, slant, and shading, and are 
about the same width. Their general pro- 
portions are about three inches in width by 
four in length. The oval or egg-shape is 
frequently seen. The shades upon the cap- 
itals are nicely tapered, and are strong 
enough to give a pleasing effect without 
appearing conspicuous through beiug over- 
done. The small letters are one apace dis- 
lant from the capiuls, and about one-third 
their height 

stick — bend it as much the other way. If 
one's fingers will rest upon the paper, keep 
them off until the hand can be carried light 
enough to let tliem slide. If the wrist 
drops to the paper, keep it nearly two 
inches above until it will feel natural and 
easy an inch above. " Pa" used to check 
fan with misery. I therefore know from 
experience the value of correcting any 
wrong tendency by an opposite extreme. 

B. P.— Your weak writing is owing to a 
lack of a strong free movement of the fore- 
arm and fingers. Take a lot of smooth 
newspapers ; cut each leaf into fourths for 
practice -paper; select a strong, coarse 
business pen ; and with free-flowing ink 
cut and slash large capitals and bold-shaded 
writing with a strong, bold forearm and 
finger movement. Don't regret breaking 
pens : you need the strong, free movement 
this will develop, and it will not be gained 
as quickly by gentle practice. 

E. M. J. — No J penmanship don't pay. 
Depending upon it to pay insures faUiire. 
Business ability pays. Goods don't pay, 
but making people want them through ad- 
vertising and creating a demand pays. 
Brother Ames and others who make money 
owe their success to getting people to buy 
what they have to sell. Business is the 
horse; feniaansUp, the buggy: the pen- 
man rides only when he iriva buamtes. 

Replies to Questions 

Sent to A. H. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. 

[Mr. Hinman will be pleased to receive 
and answer through the Journal all prac- 
tical questions relative to writing during 
the continuance of his lessons.] 

G. H. S.— Pupils who write a sprawl 
ing hand can be made to overcome the 
habit by practice upon tall and very con- 
densed writing. This will straighten the 
up and down lines, strengthen the writing, 
and correct tlie main fault — sliding too 
much to the right. To straighten a bent 


/^^^^^^^^^^^•^•^^^^^ yn^^a^^T^z^^^sn^' 

Members of the B. E. A. of A., 
Attention ! 

To Business Educators and Penmen : 
Since the meeting of the Preaident and 
j Executive Committee of the Business Edu- 
cators Association of America, in Rochester, 
I February 2d, they have been iu constant 
I correspondence respecting what should be 
done to add value and interest to the com- 
I ing Convention. The contemplated excur- 
sion to the Thousand Islands will, probably, 
be made after adjournment, or else a trip to 
Niagara Falls the Saturday previous. To 
accommodate members who desire to attend 
the National Educational Convention at 
Madison the date of the Rochester meeting 
has been appointed July 17th instead of ■ 
July lUth. The recently published circular 
from the Executive Committee will, on re- 
ceipt of address, be mniled to any who have 
not received it. It is hoped that, as an aid 
to the committee who are doing their best, 
business teachers and penmen will freely 
offer any suggestions which may in any de- 
gree contribute to the general success. 

A. H. Hinman. 

Sm'7 Bx«outiva Oommlu«e B. E A. ol A 

Worcester, Mass. 

c^y(^ ^^dS^ c£^,Ol^ (?3/2.^ 



■ T H 1-: P E VSf A-N'S ' J.v,!-''' I ■ 

A Fight for a Fortune. 

People whose winds are one-eyed, those 
who never eew the per contra side of the 
ledger of facte, called Mr. Cuthbert Clacy a 
tniser. Hie house on the Camdeu Town 
border of Kegent's Park was a email resi- 
dence for a huudred-thoueand-pounder, and 
very fa'led and grimy. Tbe arrangements 
of tbe previous tenant for window floral 
decoration were oonspiouousty neglected, 
because Mr Clacy hated flowers, wbicb in 
his opinion are no better than weeds, since 
the bl-iom d< es not develop into food. He 
reganled the hloaaoniing of fruit trees as a 
deplorable waste of the force of nature, for 
if there was any beauty in the blossono, 
which he stoutly denied, the fruit was none 
the belter for it. If he had had the order- 
ing <pf naiure the trees would have home a 



!vell ; 

tind tliere would have been no season of 
blopsoin. The (urniture of the house and 
the dress of Mr. Clacy were plain and 
shabby. The n*08t liberal "Old Clo'" 
would not have given a set of cheapest jugs 
in exchanee for his coat, waistcoat, trousers, 
and hal. His charity, as he often boasled, 
was liiniled to the compulsory payment of 
poor rates. He did not conceal his love for 
gold. Yellow was the only color he ad- 
mired. Sometimes when he did not feel so 
well as usual he would have a golden balh 
— that is, he procured four or five hundred 
sovereigns, spread them on his bed, and 
rolled in them. He said it was a sovereign 
cure, but be did not intend the remark to be 
funny, heciiuse be held humor and laughter 
to be frivolities that involved a waste of 
vital force. He did not buy newspapers, 
because it would be foolish to part with 
precious pence for the sake of knowing 
what his fellow-creatures were saying and 
doing. In his walks he never passed a pin 
or a piece of paper, and during twenty years 
he had picked up pins and waste paper that 
sold for four pounds eleven shillings and 
eleven-pence halfpenny. 

But a miser is a man who loves gold so 
passionately as to deny himselt the com- 
fiirlB and even the necessaries of life. That 
was not tbe case with Mr. Cuthbert Clacy. 
His out-T garments were shabby, but for 
the preservation of health he wore the best 
flannel next his skin that money could pur- 
chase, and his boots were of tbe finest lea- 
ther and best make, because it is sanitary to 
be well shod. He paitl his cook thirty guin- 
eas a year, because good cooking pleases 
tbe palate and agrees with the stomach. He 
drank costly wines and he smoked cigars of 
the dearest brands. He denounced mar- 
riage as a senseless and ruinous folly, and 
so he was a bachelor of seventy winters; 
but besides an efficient housekeeper and a 
professed cook he fed and paid two serv- 
ants, so that he might have 

No, Mr. Cuthbert Clacy was not a n 
He was avaricious, which is perhaps m 
uncoinmou failing; be was very fond of 
himself, which is probably not a rare ph»ee 
of affection ; but he did not care for appear- 
ances and the opinion of society, which is 
certainly an exceptional peculiarity. The 
main difference between him and those who 
called him a miser was due to his not cai iug 
to seem what he was not ; he was content 
to be an unwbited sepulchre, whi.e they 
were assiduously whitewashed sepulchres. 
If he had dressed well, gone to church reg- 
ularly, and subscribed a few pounds to ad- 
vertising charities, he would, despite his 
avarice, have lived in tbe odor of respecta- 
bility, and, like other bundred-tboueand- 
pounders, been profusely lickspittled. 

Gold is scentless, but it has the power of 
attracting the patchouli-perfumed incense 
that tills the hearts of the decorous yet 
mtst devoted worshippers of the Yellow 

Mr. Clacy had but two relations. Miss 
Eliza Itispin, the only child of his only and 
dpc. r.^ed BiBter, and Crnrad Clacy, the only 
<.bi d of hi» only and deceased brother. Miss 

Rispin, after a short career as a family gov- 
erness, had been her uncle's housekeeper 
for nearly twenty years, and consequently 
she U)U8t have been rather a matured spin 
ster. She was of tbe lean kind. Hud prob- 
ably no system of leeding would have fat- 
tened her. Ati angular figure, sharp feat- 
tures, with a voice to inalch. and small, 
deep-set eyes, a most zealous aud capable 
housekeeper, and aleo useful as secretary 
anil companion. Early in the uiorning, all 
day hmg, and late at night Mirs Rispin was 
at hand to wait upon her uncle. She wrote 
his letters and kepi his rtccounts. She was 
silent unless Hsked a <|uestion, and that was 
just the sortof c<>uipatii<m to suii Mr. Clacy. 
She had begun with a salary of £'20 a year 
and never suggested an iucrease, and that 
also suited Mr. Clacy. Gossips reported 
she was to inherit the bulk of her uncle's 
property, and that she had several otters of 
marriage, but she rpjected them curtly and 
scprnfully, and that pleased Mr. Clacy. In- 
deed, he liked her so well that when she 
had an attack of illness he was anxious 
about her recovery, because, as he said he 
did not know how he should be able to re- 
place her as housekeeper, etcretary, and 

Tbe nephew did not suit tbe uncle as 
well as the niece. Cttnrad Clacy was a bar- 
rister of seven years' standing, yet tbe en- 
tries ID bis fee-bnok were few, and as he 
had inherited only £5,001) when be came of 
age, with a taste for suppers and society, he 
was poor, and Mr. Clacy did not like poor 
people, for he regarded tliem as dangerous. 
" Don't tell uie that a man cau be poor 
and boueit. He may not steal, but that is 
because he can't do so without being de- 
tected and puuielitd. Our cat is honest, 
but half- starve her, and see if she wouldn't 
he at the food when the pantry door was 
left open." 

Still, Mr. Clacy did not cut his nephew, 
but asked him to dinner once a month, and 
even iutimuied an intention of leaving him 
tbe whole of his property, 

"Look here, Conrad; when I am gone 
some one must have tbe money, and I 
would rather it went to a Clacy. Only not 
a penny for you while I live, aud I will live 
as long as I can. I ma_,' keep it till you are 
too old to enjoy it, eh? Besidee, Conrad, 
come first go first is not always the rule. I 
am very lucky, and I may live to see tbe 
last of my relations buried, ehf" 

That prospect so delighted him that be 
laughed, it being the first time for many 
years that he had been guilty of the frivol- 
ity that involves a waste of vital force. 

Tbe cousins were apparently on turtle- 
dove terms. They kissed when tbey met 
and when they parted. She was "dear 
Eliza," and he was " Conrad dear." He 
always brought her a little present, and she 
knitted him cufia and mufflers. He circuit- 
ously hinted that if it were not for the stern 
anti - matrimonial principle of their dear 
uncle — they always deared their aflluent re- 
lation to each other — he should ask her to 
be his bride, and she also circuitously in- 
timated that the actual reason why she re- 
mained single was that she loved Conrad 
dear so fondly that marriage with any other 
man was impossible. When dear Eliza was 
ill Conrad dear called on her, and was so 
affected that he had to turn hia head away 
and apply cambric to the tear corner of bis 
loft eye. When Conrad dear was thrown 
from a horse dear Eliza hastened to his 
chambers with eyes as iufiamed as if she 
had been chopping large raw onions. 

But the cousins really hated each other 
with tbe bitterness begotten of rivalry. All 
rivals, commercial and professional, with 
the exception of authors, actors, and barris- 
ters, hate each other, ab imo corde, even as 
competing lovers do, but no rivalry, not 

the competition for a fortune bequeathable 
by a beloved relation. The suspense and 
anxiety is long continued. Even if a com- 
petitor knows that a will has been made in 
his favor he is tormented by the possibility 
of another will being made in favor of thia 

rival. Dear Eliza had happened to have 
her ear close to the keyhole of the dining- 
room dor)r when her uncle told Conrad dear 
about bis testamentary intentions, and from 
that moment she hated her cousin with an 
indescribable intensity, and she also hated 
her uncle; yet she was more attentive than 
ever to her dear relation, and more gush- 
ingly affectionate to Conrad dear. 

Conrad returned hate for bate. His uncle 
might change his mind. Dear Eliza was 
with him constantly, and the might influ- 
ence and persuade him to leave his property 
to her. He called her a fawning cat, just 
as she called him a de!:>picahlf sycophant, 
and he thought how happy he should be if 
the name of Eti/a Rispin appeared in the 
death announcements. At one of tbe month 
ly dinners Mr. Clacy said: 

" I was very unwell last week, but Eliza, 
who is better than the doctor, soon brought 
me round. I tell you, Conrad, I don'i and 
I shan't forget her cleverness and her devo- 
tion, eh ?" 

Conrad made an agonizing effort, to smile, 
aud he felt like choking as be said : 

"Bless her lor heraiteutiou t" yiu." 

So Mr. Clacy had been il', and dea Eliza 
bad not sent for bim, or even told him of the 
illness! What did ihat meant That she 
had secured the properly and wanted to 
keep him, Conrad, away from biB uncle at a 
critical timet 

As Conrad was walking home he mut- 
tered : 

" The fawning cat ! I shall lose the for- 
tune unless I do something to spoil her 

As dear Eliza was undrersiug si e nau&ed 
to shake her fist at a photograph of Conrad 
dear, and exclaimed : 

" The despicable sycophant f I shall be 
beggared, for the cards are against me, but 
trumps do not always score the trick. Oh, 
how joyful I should be if I had to put on 
crape for the wretch ! But there is no 
chance of that. I must fight for the odd 

Miss Rispin bad played wbist with her 
uncle for twenty years, and &a visitors were 
few and far between they had to resort to 
tbe device of double dummy. That is why 
she often compared the game of life to 


If honor was always paid to whom honor 
is due, the unknown person who invented 
the " effort - of- nature" theory would be 
freshly and gratefully remembered. There 
are several ailments to which tbe human 
body is subject that are, much to the com- 
fort of the patients, described as eftorts-of- 
nature, so that disease is regarded as an 
assurance of health and of longevity. Mr. 
Clacy bad been troubled with attacks of 
gout, not the poor man's gout, but the un- 
miserly variety that favors the rich and il- 
lustrious, aud is supposed lo be fostered by 
a liberal diet and a plentiful partaking of 
generous wine. In ibe interval between the 
twinges he consoled himself with the effort- 
of-nature theory. 

" I tell you, Eliza, that the pain is awful, 
but gout is an effort of nature and keeps the 
system healthy. You can't live to a hun- 
dred without some drawback." 

Mr. Clacy was seized with a non-eS'ort- 
of-nature illness that made his doctor look 
grave, and suggest further advice : and the 
day alter the consultation Miss Rispin 
called on the doctor. 

" I would rather know the truth, how- 
ever dreadful; so tell me, is my dear, dear 
uncle, my only earthly friend, in danger ?" 

" The report, my dear Mies Rispin, is, I 
am sorry to inform you, unfavorable. Your 
uncle will rally from the present attack, 
but we are afraid that another attack is 
likely to follow, and from that the chance 
of recovery will be very slight." 

An hour after Miss Rispin had left, Mr, 
Conrad Clacy called to ask the same ques- 
tion, and he received the same reply. 

Great aud painful waa the anxiety of both 

niece and uephew. Would dear, dear uucle 
make a will T Had be made a willf Would 
tbe will, if there was a will, be in favor of 
dear Eliza, or bequeath the property to 
Conrad dear. Mr. Clacy adhered to his 
resolutions with unyielding pertinacity, aud 
therefore it wai certain tbe fortune would 
not be divided. Tbe loving niece or the 
loving nephew would eel the whole of it. 

Mr. Clacy sent f<ir bis solicitor, and when 
that gentleman arrived Miss Rispin was 
about to Inave him alone M-itb his client, 
bui her UD<ile told her to remain. 

"Though I am going to talk to Mr. 
Skinner about my will, there is no reason 
why you should nut hear what I have lo 

She wai ol 
scribed her 
who ought 
It instantly 
erty was to 

dreadful minute for Miss Rispiu ' 
shrewd woman, and deserved tht 
her uncle, who had often de 

ve been born a woman 
to her that if the prop- 
the iuEtructioni 


be given in her presence. 
Surely the fortune for which she had plot- 
ted and toiled twenty years would not be 
hers ! She was somewhat relieved by what 
her uncle said to the solicitor. 

" I think, Mr. Skinner, I shall get bet- 

'* I hope so, my dear Sir, and I am sure 
you will. A cheerful confidence wins tbe 

" Of course you wish me well, and so 
does the doctor, for I pay you both haud- 
Bomely. Bat I want to be prepared for tbe 

''Yea are quile right, Mr. Clacy. It 
leaves the mind easy, and an easy mind 
helps the physic. My will was made many 
years ago." 

"What I want you to do, Mr. Skinner, 
is to draw me out a form to give everything 
I am possessed of to one party. Such a 
will can be short, and I can copy it and put 
in the name of the party." 

" Certainly, Mr. Clacy. Such a will can 
be written on a single sheet. It is the dnty 
of a solicitor in this matter to obey instruc- 
tions, for your testamentary power is on- 

1 to do as I like. It is hard 
lot take with him what bo- 
ld it would be still harder if 

" And I m 
that a man c. 
longs to him, 
he couldn't le 

^cording to his fancy.'' 

Clacy. You have an 
itestable legal right lo bequeath the 
whole of your property to one person." 

" And in my opinion it is a moral duty. 
A legacy does no good, and a divided prop- 
erty is spoiled. An undivided fortune is the 
making of one party. But I can't talk any 
more. Send me the copy I require." 

When the form came, Mr. Clacy directed 
Miss Rispin to send it to Conrad, who was 
to get the opinion of the best counsel on it, 
aud to pay for the opinion. 

" Eliza, tbe arrangement i^ eimple, and I 

am pretty su 

e Mr. S 

inner's foi 

m is cor- 

rect, but I w 

n'l risk a 

nyihing go 

og wrong 

with tbe fort 

ne for tl 

e sake of n 

ot spend- 

iug a few ext 

ra guinen 

s in law. 

But sup- 

pose the law 

yer givee 

bad advii 

e for the 

sake of getti 

g a job i 

2 the future 

! Ah, it 

is shocking t 

have t 

leave you 


property beh 


Mr. Clacy 

did not 

ntend to t 

•rture bis 



for be did 

not care 

enough for 1 

is fellow 

creatures t 

wish to 

please or to tease them ; but the course he 
adopted was most tormenting. Dear Eliza 
aud Conrad dear looked very old and wan, 
because they were, so tbey said to each 
other, distressingly anxious about their 
dear, dear uncle. 

The position of Conrad became very try- 
ing. Mr. Clacy had tohl hii 

ho sec 

^nd that if 1 
, for. 

I wanted be 


"That fawning c 
nd I shall be ruin 

only wrote almost daily as to the progress 
of dear, dear uncle, but frequently called ou 

Conrad dear. One day elie was a long time j 
alone io her counin'^ cliatnbftrs, and amueed i 
herself by lowkiug over bin jjapers. The 
object of tho call waa to invite Cunrad dear | 
to dinner and a rubber ; for dear, dear uncle ) 
WS8 so much belter, he could play a game, j 
After tho rubber, when Conrad was leav- | 
ing, Mr. Clacy said to him : I 

"I have been rather sharp with you, | 
I did not mean it. As Eliza 
a good fellow, but of course it 
in nature to thiuk about what 
coming, and not to feel food'of 
a person who is to be your heir." 

Tlioac words were hopeful, yet Conrad 

was not completely reaBSured ; and as be 

walked home deep in thought be muttered: 

" It is a trick of the fawning cat to apeak 

well of me, for she hates me as I do her." 

Inetcad of immediately retiiiug, Mr. Clacy 
sat iu an eu^y-chair and smoked his cigar. 
" Depend upon it, Eliza, when a man caa 

Conrad, hi 
says, you * 
is only hu: 
may be so< 


till he comes again I'll see what it is about. 
That won't he opening another party's let- 
ter, because it's already opened. It might 
be a letter asking his terms for doing a 

" Uncle dear, you are do thoughiful." 

A cry— a groan— a yell. 

"Ob, uncle dear, what is the matter t 
Oh, dear, shall I send for the doctor T Oh, 
dear, will you have some brandy t 

"Doctor! No! The diabolical villain 1 
Just read that note, and read it aloud, for 
perhaps my eyes are fooling me." 

Miss Kispin took the note from her uncle 
and read as follows : 

Conrad Clacy, Esq.: 

Dear Sir : — I have seen our friend, hut 
be declines. He has already a heavy stake 
on thd old gentleman changing his mind, 
and he will not do another jio^i obit at any 
price. Yours truly, James Duckbm. 

for there is the fact. Just take me to my 
room, for I have a little biieiness to do." 

Iu Mr. Clacy'a bedroom was an iron safe, 
and from that he took au envelope, sealed 
and indorsed : " To be opened after my 
funeral— Cuthhert Clacy." 

'* Tlii", Eliza, ia my will, by which I give 
and bequeath all my mortal property to 
Conrad. I put it io the fire." 

When the paper was burned Mr. Clacy 
rubbed bis hands togetlier and chuckled. 

" What a maddeuiug disappointment for 
the scoundrel who sold the poit obit and for 
the feUow who bought it. Now, Eliza, I 
am going this very night to write out a new 
will, leaving the fortune Io you ; but I will 
revoke it and leave it to charily if you ever 
tell Conrad what has liappened." 

" Oh, uncle, you know I always obey 
you. But do take some rest now." 

" It would be lime enough to-morrow, or 
years hence, but I shall make the will to- 

nine all, and the game dead 
against me. Honors di.i not count, so I have 
won by the odd trick. Well. I l.Hve only 
managed to let him find out what Conrad 
has been doing. I only t>)ok the Lote from 
Conrad's chamber, and dropped it iu sight 
of my uncle. How fortunate that it is to 
be concealed from Conrad! That makes me 
safe. And though uncle feels better, I am 
sore he won't last long. Oh, I am so jolly !" 
In her nightdress she did another little 
dauce btfore she extinguished the candle 
and got into bed. 




1 the 

ipetiQg ctmains were 
rather bMppier. Conrad supposed a will 
leaving ttie whtde fortune to him was in 
Mr. Claey's safe, while Eliza knew the will 
had been burned and that the new will, 
making her sole inheritor of her uncle's 

above repretenta a page of the new " Guide," which i» given free, in paper covert {in cloth, S5 cents 
for one year'a tubscription to the Penman's Art JotJRNAL, and are here given 

•a), at a previium to everyone remitting ^1 
for jtourisking and letterinff. 

enjoy his cigar he is pretty well mended. 
What's thatt" 

" What, uncle dear V 

" Lying at your feet." 

" Notliing, uncle dear." 
'" Well, if I am not blind yoo are." 

Miss U spin looked again on the groasd, 
stooped, and picked up a letter. 

"I beg your pardon, uncle dear, but I 

"Who is it from?" 

"I don't know," said Miss Rispin, read- 
ing the address on the envelope. 

" Then open it and see who it is from. 
Here is a pretty state of buBiuese, an un- 
opened letter carried about and dropped." 
" Uncle dear, it is not a letter to you, but 
to cousin Conrad, and he must have dropped 
it when he was leaving." 

" Now that vexes me. A man who drops 
a letter by accident may drop a fortune. 
What are you doing T" 

" Putting it into an envelope to send it to 

" Are you madT Leave alone the wear 
of the pen, and the cost of the ink and the 
envelope, are we to pay a penny postage 
because he is carelefs. Give it me." 

Mr. Clacy heatraddled his nose with his 
folders, read the address on the envelope, 
and turned it over and over. 

" Look here, Eliza. There ought to be 
no secreta between me and Conrad, and in 

" Ob, the wretch I"' exclaimed Mr. Clacy. 
"Talk of a cannibal I why, he does wait 
till you are dead before he eats you." 

" Oh, uncle dear, you will make yourself 
ill. Do tell me what is the matter." 

" The matter ! You have read that note 
and dare to ask me what is the matter, eh ? " 

" I am very sorry, uncle dear, but I don't 

" Perhaps you don't know what a post 
obit is, eh f You are a woman of business, 
and you look me in the face and tell me 
that you don't know the meaning of post 
obit, ehl" 

Miss Rispin looked painfully puzzled. 

" I suppose it must mean a kind of Post 
Office Order." 

Mr. Clacy groaned, and asked for a wine- 
glass of brandy and water. 

"There, I am myself again. A post obit 
is a bond for the jiayment of a certain sum 
of money after the death of a certain party. 
Perhaps that scoundrel Conrad has given a 
post obit fi>r ten thousand pounds, payable 
after my death, and may not have got more 
than five hundred for it. I ouce bought a 
post obit for one hundred pounds at a sbil- 
ling in the pound. Oh, the scoundrel, tho 
scoundrel, to anticipate my death and duck 
and drake the fortune." 

" Oh, uncle, I can't think that Cousin 
Conrad can be so awfully wicked." 

" What yon think ia of no consequence, 

night. Eliza, if some day that scoundrel 
Conrad came to you starving, and asked 
you for a penny for bread, would you give 
it to the scoundrel who has treated me as 
he has done V 

" No, uncle, I would notgive bim a cruet 
to save him irom dfeath." 

" Eliza, I don't beliepo in women being 
angels, but you are pretty near one. Leave 
me while I write the will, and tell one of 


/ill i 

o be i 
,ught t 

your favor, yuu had better have 
do with the making of it." 

Mr. Clacy was a resolute man. Before he 
went to bed he had made the new will, 
sealed it in an envelope, and given it to 
Miss Rispin. 

" You will take care of it, I know, and I 
won't have it iu the safe for fear the scoun- 
drel should get hold of it, if anything hap- 
pened to me, which I don't fear, for I feel 
quito strong again." 

It need hardly be remarked that Miss 
Riepin was not addicted to the amusement 
of dancing, yet that night, as soon as she 
had entered her bedroom and locked tbe 
door, she performed a pas de seul. 

" I can't help it. I am so happy. Oh, 
you delicious bit of paper !" 

She kissed the will and had another 

" How well it has worked 1 Conrad and 

property, was in her possession. Though 
each one was somewhat more assured, 
neither the one nor the other enjoyed an 
entire hour of freedom from miserable anx- 
iety. Miss Rispin had heard her uncle say, 
before the discovery of the post obit, that he 
liked to leave the fortune to the name of 
Clacy, and might he not forgive Conrad 
and make a third will V Conrad was afraid 
of the iuflueuce of Eliza, on account of 
her constant attendance on his uncle. He 
was more horrified than surprised when he 
discovered that his suspicions about E>iza 
were well founded. 

Mr. Courai Clacy received at his cham- 
bers, which were residential as well as pro- 
fessional, a call from a young woman whom 
he at once recognized as one of his uncle'e 

" Dear me ! Do you bring bad news 
about my uncle ?" 

"Which I don't, as I left that place ou 
the sudden two nights ago. My name is 
Bella Spoke, and if I ain't the equal to tbe 
party. Miss Rispin, which turned me out, as 
far as money goes, anyhow I ain't an alli- 
gating old screw, which she is." 

" Very unpleasant, to be sure. I am 
sorry you have lost your place." 

" Which I ain't, Mr. Conrad, for there is 
more places than parties wanting 'em. And 
why I have took upon myself to come here 
is owing to the circumstanoe which I told 

-s^ j^jiryp-njmjn 

to the party I walk with, and he said it 
waa the only thing which is correct for to 
tell the gent, which is you. And, of course, 
being her poster of letters lo you, I could 
find you out. For, though Bella Spoke 
may couae of parents which is 'umhly situ- 
ated, ehe is educated and can read equal to 
any alligating old screw." 

The eloquence of Bella is rather wordy 
and Dot particularly lucid, and so it needed 
much quesiioning and lietening on the part 
of Conrad to get out the following state- 
Bella, who is not an alligating old screw 
to demean herself Iiy pulling her ear to a 
keyhole, heard, owing to the dining-room 
door being partly open, Mr. Clacy call his 
nephew a scoundrel ; then Mies Rispin read 
a letter ; then Mr. Clacy raved about a post 
something, and vow in awful language that 
his fortune should not be posted ; then he 
went up stairs; then Bella was sent to 
fetch the grocer and the baker who live 
round the corner ; then when they had 
gone, she happened to be on the landing 
when Mias Riepin went into Mr. Clacy's 
room and heard h'm tell her that was 
bia new will, and she wa« to take care 
of it. 

Conrad gave the eloquent Bella a couple 
of sovereigns and promised her a handsome 
reward If she kept her visit to him a secret. 
He eat for an hour after the departure of 
Bella without speaking or moving. Then he 
rose and put on an overcoat. 

" I'll consult Duckem. I may get over 
th&t post obit, which in some way or other 
the fawning cat has discovered, hut that is 
no use unless I can get her out of the house. 
I don't see how that can be done. I will 
consult Duckem, for he and his friend are 
iuterested to the tune of five thousand 

Conrad now frequently visited his uncle. 
Mr. Clacy had some houses at Bow and at 
Kennington, let out in weekly tenements, 
and two evenings a week Miss Rispin had 
to go to Bow and to Kennington to collect 
the rents, and those evenings Conrad came 
to chat or play double dummy whist. Dear 
Eliza did not like it, and suggested that 
Conrad dear should collect the rents. 

" What ! Are you an idiot, Eliza? Let 
a post «bjter have anything to do with the 
property Y I'd just as well leave it to him. 
But the fortune can't go to the name of 

So Conrad, acting under the advice of 
Mr. Duckem, had ample opportunity for the 
process of mind-poisoning. C«inrad was not 
SHueuine of succees, though his friend con- 
etsutly assured him that mind-poisoning is 
very easy, and failure in such an attempt is 

To the professional eye this is a world of 
horrible skeletons." 

He recited the case of a rich man who 
was, so his friends suspected, being killed. 

" Do you mean murdered t" 

" Well, that is hardly the case from a 
professional point of view. You see our 
client is elderly and ailing, and without re- 
sorting to improper drugs, or any definite 
act, it is possible for some one about him to 
shorten bis life. That is a very 

" Murder a common occurrence 1" 
" Weil, morally, murder, no doubt. Have 
you noticed the number of widows that 
there are t Most of tbeui pretty warm in 
tlie region of the pocket." 
" What of that, Conrad, eh?" 
" This is my conclusion. Husband gets 
ill, as we all do. Fond wife will attend on 
biiD. Thinks it would be nice to come into 
the property. There are plenty of ways of 
finishing off an invalid withoui getting into 
collision with the criminal law. That ac- 
counts for the many well-to-do widows, 
ihough men are stronger than women." 

"And your client is T)eing murdered by 
his wife, eh V 

" No, uncle, he is a widower, and came 
into a fine fortune on the death of his wife. 
But his supposed heiress is nursing him. 
Now, after what happened with his wife, 
he ought to be on the alert, but it is human 
nature not to expect to be done unto as one 
does unto others." 

" What are they doing to him t" 
" We have not yet found out, and per- 
haps we never shall. All we know is that 
there are symptoms that cannot be medi- 
cally accounted for on the fair-play theory." 
" It is enough to make a man feel afraid 
of everybody." 

" Well, uncle, for a rich man to have the 
inheritor of his property about him is fool- 

" You are right, Conrad. What shaU I 

" Yoo cannot do better than you are 
doing. Dear Eliza is a good, trusty girl, 
and has nothing to gain by your de- 

rad, I was Jed to think you had been doing 
a post obit on my property." 

Conrad laughed. 

" Excuse the laughter, uncle, but it is so 
funny. How could you suppose that a 
lawyer would b« such a fool t But I 
am also rather vexed. I would rather be 
thought a rcgue than an idiot." 

" Oh dear, oh dear, when I put this and 
that together I feel as if I was being fin- 
ished *>ff, and the verdict serves me right. 
What shall I do, Conrad t" 

" Do ! Forget the incident." 

" But I have done it. It's not too late. 
Come to-morrow, Conrad. I'll give her a 
journey. And mind, not a word about this 
to Eliza." 

'* Very well, uncle. But what has dear 
Eliza to do with itt" 

" Dear Eliza ! I'll dear her." 

What happened the next day can be told 
in a few words. When Conrad arrived Mr 
Clacy was having an after-dinner nap, and 
the nephew waiti-d in the drawing-room, 
which adjoined the uncle's bedroom. The 
conversation opened with Conrad stating 
that they thought they had discovered how 
the client he had spoken of was being 
killed, He was being put into damp night- 


Mr. Duckem is right. If body- poisoning 
were as common as mind-poisoning the 
w<.rld would be rapidly depopulated. la 
there a man or woman who cannot recall at 
least one instance in which his or her mind 
has been prejudiced against relation, friend, 
or arquaiutance by slander— sugar-coated 
slander f Not generally coarse slander, but 
given in ernHllest homeopathic doses. Some- 
liirips a plum of praise which contains only 
a grain— nay, the fraction of a grain— of 
deadly poison ? Strongest proof of the 
strength of love is that it often, though not 
always, resists the insidious foe to peace. 
The mother loves the son who is stoned by 
the virtuous world, and husband and wife 
continue to love despite the calumny that 
may be whispered or insinuated. Even love 
is sometimes not an antidote, but Mr. Clacy 
did not love his niece, and therefore there 
WH8 no difficulty whatever in poisoning hie 
mind against her. 

Conrad began to talk about his cases 
and told his dear uncle several interesting 

"What a lot of clients you are having, 
Conrad. You must be pretty often in the 

"No, uncle. Miae is chamber practice, 
which is not so showy as court practice, but 
it pays better. I am getting quite a big 
reputation for advising on delicate matters. 

That shot made Mr. Clacy groan, and 
Conrad left him. On the next occasion when 
uncle and nephew met, the latter said: 

' I have seven hundred pounds to invest, 
and I don't know what to put it in." 

" You seven hundred pounds ! Nonsense." 
" Yes, I have. I received the money an 
hour before I came here. It has been for 
two years out oo mortgage." 

Conrad took some bank notes out of his 
pocket, and Mr. Clacy took them and eag- 
erly looked at them. 

" If I am not nan compos you are. Why 
should a man with seven hundred pounds 
on mortgage do a post ohitf" 

"Post obit! Oh, I know what yon mean, 
uncle. Professionally I am obliged to advise 
on such matters. I have one foolish client 
who has floated a lot of them, but he did it 
to save himself from penal. You wonder 
why I did not try the post obits ? Well, in 
that case it was too risky. But, in confi- 
deii(-e, I have two five hundred pound bonds 
on another life that I bought at ninepence 
in the pound." 

For five minutes Mr. Clacy did not 
speak, then he took out his pocketbook, 
selected a letter, and read it. 

" It may be only professional. I think I 
have been a fool. Conrad, do you know 
this letter t" 

Conrad took the letter and read it- 
" Yes, it is a note from Duckem about a 
post obit for the client I told you of. But 
how did you get itf " 

" About two months ago when yoo were 
here you dropped it." 

Conrad thought for a minute and then 
shook his bead. 

" No, uncle, I never put professionallet- 
ters in my pocket. It must have been 
taken from my chambers j but I can't tell 
you why or by whom." 

" I can. I not only smell the rat, but I 
see the animal, head, body, and tail Con- 

B quite a common dodge. It is a 
killer, and it can't be found out." 

ight account for my awful rheu- 
I. One minute, Conrad, one 

Mr. Clacy left the dining-room and pre- 
sently returned, looking pale and seared. 

" You have saved me, my dear boy. I 
have put my night-shirt to the fire, and it 
smoked— yes, Conrad, it smoked." 

In the morning Mr. Skinner arrived and 
informed Mies Rispin that she must at once 
leave the house, that her uncle declined to 
see her, that her salary would be paid up, 
and that she would have a present of ten 

Mies Rispin went forth enraged aud de- 

Some trick has been played and I am 
ruined. Cunrad, the wretch I What has 
he done V 

Three days later Conrad put a sealed 

the sleeper and looked more scared, and 
also enraged. She came lo the bed, put her 
bony hand and arm under the bolster, and 
found the bunch of keys. Conrad dear waa 
sleeping so soundly and the movements of 
dear Eliza were so gentle that he was not 
disturbed. She turned up the gas, opened 
the safe, took out the sealed envelope, and 
thrust it in her pocket, aud put into the 
safe another sealed envelope, of precisely 
the same size, and similarly indorsed. She 
looked the safe, unlocked the doors of the 
chambers and left them ajar, rinsed the 
glass out of which Conrad had drank his 
nightly mixture, replaced the bunch of keys 
under the bolster, turned down the gas, and 
departed. The shutting of the heavy outer 
door did not disturb Conrad dear, who con- 
tinued to sleep profoundly until nearly nine 
o'clock in the morniug. 

Within two months the long- looked -for 
event took place, and Conrad inserted a 
pathetic obituary notice in the daily news- 

" At his residence, near Regent's Park, 
Cuthbert Clacy, Esq., in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age, beloved and venerated by 
all who knew him, and deeply lamented by 
his sorrowing relations." 

After the funeral there was a cold colla- 
tion. Miss Kispin, a moving mass of crape, 
was attended by Mr. Talons, her solicitor. 
Mr. Conrad Clacy was accompanied by Mr. 
Duckem, his solicitor. Mr. Skinner, the so- 
licitor of the deceased, was also present. 
Dear Eliza and Conrad dear were effusively 
afteclionate, and tried to look very sorrowful. 

When the mpal wt 

as over, and the serv. 
n, Mr. Skinner said ; 
i of my venerable cli- 
with Miss Riepin, ane 

"That is his last will, and in my favor. 
As Eliza is out of the way, I am secure. It 
was a difficult game to play, but I have 
won. Ah, you fawning cat, you alligating 
lellent Bella calls you, 

t for ■ 


:. had left the roo 

" After the deceas 
ent, Ifommunicated 
her professional adv 

sistod me in looking through the papers of 
the deceased, but we have not found a will. 
Yet I have reason to believe that my de- 
parted client did not purpose to die intes- 

Here is set a scene which will perhaps 
make the result of the fight for a fortune 
less mysterious to the reader. 

Conrad's chambers. The hour is mid- 
uight. Enter Conrad. On the table of the 
inner room, which serves him for snuggery 
and sleeping, is a note, which he reads. It 
is from dear Eliza, to inform him that she 
had called to inquire about their dear uncle, 
and to have a chat with Conrad dear, before 
leaving town for a very, very long time. Con- 
rad looked at his iron safe, smiled, and mut- 
tered that the fawning cat did not know 
what waa in there, and if she had known 
could not have got at it. Yet he took his 
bunch of keys from his pocket, opened the 
safe, took out the sealed envelope indorsed, 
" To be opened after my funeral — Cuthbert 
Clacy," put it back again, aud locked the 
safe. Then he put a tablespoonful of Scotch 
whisky into a glass of milk that was stand- 
ing on the table and drank the mixture. 
Conrad was precise iu his habits, and every 
night he drank a glass of milk fortified 
with a little Scotch whisky. The heir to 
a hundred thousand-pounder is disposed to 
take care of his health. He undressed, 
turned down the gas, got into bed, and was 
soon sleeping profoundly. 

From the clerk's office emerges Miss Ris- 
piu, aud enters the room wherein Conrad is 
sleeping. There is a scared look about her 
face ; even her lips are pallid, but she does i 
not tremble. She searched the pockets of ] 

" I apprehend he did not," said Mr. 
Duckem. " I produce a sealed envelope, 
indorsed, I think, in the handwri'ing of the 
deceased, ' To he opened after my funeral.' 
This envelope was given by the deceased to 
my client, bis nephew, with instructions to 
take special care of it. Mr. Skinner, you 
are the professional representative of the 
deceased, and I hand you the said sealed 

"A curious proceeding, certainly," said 
Miss Rispin. " Suppose Cousin Conrad 
did not seal up the right document f" 

Conrad was about to speak, when Mr. 
Duckem said : 

" Really, Mr. Clacy, I cannot aUow you 
to notice such an observation." 

" But I must speak," exclaimed Conrad. 
" it is a most cruel imputation of my cou- 
sin. I seat the envelope ! I received it 
from my beloved uncle as it is, and I do 
not know the contents. If it contains a 
will, it may he a will in favor of my cousin 
Eliza. That is the envelope I received 
from the deceased and as I received it." 

" I can't think how my uncle could for- 
get me, for he has often sworn that I should 
be his heir." 

" Perhaps you are his heir," said Conrad. 
"There is the envelope as I received it; 
our uncle was not in any way influenced, 
I aud when he gave me that envelope, about 
two mouths ago, and even unto the last, he 
was of most perfect testamentary capacity, 
his shrewd intellect being crystal clear." 

"Had I not better break tbe seal and 
read the contents f asked Mr. Skinner. 

The professional gentlemen and the cou- 
sins assented, and there was an awful half- 
minute. Mies Rispin dropped her crape 
veil. Conrad looked at the floor, Mr. Skin- 
ner seemed so slow. Such silence that the 
cracking of the bit of wax could be heard. 
The envelope was opened, and out came a 
single sheet of paper. 

"Yes, it is a will," said Mr. Skinner, 

"made in a form of which I supplied a 

draft to the deceased. It is duly witnessed." 

What need for that tantalizing speech f 

Mr. Skiocer was dreadfully t«diou8 and ag- 
gravating. He positively breathed oo bis 
spectacles, and deliberately wiped tbem 
before he read the document. 

The will bequeathed the whole of the 
property tn the testator's dear oieoe, Eliza 

Dear Eliza put up her veil, fell on her 
knees, and exclaimed : " Oh, my more than 
father! oh, iny darliug uncle ! oh, how you 
loved me, and how I loved yoa !" 

Conrad and Mr. Duckem bad glanced at 
the will 

"I swear there is some trick and some 
fraud," cried Conrad, " for it was my ancle's 

"I protest,'' said Mr. Talona, " agaiast 
eucb an unseemly remark. The will was in 
the charge of and has been produced by Mr. 
Clacy. He has told us that the document is 
that which was given to his custody by the 
deceased, that the deceased was of perfect 
testamentary capacity, and that for all he 
knew the will might be in favor of my cli- 
ent who for twenty years was the right band 
and companion of the deceased. Now he is 
disappointed and dares to use the words 
' trick ' and ' fraud.' That is foolish as well 

" The cat has beaten UB," whispered Mr. 
Duckem to Conrad. "You have lost the 
fortune, and my post obit bonds are waste 

As Conrad walked away with Mr. Duck- 
em he said : 

" Can we not dispute the will t I swear 
my uncle iotcnded me to be bis heir." 

" How can we dispute the will, Clacy t 
Aft«r what you stated about the envelope, 
your ignorance of the contents, and the tes- 
tftinentary capacity of your uncle, the other 
side would call you as a witness to prove 
their case. You have lost about a hun- 
dred thousand pounds, and I five thousand 

Au hour later one of the servants at the 
house of the late Mr. Clacy pushed open 
the dioing-room dooraud was astonished at 
seeing the profusely craped Miss Rispin 
dancing a sort of high jinks breakdown 
and shouting : 

Hurrah ! hurrah ! it was game against 
gamo, but though the cards were dead 
against me, in the conquering game I have 
won the rub. Hurrah I hurrah!" 

Those who are imbued with the ethical 
views of the moral story-tellers who pro 
fess tf> write, not to amuse but to improve 
whose tales are ser 
will expeut to bear I 
did not bring her tt 
or that she became 
that her conscience made her miserable. 

Conrad is indeed miserable. He has 
never quite recovered from an attack c-f 
brain fever. He has fell the cruel gnawing 
x)f hunger, and dear Eliza refused to give 
him a shilling. He is now employed by the 
proprietor of a patent bairdje to compose 
advertisements, write letters, and address 
parcels, at a salary of thirty shillings per 

Woe unto the trickster who fails ! 

Bui Mies Kispin, the successful trickster, 
basks in brilliant sunshine. The property 
proved to he worth jt 120,000. She enjoys 
excellent health ; she is not in the least 
troubled about her fraudulent conduct ; she 
flourishes like the greenest of bay trees, 
courted by society, honored for her philan- 
thropy, and venerated as a model of piety. 
— Tinsley's Magazine. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-instruction iu Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" ( in paper 
covers) or $1 for same nicely bound in 
thick covei-s. It tells you all about writ- 
iug, flourishing and lettering, and how to 
learn. If you are not pleased ^vith it you 
may return it, and we wiU refund the cash 
^y return mail. 

Educational Notes. 

The New York State Teachers' Associa- 
tion will meet in July, at Elmira. 

Sixty-two per cent, of Harvard's gradu- 
ates of last year are studying law. 

Oberlin College has a total attendance of 
1,474 students of which 776 are ladies. 

The Dakota lands set apart for educa- 
tional purpose are valued at $65,000,000. 

The Hampton (Va.) Normal Agricultural 
Institute has 422 colored pupiU and 109 

Harvard College baa recently come 
possession of the largest private collection 
of meteorites in the world. 

The value of school property in the South 
is about $0,000,000, against $188,000,000 
in the North, — College Journal. 

" Yes, sir," said the liquor dealer, " it is 
a good law that prevents any one from 
opening a school within 500 feet of a liquor 
saloon. Scboolhouses are the ruin of the 

is dished 

Miss Rispin s fraud 

'eallh she expected. 

the prizi 

six ladies graduated at tt 
[edical College at PbUadelpbia 
igo. The lady who won one . 
J the CIms was from Burmah. 

snty-one Business Colleges 

Canada, and about as many flourishing 

ial departments of Bigb - schools 

and Collegiate Institutes.— TA* Practical 


The education of women in India has 
advanced, till now 12(i,;i49 pupUs are in 
daily attendance upon the schools. It is 
only a few years since no woman was even 
allowed to read. — Woman at Work. 

Charles L. Colby has given a round 
$1,000,000 to eslablieb a new university in 
Wisconsin. It was his father, Gardner 
Colby, who endowed Colby College, at 
Waterville, Maine.— 2 Ac Practical World. 
France— The National Library con- 
tains 2,500,000 volumes. In the cabinet of 
manuscripts are 92,000 volumes and 144,- 
000 French and foreign coius of all periods. 
The print collection numbers upward of 
2,000,000 examples, kept in 14,500 vol- 
umes and 4,000 portfolios. A special gal- 
lery is reserved for the most costly books, 
sr some 80,000. 

which nun 
The New York Tribu 
330 colleges and u 

^ says : " There 

Utiited States, of which only twenty-four 
have more than 2t\{) sludenta. and only sev- 
euteen have more than twenty teachers. A 
large number of the colleges furnish no bet- 
ter an education than can be obtained iu a 
High-school of the first class. One ' univer- 
sity ' in this country has three professors 
and twelve students ; anoiher has two pro- 
fessors and eighteen students. These pro- 
fessors can take the college home with 
them at night, and thus prevent it from 
getting into mischief." 

|^llu.m*M college ll«m. mi, 

" Ob, mother," said the High- school girl, 
and pointing to her brother Jim, who was 
making faces at her, "compel James to 
cease those extraordinary physiognomical 
phenomena." The old lady was compelled 
to seize the back of a chair for support. — 
Oil City Derrick. 

Dr. McCosh of Princeton, in a recent ad- 
dress to the students, said : " Our college is 
not in a good state." This is precisely 
what the little Maine girl thought who thus 
finished her prajer one night ; " And n()w, 
God, good-by ; for I'm going to New Jer- 
sey for two weeks." 

Astronomers tell us in their own simple 
intelligible way that the gradual lengthen- 
ing of the days is due to tlie "obliquity ot 
the ecliptic to the terrestrial horizon." This 
ought to set at rest the foolish idea that the 
days are longer becau"e the sun rises ear- 
lier and sets later. — Pittsburgh Telegraph. 

" Yes, indeed," said the High-school girl 
to her brother Jim, " in this afl'air I ob- 
tained the gibbosity on Amy." "You did 
whatt" inquired the boy. " Obtained the 
gibbosity — the protuberancy, you know." 
" Is it anything to eat ?" was the next ques- 
tion. " dear, oo, you stupid boy — merely 
a figure of speech— what you call ' got the 
bulge,' only that is horrid slang."- Ot/ City 

Bv Paul Pastnok. 
I have so often been struck by the 
remarkable success achieved by true gen- 
tlemanliness, iu all the walks of life, 
that I cannot pass an opportunity to say 
something nbout the value of cultivating so 

, for tn 

leful I 



deed adorned by few examples There are 
traces of it iu all men, but few enjoy its full 
possession. In part, it is inherited ; iu part, 
the gift of circumstances; in part, and the 
greater p^rt, it is acquired only by careful 
cultivatiou. Gentlemanliness is the endow- 
ment of few, but it is the duty of all. All 
men cannot be poets, scholars, statesmen, 
or merchant princes, but all can be gentle- 

My obiei 


which i 

teach e I 

Educational Fancies. 

is known, the 
I courtesy from 

item used in this departi»< 
proper credit is giveu. A 
otherB will be appreciated.] 

The Vassar girls' favorite Roman here — 

Don't throw dirt in your teacher's eyes. 
It might injure the pupil. 

The funny bone is said to be flo called 
because it is the end of the bumerus. 

Teaclier : " What happens when a light 
falls into the water at an angle of forty-five 
degrees T" Pupil: " It goes out."— Dw 

Professor: "What can you say in re- 
gard to the articulation of the bones f" Stu- 
dent ( doubtfully ): " I don't think they ar- 
ticulate very much." 



ipeak of its value as an 

aid to worldly success— one of the lowest 

points of view from which to study it ; but, 

after all. the most practical and effective 

point of view in the survey of any question 

of interest to men in these pushing, 

n times. To all who are engaged 

professions, especially, the subject 

light should be of interest — to 

to penmen, to salesmen, and to 

commercial workers of every class. 

Gentlemanliness, in the first place, is so 
much a reflection of honesty, candor, puri- 
ty, faitlifulness, that it goes very far in 
recommi-nding a young man to the good 
graces of every one of whom he seeks em- 
ployment. Let a bright-faced, graceful, 
courteous, well-mannered lad in search of 
employment enter the counting- room of 
a merchant and he immediately wins re- 
spect and deferentre He carries personal 
credentials with him that are a great help. 
Politeness is a kind of houepty, candor, and 
purity, inasmuch as it cannot be truly pos- 
sessed without these qualities The first 
thing to do iu cultivating geutlemanliness 
is to get rid of everything disgraceful. No 
dissembler can he a true gentleman ; no 
dishonest, impure, treacherous person can 
be a true gentleman. The very first thing 
necessary is to give the true spirit of a 
man— which is in the beginning pure and 
godlike -a chance to shine out. So the 
worid-even the hard, cold, matter-of-fact 
business world — agrees to recognize true 
gentlemanliness as a synonym for character, 
and stole the body from the I And very seldom indeed is such an estimate 
I false. It is so hard to dissemble true gen- 

us pursue the subject <i little fur- 
id the medical students at the bed- 
dying patient. So the next night 

tlemanliness that an infinitely small 
her of rascals succeed in doing it. 

Again, gentlemanliness is of the gr 
value to every young man iu his 
All of us have more or less to do 
others. Our life is by 

i relai 

essity social ; ou 
s are largely social. Gen 
the great social lubrican 
3 to deal with others with 
s friction which makes th 
hard, just like tb 


tlemanliness it 
which enables 
out friction. Il 
wheels of busi 
wheels of anything else. An euiployer can 
afford lo have gentlemanly clerks and hs- 
sietants— he must afford it. It will be far 
better for him to have gentlemen in his 
salesrooms than the choicest and finest 
goods with a lot of boorish or surly clerks. 
Awe is capital for a young man — to culti- 
vate this winning geutlemanlineps. It is 
always in demand. It is more staple than 
gold, and more available than brains. A 
gentleman carries his gentlemanliness on 
his front ; a genius carries his brains locked 
up, and it takes a good while to prove to 
the world that he has tbeoi- Gentlemanli- 
ness and brains tnake the best team that 
ever worked together; but gentlemanliness 
has to come first and prepare the way for 

There is no department of the world's 
work where true gentletnanliness is not sure 
to tnake its mark. Not only in business 
and professional life, but in all the relations 
of society, in all kinds of human activity, 
the gentleman stands first. And when we 
consider what a natural endowment gen- 
tlemanlineas is, how it ought 
rightful inheritance of every ms 
culiar capital which God gives hii 
ommend him to his fellows, we cannot tuit 
be amazed at the rarity of this best posses- 
sion ! How few are true gentlemen ; how 
few are gentlemen at all ! It is the strang- 
est thing in the worid that the world is so 
largely made up of coarse, selfish, thought- 
less, unbending, pitiless people. Strange, 
because we would all be so much happier if 
we exercised more of that divine courtesy 
which is our natural birthright ; strange, 
because courtesy is so helpful to self as well 
as to others ; strange, because the vital 
principle of all religion and all conscience 
is love for others 

I would be glad if anything which I have 
said may help the great army of young 
men, who are entering commercial life 
through the broad gates of penmanship, to 
set a higher value upon gentletnanliuess. 
I believe that it is the first requisite to suc- 
cess, as well as the expression of the high- 
est quality of the i 
have more gentleinet 
an infinitely, brightei 
live in. Courtesy to 
of Christianity. 

be the 

, and we shall have 
, and better world to 
all is the visible fruit 

Rapidity of Thought. 

Some recent investigations relatinc to the 
speed of thought are thus summed up in the 
American Journal of Arts and Sciences: 
" Sensations are transmitted to the braiu at 
a rapidity of about 180 feet per eecund, or 
at one- fifth the rate of sound; acd this is 
nearly the same in all individuals. The brain 
requires one-tenth of a second to transmit 
its orders to the nerves which preside over 
voluntary action ; but this amount varies 
much in different individuals, and in the 
same indvidual at different times, accordiug 
to the disposition or condition at the lime, 

3 regular the t 

ed the 


. The time 



au order 

to the mu8cl 

es by the 11 

itor nerves 

ifl nearly 

the same a 

9 that re^u 

red by the 


. it passes n 

arly one-h 

iudredth nf 

a second 

before the 

nuscles are 

put in mo- 

tion. The whole oj 

eration req 

uires one- 

fourth to 


of u second. Conse- 


when we spe 

»k ot au Bc 

ive, ardent 

mind, or 

one that is clow, cold o 

r palliHlic, 

it is not 

a mere figu 

re of rheto 

ric, but an 


and certain 

fact that s 

uch a di». 


with varying graduati 

jns, really 



Business-writing Boomed. 

Daily C 

An inoideut of morn than usual iDterest 
ttDil iin|»orlaEC6 occurred at the Busiuesa 
CuUe^^e this moroiDg. It wasau iospectioD, 
hy abdur a dozen prominent busineBS, edu- 
catioual, and professional gentlemen, of the 
uew method of teaching hufiness-wnting, 
which the college has lately inaugurated. 
The gentlemen comprising the Inapeoling 
committfe were at the college promptly at 
nine o'clock, and critically examined every 
part of the writing drill, which covered a 
period of about forty-five minutes. The 
cUm, numbering eighty or more pupils, 
wait conducted in the busineFs-practice hall 
of the college, and was taught by Mr. H. B. 
Chicken, assisted by Mr. C T. Smith. 

After drilling the class, from the black- 
board, a short time on rapid, free movenient 
exercises, calculated to develop legibility of 
form, strength and smoothness of line, and 
rapid, easy movement in both capitals and 
small letters, the class was asked to write a 
page, consisting of a sentence placed on the 
board by the teacher. 

It is proper to state that the method of 
teaching business- writing employed at this 
college ignores the use of so-called princi- 
ples, all unpractical or flourished styles of 
letters — iudeed, everything that is not neo- 
ossary to legible, rapid handwriting. In- 
stead of so-called principles, it employs 
general movement exercises composed of 
letters, or a combination of letters, so 
grouped together as to teach correct form 
and easy, rapid movement at the same time. 
These exercises, though few and simple, 
are roaOe to embrace the form of every 
small or capital letter in the alphabet. This 
method throws overboard all forms, and 
scales of proportions in letters which have 
rendered published systems of writing well- 
nigh useless for any practical purposes. A 
good, tolerably coarse bui^iness pen is also 
used by both the young ladies and young 
gentlemen of the college. 

In an incredibly short time the pupils 
bad completed thtir pages, and the work 
was collected by the teachers for the in- 
spection of the committee. 

In addition to ttie work which was done 
under the immediate notice of the visitinj,- 
gentlemen, a large collection nf business 
statements, business letters and books, were 
also examined. It was in these ladt-named 
exhibits that the excellences of the system 
seemed to be most apparent. 

At the close of the lesson. Principal 
Brown made the following statement: 

Gentlemen: — Huuiau beings began to 
think and speak, no matter when, and it 
became absolutely necessary that some 
method should be invented by which their 
thoughts and words could be preserved, or 
be transmitted from one person to another 
outside of the range of the human voice. 

Hieroglyphic or picture writing was un- 
doubtedly firs* invented; then what we call 
handwriting; but both the outcome of dire 

Invented through pressure of human 
necessity, writing has existed as a utility, 
is now a utility, and will never be, in any 
proper sense, anything but a utility. 

As an end to be sought or attained, writ- 
ing, of itself, is nothing ; but in its relations 
to the religious, social, political and com- 
mercial imerests of the world, it comes t() us 
as one of the greatest achievements of man. 

Miraheau, the celebrated frenchman, 
said: "The two greatest inventions of the 
human mind are willing and money — the 
coinmon language of intelligence and the 
<^iMiiiiion language of st'lf-iuterest." 

Utility in preaerving and transmitting 
humau thoughts and commercial facts being 
the sole cause of the origin and present 
existence of handwriting, it is now in order 
i«> ask what are its necessary elements? 

After much consideration 1 have come to 
the deliberate conclusion that writing has 
hut two necessary elements, viz., legibility 
iibd rapidity. Without certainty as to its 
meaning and a good degree of rapidity in its 

writing louses, in a great meas- 
ure, its utility. 

Legibility and rapidity beiig the prime 
cbaracterialics of handwriting, it becomes 
absolutely neceesaiy that the letters of 
which it is composed be of the plainest 
type, and the forms need such as can be 
tacily and ijuiokly made. Purely fanciful 
proportions in letters, and every so-called 
Hue of beauty, if introduced at the expense 
of either legibility or rapidity, in just so far, 
defeat the malu purpose of writing. 

The utility of writing and its necessary 
elements, legibility and rapidity being kept 
ctmstaoily in view, the element of beauty 
ti)ay safely he athiwed to take care of itself. 
Tlie pointfl of real beauty in a handwriting 


tile endowment of nature rather than the 
result of study. Much experience and many 
years of careful observation have brought 
me to the belief that true beauty in hand- 
writing is often destroyed by the attempt to 
teach beauty, falsely so-called. 

While all can and should acquire a per- 
fectly legible and comparatively rapid style 
of writing, there is a certain peculiarity, a 
distinct personality, so to speak, in the 
handwriting of most pupils which the wise 
teachers will seek to develop rather than 
repress. I think it a matter of very great 
importance that each pupil ho allowed to 
retain and develop his own baud, so far as 
is consistent with systematic drill and the 
cardinal elements of writing to be always 
insisted upon. 

I very seriously object to any system of 
teaching writing which requires all pupils, 
under all circumstances, to write alike. I 
am sure that much harm will result from 

In these lew words I have tried to set 
forth my idea of the true object of hand- 
writing and what constitutes good penman- 
ship. If I am wrong in my understanding 
of the subject, then it is altogether probable 
that the means used to realii:e my idea are 
also at fault. 

1 believe that many 2}ersons know more 
than one person, and it is with this thought 
in mind that I have iuvited you here to-day, 
gentlemen, repreeentativt-s of the buf^iness. 
professional and educational interests tif the 
ciiy, to examine our method and luppect our 
work on this subject. 

Our method, you have seen employed. Is 
it rational ? Our work, done by a company 
of young people who, for the most part, 
have not seen service yet in real business — 
you have before you. Is it good f Your 
opinions, gentlemen, upon these points are 
earnestly desired, and whether rendered for 
or against the method of instruction and its 
product will have much weight with our 
instructors and their pupils. 

Very pointed remarks, strongly indorsing 
the method and its results, were then made 
by Prof. Turner, M. P. Ayers, Dr. Sulher- 
laurl, J. P. Lippincott, W. H. Uinrichsen 
and others, and the committee unanimously 
adopted the following report; 

Wo, a committee invited by Prof. G. W. 
Brown to inspect the method of teaching 
writing employed at the Jacksonville Busi- 
ness College, express the following as our 
opinion of what we see : 

The method appears to us calculated to 
develop, improve and finish the individual 
style of the writers and preserve the dis- 
tinctness and legibility, and increase the ra- 
pidity, so important in business. 

We heartily ind()rae the method as the 
very best for practical purposes. 

The readiness with whit'h the pupils per- 
formed the exercises in so fhort a time 
convinces us of the practical value of the 

[ Note.— For editorial views of the fore- 
going article see page 72, under title of 
"Writing and Teaching from Different 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty cunts for one- 
fourth gross of "'Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. 

The Art of Writing. 

By R. C. Spencee. 

Some i>f the account-books of Anon Har- 
mon, which were kept by P. R. Spencer, 
when a boy, are preserved. The writing in 
them shows that the Spencerian style of 
practical penmanship which he developed 
was then in embryo. For one so young 
and self-taught the writing was excellent, 
being plain, neat, firm, and easy. At that 
period, however, his duties were such that 
he bad little time or opportunity for the 
special study and cultivation of the art to 
which he subsequently devoted himself. 

In his business methods Anon Hamion 
was eccentric. He paid little regard to that 
orderly division of labor adopted by me- 
thodical business men. He was noted for 
energy and force of character combined 
with an impetuous temperament. As a con- 
sequence he was inclined to require of his 
employees every variety of sei^ice, especi- 
ally of those who were apt and could readily 
turn from one thing to another, as was the 
case with young Spencer, of whom he made 
a kifld of factotum. He became not only 
book-keeper, correspondent, and salesman 
in Harmon's store, but at times carried the 
mail on hoi-sehack from Ashtabula to War- 
ren, Trumbull County, Ohio. For a while 
he was supercargo on the schooner Travel- 
er, built and owned by Harmon, one of tJie 
earliest vessels trading on Lake Erie. But 
however employed and whatever his sur- 
roundings, his fondness for the art of writ- 
ing, in which he was considered a prodigy, 
was apparent. 

On his trips as mail-boy be caiTied in his 
pocket a lump of red chalk, with which he 
wrote signs along the route for the pioneer 
merchants, taverns, and shops. As he rode 
through the country he gathered the news 
fur the eariy press of the region, which he 
reported sometimes in rhyme remarkable 
for wit and wisdom. Some of these rhymes 
are still traditional among the people. 

Among his earliest literary remains is an 
improvised diary made by folding sheets of 
inferior foolscap paper. To this he gave 
the odd title of 'The Dishwater Book," 
written in rough German text on the first 
page of the cover. The contents of the 
book are in prose and poetry of a humor- 
ous and amusing character, written in bis 
eighteenth year while supercargo of the 
schooner Traveler. 

The writing in "The Dishwater Book" 
was evidently done at random, but shows 
skill, and faintly some of the features of his 
future style. When the vessel was be- 
calmed he spent his time in covering her 
decks with a variety of M-ritings, and her 
bulwarks with artistic designs, executed 
with a lump of red chalk. These perform- 
ances were th- worder and admiration of 
the- sailms and of the people visiting the 

His duties as supercargo, witli his geo- 
graphical knowledge and reading, doubtless 
impressed his mind thus early with the im- 
portant relations of the art of practical 
writing to commerce, concerning which, in 
after years, he expressed himself in lofry 
verse in his teaching, especially in business 
colleges and in public addresses on his fa- 

A Story of the War. 

What Causedtue Confederate Sweet 
Potato to DisAfPEAR. 
Mr Joseph Wingfield, an ex-guardsman 
of Libby Prison, tells the following story 
of his experience while standing guard over 
the jirisoners one night in Libby Prison 
in I8f 3 : "The building was so crowded 
with prisoners that a large number vf them 
were quartered in the second story of a 
building across the street. In the first story 
of this building the officers had stored a 
large quantity «f splendid North Carolina 
sweet potatoes. About the third day after 

the prisoners had been placed in the build- 
ing it was noticed that the potatoes were 
disappearing at the rate of a bushel a day. 
At first it was thought that the rats were 
taking them, but a second thought showed 
that the idea was absurd. Sentinels were 
posted around the building, with orders to 
shoot any man caught »'tealing those pota- 
toes ; but they didn't see any man to shoot, 
and, though they were posted there day 
and night and no one was allowed to enter 
the room in which they were kept, they 
still c»mtinued to disappear. These pota- 
toes at that tiuie were considered luxuries, 
and the Confederate officers were nearly 
wild with rage at their repeated losses. The 
doors and windows were sealed, and private 
marks were put on the wax. The next 
moriiii.E the officers went to the room. The 
wax wai< all right, but another bushel of 
potatoes had vauished. It was the maddest 
crowd you ever saw. They locked me in 
and a lighted candle was put at each end 
of the room so that I c<.uld see. I was or- 
dered to shoot on sight anybody that I saw 
stealing those yame. It was terrible lone- 
some in that room. Just as fast, as I would 
light (me candle and go to the other end of 
the room to light the other, the rats would 
cut the first one do 'n. They were regular 
Confederate rats, and a candle was a god- 
send to them. About midnight I heard a 
creaking grating noise. I cocked my gun 
and listened. The noise ceased ; I could 
see nothing but the rats, and I began to 
think the place was haunted. Presently 
the noise occurred again. I looked at the 
pile of potatoes, and presently eaw some- 
thing shoot from the ceiling and fall on 
them. It was a brick, and I c;uld distin- 
guish a rope to it. I crept a little nearer to 
get a good look at the thing, but before I 
could examine it, it was drawn slowly up, 
and there was a peck of potatoes sticking to 
it. It went up through a hole which had 
been cut in the fioor above, and presently 
came right down again with a thump right 
among the potatoes. It was the most art- 
ful arrangement you ever saw. The brick 
had about foity holes drilled into it, and 
through each of these holes a tenpenny 
nail had been run, so that when the brick 
fell among ihe potatoes these nails stuck 
into every one they fell on. I could not 
help laughing at the suiart dodge those 
Yankees had taken. I gently put my hand 
forward and caught hold rf the rope. Pretty 
soon they legau to draw on il, and when 
it did not move I heard some one say, 
" Steady, boys ; the brick's hung on some- 
thing. Pull her steady without jerking." 
They did pull steadily, and fairiy bfied me 
from the floor. " No jerk ; easy, boye, easy," 
the director said, and they tugged away. 
I got pretty red in the face holdiug to the 
rope. I was afraid to let go, because I 
thought some of those spiked naile might 
strike me in passing. I thought of my 
pocket-knife, and hauled it out just as they 
were putting all their weight on their end 
of the rope. I cut it in two, and the end 
shot back through a hole in the ceiling, 
and I could hear a rolling ard tumbling on 
the floor above, showing that the sudden 
giving away of the rope had a disastrous 
eflcct. I heard another voice say : " There, 
LOW, I told you so. You've broken the We've lost our brick, and to-morrow 
we'll be found out. Cau't you see it T We 
might hook it up." Next I saw a lung 
neck protruding through the bole, and a 
fellow peering down. Theu I cried out, 
"If you trouble any more of those pota- 
toes I'll shoot." The fellow's head shot 
through the hole just like a terrapin, and it 
was as still as death up there. I hated to 
tell on them, because it was such a smart 
scheme of foraging on the enemy, but I 
had to. When the officers went up next 
morning to examme the room, it took a 
long time to find the hole. Those Yankees 
bad oit a hole about a foot square through 
the floor, and it was done so neatly that it 
took good eyes to discover it." 

Sample copies of the Journal, 10 ceuts. 

The Spirit of Progress. 

By Chashleb H. Pkikce. 

" Stich ! " " Stitch ! " "Stitch ! " 

Write! Write! Wrilel 

Practice! Practice! Practice! 

But wheu can I hope for results? When 
shHll I reach a rich reward? Do you tliiuk 
I can become a g'lod penman? I don't he- 
proficient? Do you think I can become a 
first class penman in six months? I don't 
believe I have made any progress at alt 
marked for a l"ng. long time. Is then- sucli 
a thing as positive improvement ? Is there 
SQch a thing as negative iraprovemeutlf 
Who can determine? Why have we no 
exhaiiBtive works treating upon the subj cl 
outside of copy books, keys, and compeu- 
diums? Are lissous by nmil at all saliafac- 
tory t What would you advise me to do? 
I am Bolicited to teach a class in penman- 
ship; do you think I should attempt it? I 
know belter hnw writing should be done 
than I can execute. I don't care as to the 
expense of going to school. Give me hon- 
est advice. I don't drink anything stronger 
than water, nor do I use tobacco in any 

Every day I read questions from far and 
near that ought to be answered satisfacto- 
rily by some of the profession. I have not 
the time to benefit mankind individuaUy, 
but collectively I give my hand and heart to 
the readere o( the Penman's Art Joub- 


In every business, questions of like char- 
acter, as Well aa all possible ones bearing 
upon tlie subject, suggeat themselves at 
sometime to every well regulated mind. 

There is no barm in asking a simple 
questi n. There can be no harm in answer- 
ing a simple tiuesliou. There is no crime 
committed iu seeking to better one's condi- 
tion by legitimate investigation. There is 
DO wruug dune in dispelliog iunocent igno- 
rauce. Wisdom should be disseminated ; 
and if it be iu the province of any to ask 
sensible quc8ti(ms it should likewise be 
proper, just, and right to accord to all 
every benefit arising therefrom. The 
spirit of progress is strong in almost 

The yountt aspirant cherishes every hope, 
and is longing fur the dawning of a brighter 
day when all hopes shall be realized. There 
comes a time in every one's life that they 
must leave — mother, home, and friends. 
There comes a time when 2>''ogresn ceases 



There comes a time wheu the spirit of 
progress is felt urging us to renewed efl"ort. 
There comes a time wheu we must not 

e ahadow}' Future 

WiUioul t 

The spirit 0/ progress demands that 

The spirit of vr»>ares8 demands action — 
resolute, determined, action. 

A spasmodic efl'ort will not win. A slight 
blow is of no avail. An occasional luru of 
th« wheel is almost useless. Practice under 
unfavorable circumelauces and you cannot 
possess the spirit of progress. Practice with- 
<mt the spirit of progress and you caunot ad- 
vance. How is it possible to effect progress 
if the spirit be not in the work? How is 
it posaible I0 effect progress when doubt 
aud uncertainty pervades the mind? How 
is it possible to effect progress when law is 
violatfd 1 How is it possible to eileot sat- 
isfactorily progress with the machinery 
partly out of order. The probabilities are 
ao great for error, and the possibilities so 
small for truth, that the spirit of progress 
is hemmed in on all sides to the detriment 
of every aspirant. 

Imagine, if you pleaae, any one attempt- 
ing to write with the usual misgivings, and 

you can readily understand why the general 
results conform to points found in the 

Lower Scale 
( Guod :i 

Upp^rScale^ Excellent .... 4 

t Indifferoat . . . . t» 

Lower Scale < Poor I 

i F«ir 2 

The upper scale is difficult to attain be- 
cause force, energy, determination, indomi 
table will power, love for the work, and 
ambition, are not present. 

The spirit of progress embodies many 
virtues which, if not possessed, work disas- 
ter, disappointment, and ruin. You caun-.t 
succeed without it. JA pre practice does not 
indicate progresn. The spirit a d blood 
of rlie times must fill your very or 
yi.u are hopplessly lost. Can you upon your 
own account accomplish all this? I tliiuU 
not. While a teacher may do much for 
you, ytiu must possess force ai.d vig<tr 
enough to carry into execution the plans. 
A physician may give the proper medicine 
and render every service in his power, yet 
will the patient die if no effort be made 
iu his own behalf. 

There is a certain work that the instru ri- 
or must do which the instructed cannot do 
There is a certain work that the instructed 
can d.> that the instructor cannot do The 
physician has his mission to perform j the 
patient his. Tiiere can be no exchange of 
duties; there can be do violation of law; 
each must know his work aud perforuj it as 
best he can. The light of true criticism, 
bearing upon honest, manly effort, is sure 

Demand and Supply. 

AUT Journal by Mitw Anna Sueckwald, aleoograptier. 

The competition between buyers and sell- 
ers is the great practical fact arising fronj 
demand aud supply. Into this competition, 
as students of bueinees, you are preparing 
to enter. You will enter this department of 
human interest and activity subject to the 
laws which govern trade — the laws of de- 
mand and supply. I'he thoroughness of 
your preparatory knowledge, coupled with 
natural guod sense and trained judgment, 
will determine, more or less, the measure of 
your success. What you will be able to 

the capi- 

ets a loss, and the buyer reaps the benefit 
of the seller's neceoeiiies. On the other 
band, a buyer who is looking for a supply 
of his wHDts will naturally withhold from 
the knowUdge of the seller the extent of his 
necessities. He does tMs from consideration 
of private interest. Where the necessities of 
the buyer are very pressing, and this fact is 
known to the seller, he will naturally take 
advantage of the circumstances, and exact 
from the buyer a price much higher than he 
could otherwise demand. 

You see, then, the relative position of 
these two classes, each seeking in their 
dealings with one another to promote bio 
own private interest — the one desiring to 
obtain the highest prices, and the other to 
purchase at the lowest. Out of these ap- 
parently conflicting interests between two 
great classes in community develops a prob- 
lem which touches every human being who 
enters into the competitions of life. Not a 
person who is in any manner dependent for 
the supply of his wants upon the services 
of trade can escape the operation of the law 
of demand and supply. It is the great prin- 
ciple by which the prod 
ties, the dealers in comi 
talistfl, the laborers, tl 
statesmen, and the 
must govern themselves 
capacilies. You are liable 
society all of these relations. You will cer- 
tainly oci'Upy some of them. You cannot 
escjipe from the pusition in which the pro- 
gress of the world baa placed yoo. This 
position you must fulfill, aud if you do it 
well it will be because you understand the 
position in w hich you find yourself. If you 
fail it will be, perhaps, because you are 
ignorant, or because you are indifferent, or 
because you are negligent, or because of the 
ignorance, inditfen-nce or mistakes of those 
with whom you are in relations that make 
you more or less dependent upon them. 

In view of these thoughts you must turn 
your minds toward that future which spreads 
out before you aud stretches on tQ the end 
of life — that future in which you are to 
live and to act. That your part in this fu- 
ture may be well performed, and that you 
may for yourselves and for others secure an 
as the fruits of your labor 
se, I have called your at- 
I hope with some care and thought, 
to this subject which may well be made the 
study of your lives. 

of the world 
their several 
cupy towards 

depend not alone upon the industry and 
perseverance with which you pursue your 
objects, but upon the knowledge and the 
clearness of foresight by which you are 
guided and directed. The resources of the 
mind and of knowledge must be brought 
into constant exercise. It is biainaswell 
as brawn that subdues to man's use the nat- 
ural resources of the earth; hence, educa- 
tion and mental training as well as physical 

But in pursuing our examination of that 
great law of trade, demand and supply, we 
may say that the competition of buyers and 
sellers is one which makes men exceedingly 
keen and cautious. If the supply be large, 
it is the interest of the seller to put upon 
the market only so much as buyers will 
take at a price whirh will unt only save the 
sellers from loss hut yield him a reasonabh- 
profit. The seller will, therefore, endeavor 
to so place and distribute what be has to 
offer in the market as to conceal from the 
buyer a knowledge of the fact that the 
supply is in excess of the demand. Were 
the seller to throw upon the market at once 
the whole supply in full view of the buyer, 
the effect would be to make the buyer aware 
of the fact that the seller must accept such 
prices as the buyer might be dispoeed to 
offer; in other words, the buyer would take 
advantage of the overstocked condition of 
the seller. It is true that the necessities of 
the seller often compel him to submit to 
sacrifices, and, consequently, he will oti'er 
to the buyer at prices much below the cost 
of production; and, hence, the seller pock- 


The Art of Snubbing. 

Everyone can be rude, forbidding, inso- 
lent and snubbing ; but to only the studious 
and gifted few is it given to wouud a friend's 
self-love with so slight a touch and so fine 
a point as to be almost imperceptible at the 
moment, the only thing certain in the matter 
beiug the wound — which remains. It takes 
no artistry to contradict flatly, to sneer 
openly, to put down an interlocutor as a 
fool who may or may not know his own 
folly. This is the bludgeon style of warfare 
— the savage's method of braining his foe 
and of cooking his food in the ashes of the 
fire. The art consists in the grace with 
which the weapon is used ; the lightness of 
hand with which the thrust is made; the 
smallneas of the visible aperture, and the 
depth of the corresponding wound. The 
man or woman who has attained perfection 
in these methods has ever in possession one 
of the most deadly of all those ) 
needles, the si^ratch of which festi 

sible I 

all . 


You have lately learned a quite new fact, 
whether in the physical sciences or in his- 
torical criticisms it does not signify ; but it 
is new, has nut yet been published, and 
your authority is incontestable. You are in 
the presence of a snubber when you bring 
out your lately acquired treasure and make 
a present of it to all around. "That all? I 
knew that long ago," says the snubber, who 
has never heard the question discussed. 
"That is no such wonderful thiug to tell. 
If, LOW, you had told us of tlie elemental 
principle of life, or who was the man in the 

Iron Mask — i( you could explain why a tree 
grows and who was Junius — you would 
be worth listening to. But this — this is 
not worth the time it takes to tell ! " And 
as all persons save the exceptionally kind- 
hearted and the exceptionally generous- 
minded, like the 8i>ort of snubbing as much 
as foxhunters like cub bunting, you are at 
once set down amid a shower of smalt sneers 
as a mere retailer of pecond-hand goods — 
as one who tries to pass off old lamps for 
new, who offers stale faiits, "whit^h every 
schoolboy knows," as the latest discoveries 
made by the great leaders in the world of 
miud — all to get for yourself the kudos 
which belongs to the chosen vessel of com- 
munication. Sometimes you are snubbed 
by a dead blank silence. You have said 
something for which it is desirable y<m 
should be put down. So you are put down 
by the crushing force of negative disdain. 
What you have said is not worth the trouble 
even of a reply, still less of contradiction. 
We do not answer the cat when she mews, 
nor think it always necessary to convince 
our Polly that crying " G" to bed, Jack!" 
at noon is a futile exhortation. You rank 
no higher than the cat or the parrot : and 
what you have just said bears no more 
weight than the mew of the one, the prate 
of the other. And as you cannot talk with 
no one to listen and no one to reply, the 
snub does its work, and you are wounded, 
as it was meant you should be. And some- 
times you are snubbed by direct and un- 
co nr. promising contradiction. It may be 
very nii-ely put if your enemy be well-bred, 
or it will be brutality, and rudely flung in 
your face if he or she be ill-mannered. 
Whether nicely put or rudely flung, you are 
contradicted all the same — beaten back by 
tlie surgine waves which sweep your own 
strand bare, but bring no substitute for that 
which they take away. 

Cousin-germau to the snub of silence is 
that of ostentatiously changing the conver- 
sation. You are assumed to have flourished 
a red rai! in the faee of your companions, 
and good breeding rebukes you by a sudden 
diversion and wheeling round away from 
your post, so that yuur aggressive Aug shall 
not be seeu. You really are too impracti- 
cable, they seem to say. There is no modus 
Vivendi possible with you ; you have never 
learned to run curricle, nor to fall into step; 
and the only way to treat you is to cliange 
front rapidly and leave you plante iu your 
isolation. They must prove to you that 
they are not with you. though they are too 
kind and well-bred to say ao openly. 
Hence they snub you with a courteous 
smiif, as the sole reply to what you have 
said, and immediately open another topic 
of conversation, miles away from that which 
you had begun. — The Queen- 

Napoletu is said to have written badly 
to conceal his bad spelling. The mantle 
of illegibility is a cover for many sins 
against orthography. 

A newly married lady was telling another 
how nicely her husband could write. "Oh, 
you should just see some of his lovelefers!" 
"Yes, I know," was the freezing reply; 
" I've got a bushel of 'em in my trunk." 

A young man who bad been wooing a 
Vermont girl for some time, and had made 
her several presents, asked her one day if 
she would accept a puppy. He was awful 
mad wheu she replied that her mother had 
told her if he proposed to her, to say No. 

A young gentleman, after having paid 
his addresses to a lady some time, popped 
the question. The lady, in a frightened 


geutlemau did not wish to frighten the 
lady, and consequently remained silent for 
some time, when she exclaimed, " Scare 
me acain I " 


PubH«hed Monthly at SI per Y, 

D. T, AMZS, Editor ajtd Pbopkibtor, 

Single ooplM of Ibo JOUKNAL Mnt on rvoeipi ol lOo. 
SpcoimBD ooplei lorDlahed lo AgenU ft««. 


8lngl8 luMrtJOB. 30 oeoU per tine nonpareil, 
loolnmn $30,00* fwoo' flOl^ 11^5X10 

i " !!!!"."."! gioo isioo Jo.oo S 

1 iMh, lailDN 3.25 fi.50 10,00 19.00 

AdTerliMmanl* tor ooe and thre« montbi, payable in 



To all who remil $!, we will mall Ui« Joubmal one 
yeaj, and a oopy (boood in paper) of "Ameg'* Hand- 
book of Anut.o Penmanship''; or, for |1 25. a oopy 

^nteonial Picture of Procrrau 22r28. 

nourished Eagle * 24x32. 

Sonndmjr Slag. 24x32. 

^amity Record 16x22 

ilarriage Certifioale I8x22* 

8y»teiB of Floniisliing." 

™. Kom.. 

Ihfl ■■Standard Piactioal Peomftnal 

w^k' ' 

« large Cn 
ia OloUK or 

> or twelve iobsoriplioni and %\ 
nf ' Amee'a Compendium of Orn 
prioeK. Or, a ^py o( ■ WiVlIL 
o( Penmanibip"; retaU. for »5. 


Mnd a oopv 


maU tbe Journal, one year.wilii a 
premiomi, or "Tbe Guide " io pai 

er, to eao 


^«>P*« 11.75 1 15 o 


y^ J^JOUMAL will be luned a. 

pouiblfl OD 


* Art Jourkal, < 

New Yobk, May 

Writing and Teaching as Viewed 
from Different Standpoints. 

Od auothcr page, under the caption of 
"Business-writing Boomed," is an article 
wipied from the JacksormUe (III.) Hatty 
ljm,rvr. While with much contained there- 
in we agree, there is also much which if not 
wrong in itself is open to an inference which 
w..nld be exceedingly pernicious- With Mr. 
Brown's JeBnition of what constitutes good 
business-writing and its importance, we are 
in most full accord. But when Mr. Brown 
ibiccts to " purely fanciful forms," as he is 
;ilea.ed to refer to systematically engraved 
■opics as presented in copy-books, and a 
iDiform and analytic method of instruction, 
16, m our judgment, is misled, probably 
hrough his peculiar standpoint, to say that 
o which no educational body in the civi- 
ized world would assent; nor, in our opin- 
on, would the very committee invited by Mr 
Jrowu, were both sides presented to them 
inder circumstances to call for tjieir un- 
.iased judgment. The fact is, Mr. Brown 
! instructing yoraj mm and womm who 
lave the advantage of years of previous 
raiuing. and who thomselves exercise judg- 
leut and a command of their faculties be- 

yond the young pupils in the various grades 
of our jiublic and private schools. Again, he 
is assisted by teachers who are skilled and 
eiperienoed specialists, who can place be- 
fore their pupils model copies, and pro- 
nounce intelligent and helpful criticism 
Under these circumstances he is securing, 
as we have reason to know, excellent re- 
results in plain writing. 

But in the vast majority of our public 
and private schools how different— there, 
and specially in the primary and intenne- 
diate grades, first lessons are given by 
unprofessional teachers of writing to chU 
dren in large classes in very limited time; 
hence, the utmost system in copies and 
methods for instruction is required. To 
attempt to vary methods and copies to the 
whim of each child would be the very cli 
max of absurdity. Brother Brown's plan, 
here in our judgment, would not work re- 
sults which would win the laudation of 

In our business colleges and by special 
teachers of writing, having pupils advanced 
in years and atlainmenls, and where by in- 
dividual instructiou time and method may 
be suited to the circumstances of each pu- 
pil, different and more progressive methods 
may be adopted. In this class of schools 
ivHting is, beyond a question, as a rule, 
much more successfully taught than it can 
be under the methods necessarily adopted 
in our public schools; and it should be so, 
as, in the former, it is taught as a speciality 
by a specialist; in the latter, as one of 
numerous branches having equal claims, by 
a teacher without pretence to special chiro- 
graphic skill ; indeed, a very large propor- 
tion of the really good writers of to-day 
have laid the basis for the same in a hnsi- 
ncss college, or under the tuition of a pro- 
fessional teacher of writing. In these 
schools the philosophy and importance of 
e correct movement is more thoroughly 
understood and effectively taught, without 
which the most perfectly constructed writ- 
ing can never become good business- writ- 
ing; for to be good, writing must be written 
in a rapid and tireless manner, which only 
the combined forearm and finger move- 
inonts are capable of doing. 

As regards Brother Brown's pUn of as- 
sisting a pupil to develop a personality in 
hu writing we do not conceive this to be 
properly within the care or attention of a 
teacher. We have yet to know of the 
teacher who couW •„ impress hie instruc- 
tion upon hU pupils as to prevent such 
an ultimate development. Why take the 
trouble to assist or teach that which he 
could not prevent if he should tryf Might 
as well assist or teach breathing, or lo bal- 
ance whUe standing. Personality in hand- 
writing wiU take care of itself. Again 
Brother Brown claims to teach " business- 
writing." In this we think he is mistaken ; 
by teaching good forms, rapid and easy 
movements, he teaches good practical writ- 
ing, which if applied to business purposes 
becomes good busineM-writing. West Point 

teaches military 

makes no pretence that her graduates are 
generals; neither do law, medical, or theo- 
logical schools pretend that their graduates 
are professionals. It is the after experience- 
schoolroom theory vindicated by successful 
practice— that develops the general, jurist, 
doctor, theologian, or business-writing. 

Good business-writing is good school- 
room writing rounded, individualized, and 
so fixed by long and habiiuol praclice as to 
become, through the sheer force of habit, 
the unconscious product of the hand. Could 
practice be so extended, and ui-der the 
proper circumstances as to aicomplisb this 
in the schoolroom, then it might be busi- 
ness-writing: and even then the business 
part is the acquisition of hahil, and cannot 
be taught any more than can that peculiar 
air and mien that comes to the man from 
long dealing and mingling in circles of bus- 
iness. Different pursuits require quite a 
different style of writing. All these cannot 
be anticipated and provided for by a teacher 
of writing. When he has assisted bis pupil 
to acquire a good, symmetrical, legible, and 
rapid hand, he has performed his whole 
duty. Since the occupations, habiis, and 
environments of after life will inevitably 
shape a hand peculiar to, and characteristic 
of, each individual, and in which scarcely a 
visible trace of the school hand will remain • 
nevertheless, each hand in general quaMy 
and exK\lenct will range much as did the 
school hands, except in so far as they have 
been influenced by motives, such as having 
been engaged in occupations where the 
quality of writing was in a large measure 
the criterion of success such as being an 
accountant, engrosser, teacher of writing, 
etc., in which case the style of writing will 
vastly excel that where the motive 
been much less or wanting, as in the hiw- 
yer, journalist, salesman. 

id, be guided by the 
conceptions, and be contndled by the same 
will ; hence, the only differenre betnefu its 
performance and that of the right I and 
would be that resultieg from its inability, 
for want of practice, to obey with equal ac- 
curacy and facility the command of its mas- 
ter, the mind. It would aspire to the same 
models, and struggle to obey the same com- 

mands, and its perf( 
only In its grace of execi 
Yankee Doodle is Yank( 
performed by the greatest 
by the merest tyro. 

We have known seven 
persons accustomed to wri 
hand have from some car 
left hand. In all eases wh( 

iUld differ 

, the 

The Identity 

j Between Writing Written with the 

Right and the Left Hand. 
j It is a method quite frequently res 
to by persons accustomed to write 
their right band, and who for some ourpose 
wish to disguise their writing, to do so by 
using their left hand. This method, 
the casual observer, is usually very offe. 
ive, and speoiully so where the left ha 
has had little or no training ; yet, wh. 
subjected to a really expert examiner of 
handwriting for comparison, the identity 
between such writings would he at one, 
parent. That such would be the fact will 
be obvious, when we consider that the hand 
IS only the implement of the mind, and that 
whatever be the style of one's writing it 
has taken shape and peculiarities according 
to the mind's conception; and though the 
right hand as the chosen and favored ser- 
vant may become skilled greatly beyond 
the unemployed left hand, if from disability 
or other cause the left hand should be called 
Into use, it would be the servant of the 

il instances where 
te with their right 
se substituted the 
?ro the same «Iant 
I was maintained the writing of the left hand, 
j as it came to be written with a facility ap- 
proximating that of the right, has assumed 
a correspondingly close resemblance. It is 
said that late in life Thomas Jeflerson lost 
the use of his right band to such a degree 
as to cause him to substitute his left hand 
for writing, and that after a short time wri- 
ting with his left hand was scarcely dii- 
tinguishable firom that formerly written with 
his right. 

Above we give specimens written with 
the right and left hand, inclosed in a letlei by 
W. 0. Haworth, of Knoxville, Tennessee. 
Mr. H. naturally writes with his left hand, 
and states that he has made very little ef- 
fort to write with his right hand. He had 
no knowledge that the specimens were to 
be thus used, and hence could not have 
written them with reference to sustaining 
any theory of ours respecting the identity 
I that exists between right and left hand 
ig by the same person ; yet our read- 
ill not fail to observe how completely 
s so. Not only does the same peculiar 
types of letters appear in each, as in tbe 
capital P, h and i in " hand," the jj's in 
"penmanship," the capitals in the auto- 
graph, but the initial and terminal lines; 
also the spacing of words is identical, the 
Ig alone in the facility 
with which the writing is executed. 

Lessons in Box and Package 

In obedience to solicitations from many 

readers we shall begin, in the next, June 

jber of the Journal, a series of articles 

with alphabets and specimens for box and 

!e marking. We shall make these 

1 of solid utility to all persons hav- 

do with any line of box marking. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage-stamps. 

Marriage, Ovation, and Honors. 

Adam waodered alone tbroogb the bow 
ere of Eden. Becoming weary jn bis lone 
Uness, a deep sleep fell upon him ; whei 
be awoke, lovely woi 
oiled upon Adi 

stood by biB side, 
smiled in re- 
to smile npon 

down to the pres- 


since the days of Ad 
em era of recorded 1 

la the city of New York, April 24lh, 
1884, in a pretty cborcb, stood a fair one, 
Miss Lottie HUI, by the side of Silas S. 
Packard, and in the presence of a large 
congregation of witnesses the Rev. Dr. 
Lloyd united the two id the holy bonds of 
matrimony. From tbfl church the cele- 
brants and many friends drove to the St. 
Denis Hotel, where a brilliant reception 
was held, attended with gayety and appre- 
ciable enjyymeQt. An elegant wedding- 
breakfast was served, and the host and 
bostesfl were showered with the congratu- 
latioDB of the guests. 

I present fmm abroad 

tbe Ho 


md Mre. A. J. Ride 

TienloD, N. J.; Col. J. E. Soul.?, Philadel- 
phia ; Dr. and Mrs J. C, Bryant, Buffalo, 
N \ ; W. H. Sadler. Baltimore, Md.; Mr. 
and Mrs. Chas. and Miss Claghorn, Brook- 
lyn ; Judge and Mrs. Larremore, Brook- 
lyn; also, Mr and Mrs. Austin Packard, of 

Among guests resident of New York 
were : Col. Thomas W. Knox : Gen. C. B. 
Fisk; Mr. and Mrs. John L,X. Hunt; Mr. 
and Mrs. William Allen Miller; Mr. and 
Mrs. J. D. O.lell; Dr. and Mrs. Streeter ; 
Mr and Mrs. H.H.Bowman; Hr.u.Mr.and 
Mr^. H A Si-pncer; Dr. King; Dr Got- 
ihi"l; Mr^. Barlow; Chas. E. C«dy. pres- 
ident of the B, E. A. of A ; Mrs. A. L- 

Mr. Byn 

I Ho 


Mrs J. \. Kimball; Mrs. S 
Lolie.k; Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Kaurlall ; 
Mies Van Duzer; Mrn Strat on, widow of 
H Dwight Strattoj, was also present wirh 
ht^r daughter, Miss Stratton. 

The ubiquitous Rrporter of the Journal 
regrets not being able to mention all of the 
great number who attended the wedding 
and the feast. 

The occasion called forth an ovation od 
a grand scale the students of Packard 
College. Should all of those who have 
graduated from the institution since it was 
founded be summoned, and meet on such 
ao occasion, it would require a Heet of ships 
to carry ihem upon an excursion. Upwards 
of one ihouaand members and friends of the 
college chartered the iron steamer Pegasus, 
with music and banners, to see President 
Packard, his bride, and little adopted daugh- 
ter, Mamie, on the steamer Republic, as far 
on the way to Kurope as Sandy Hook, some 
fifteen miles from New York. As tbe two 
steamers passed down tbe Bay and ont »o 
sea, cheers and loud hurrahs went up from 
their crowded saloons and decks. When 
the Hook was reached the steamers dipped 
their colors, adieus were shouted to the 
voyagers, and the Republic speeded away 
toward ber European desiiuation. The 
Pegasus turned her p.-ow toward Gotham, 
and iu the shadows of evening reached her 
moorings, and lauded the merry homo- 
voyagers. No one connected with thp edu- 
cational int.rePt« of our country has, per- 
haps, evtr before received ovations and 
honors on bo grand a scale as those ac- 
corded to President and Mrs. Packard. 

H. E Dickerson, of Hiawatha, Kan., was 
married at Kan , March 5th, to 
Miss AmAuda Wallace, one of Ohio's fair 
daughters. Dickiuson is a brilliant young 
writer, and has made many friends in the 
West who unite iu wishing him joy. 

Movement in Writing 

A short time since, while coi 
with one of the most succecsful teachers of 
practical writing in tbe West respecting 
systems and methods of instructing in writ- 
ing, be remarked, wilb considerable energy, 
his plan was movement, movement, move- 
ment. " For," said he, ''with a rapid and 
graceful movement, forms at least legible, 
will take care of themselve^'." While we 
are ID most full accord with his estimate of 
tbe importance of movement, we believe 
that care should also be taken to cultivate 
correct, taste and a true conception respect- 
ing the essentials of good writing. 

It is our experience that a vast proportion 
of the unprofessional teachers of writing 
have no true conception of the muscular 

the close of an Address before a large body 
of teachers at aa institute, we requested all 
who understood or made use of the muscu- 
lar movement to raise their hands. Not 
five per cent, raised their bands; and of 
those who did, not one could give an ex- 
planation sufficiently lucid to enable a pu- 
pil to understand and practice it. Nor is it 
krcely possible to do so in words alone ; 
example, at least, is necessary ; and it 
was our plan, while teaching, to place our 
hands upon the hand and elbow of the 
learner, and thus aid to imparl to their fore- 
arm tbe proper muscular morion. This we 
found to be the most expeditious and fffect- 
ive method for conveying to the pupil a 
true idea of tbe movement, as well as to 
secure its acquisition. And tbroughoui any 
course «)f instruction given, every lesson 
was initiated with a practice upon move- 
ment exercises of some form. This plan 
we would commend to all teachers of writ- 
ing, especially with pupils in advanced 
grades. We are doubtful if it is ever ad- 
isable to attempt to deal with the muscu- 
nr movement in tbe primary and low 

lately introduced by Prof. C. C. Curtis, of 
St. Paul, Minn., in connection with his 
series of copy-books, which have attained 
to a well-deserved popularity in Minnesota 
and the West. The following are several 
of the exercises reduced from charts, 22x28 
inches, and used here by his permission. 
Also in the New Spencerian Compendium 
are a large variety of superior movement ex- 
ercises. We are in full accord with these 
combined letter movements, and believe 
that they cannot be too extensively prac- 
ticed. Remember that good writing is 
movement, movement, movement, with 

The King Club 

For this month comes from Bryant's Busi- 
ness College, Indianapolis, Ind., and num- 
bers thirty-three, and was sent by E. J. 
Heeb, who is the teacher of penmanship in 
that Institution. Mr. Heeb has tbe reputa- 
tion of being a good teacher of writing. The 
Indianapolis Educational Weekly says : 
"Prof. E. J. Heeb is one of the most ac- 
implisbed teachers of penmanship we have 
jm seen. Under his direction the writing- 
jur loses the lifeless and labored aspect so 
writing-classes, and becomes a 
)f delightful enthusiasm and excite- 

The very best form of npovement for ini- 
tiating the movement is the oval exercise, 


The Queen Club numbers twenty-six, and 
! was sent by WillUm Allen Miller from 
Packard's Business College, New York. 

The third in size numbers twenty one, 
and was sent by W. S. Sandy, principal uf 
the commercial department in the Newark 
(N. J) High Snhool. A club of eighteen 
comes from W. H. Patrick, of Sadler's Bal- 
timore (Md.) Busineea College; fourteen 
from J. R. Long, Danville, Ind. Clubs of 
thirteen each came from W. H. Cmsskill 
and Pape Claeke, Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward's Island. Smaller clubs have been 
more numerous than ever before during the 
same season of the year, while single sub- 
floriptions show a large increase over 
previous year. 

" Tbe Guide " ( iu papwr } is non offered 
free aa a premium to every person remit- 
ting $1 fur one year's subscripUou to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound ia oloth, 
for 25 oeuU tdditioQAL 

Lost His Equilibrium. 

We had anticipated a communication from 
Prof. S. S. Packard, to appear in this num- 
ber of the Journal, but in its place we re- 
ceived a letter of apology mailed from 
Queenstown, in which he says : 

" I have been trying for some days past 
to find the necessary (quilibrium to write 
Homething for your Journal, but it has 
impossible, and ev*n now this 
old ship is rolling and tumbling about with 
such strange fantastic sweeps and curves 
( not Spen-erian ) that it is very difficult to 

t whetbor you are standing on your feet 
your { mine I mean ) head, or whethf r 

1 B.TQ simply rolling yourself. I doubt if 

example, and ,„m™„„„„ h,,e been | and legs rolU.g around !„„«, bnt my bram 

eiKflKiss wmiiswis ejusif. jaa. § 3 

is in a perpetual whirl, and I have really no 
tboughts at all. I am a very poor aaUor at 
be»t, and I now seem at my worst." 

Mr. Packard promises to make np for hie 
delinquency in our neit issue, before which 
time, we trust, his eciuilibrium will have 
been not only restored, but that he will be 
rejoicing in all the delights that can possi- 
bly be aniicipaled from such a tour aa he is 

Announcement of the Convention. 

The announcement of the Sixth Annual 
Convention of the Business Educators and 
Penmen of America has been printed by 
the Executive Committee, copies of which 
may be had by addressing L. L. Williama, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

The convention is to convene on July 
17th, and continue until the 23d. It is an- 
ticipated that there will be a very large at- 
tendance, and that the pmceedings will be 
more than usually interesting. As yet we 
have Dot beard from as many penmen re- 
specting tbeir attendance, and the part they 
will take, as we should. No active teacher 
of writing, or professional penman, can 
aHord to stay away. In their announce- 
ment, the Executive Committee say the 
penman's section will be atf.,rded fa..ilitieB 
unequalled at any previous meeting. Abun- 
dant opportunities will be aHurded Iho pen- 
men lor full aLd free discussions, both with 
and apart from the business educat<.rs; and 
it is fully believed that the coming meeting 
will prove by far the largest, the most en- 
joyable auJ pmhtable meeting yet held. 

The value to result to every one present 
from such a meeting, in personal acquaint 
ance and interchange of views and experi- 
ence, can scarcely be appreciated or over- 

No More Specimen-copies Free. 

For years after its publication it was our 
custom to mail a sample-copy of the Jour- 
nal free to all applicants, and while we 
might willingly continue to do so to all 
who apply with the intention of subscrib- 
ing, it is quite impossible that we should do 
so to the thousands who apply simply to 
gratify at our expense their curiosity or de- 
sire to get a thing of value for nothing. 

Since the Journal has become so widely 
known and popular, postal-card requests 
for specimen. copies have so multiplied that 
to comply with them all would be little 
short of ruinous to any publisher. And, 
besides, each number of the Jouhnal is 
worth its price, and we know of no reason 
why persons wishing one for any purpose 
should not remit ten cents, which certainly 
is a trifle to them, hut no small sum when 
aggregated as it has been at this office. 
Henceforth there will positively be no copies 
mailed free, except to actual agents, to be 
used in soliciting subsoribera. 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others; All numbers of 1878 but 
December; all for 1879, except January, 
May and November ; all numbers for 1880 ; 
all numbers for 1881 ; all for 1882, except 
June ; all for 1 883, but January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's writing- 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in the July number. Only a few copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will he moiled 
for $4, or any of the numbers at 10 centa 

Tell your friends, and tell them to tell 
everybody, that if they are iu any way in- 
terested in good writing the best investment 
they cau iiiuke is to send $1 and get the 
Penman's Art Journal one year and a 
splendid " Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship," worth $1 

" pretnium, free. 


[ Undsr thie linud aiiswerH will be giv. 
All (jueBliona— tlie replies to which will be 
value or general intereat to readers. Questiti 
which are personal, or to which aiiawera woi 
be wiihoul general int* 

C. S. Rockin^thaiD, N. C— If thn young 
ppnniHu will semi you specimens of ttouridh- 
iug will yon priut them in your excellent 
pjipert If so, pleaae aoswer through the 
Journal; I would like to see what they 

Ans.— We Bhall, from time to time, pub- 
lish uierilorious specimeua of poumauehip 
from either young or 

] adv 

seeing their specimens, that they would be 
published. Very few of the multitude of 
specimens received contain all the requi- 
sites for publication. Many lack in merit; 
others are too delicately executed with inks 
colored or too light. It should be borne in 
miud tliat only jet black lines can be photo- 
engraved, and that designs to produce a 
good eflect should be reduced one-half in 
engraviug ; and besides, we very much pre- 
fer to receive specimens of good, plain writ- 
ing rather than flourished birds, lions, etc., 

It is not the purpose of the JOURNAL to 
offer special encouragement to aspirants in 
that line of penmanship. Much time is 
wasted upon useless flourishes, which might 
far better be devoted to the acquisition of 
good, practical writing. Flourishes have 
no market- value, except with a very limited 
class of pen-artists, aod then it is of little 
account compared with really good writing, 
lettering, and skill of design, while good, 
practical writing is the greatest use to every 
person, and its market is never overstocked. 

A. J. W., Sacramento, Cal.— If a person 
sign a tictitious name to any written instru- 
ment, would that be forgery T 

Ans.— Yes; if in doing so there is any 
intent to defraud ; legally there is no " for- 
gery " apart from a fraudulent intent, and 
with that one may forge even hie own sig- 
nature. Should he sign bis name in an al- 
tered or disguised manner, with the view of 
afterward denying its genuineness, or make, 
after the manner of a forger, an exact fac- 
simile by means of a tracing or mechanical 
means, it would be a forgery precisely the 
same as if a copy of another person's signa- 
ture had been made. 

E. D. S., Camden. N. J.— I have been a 
subscriber to the JOURNAL since 4aiuary 
last, and I am highly pleased with it, I 
am told by one of my friends that some 
time since there was given, through the 
Journal, a series of articles and copies for 
box and package marking. As that is a 
subject in which I am interested I should be 
greatly pleased if you would 'again offer 
some advice with copies upon that subject. 

Ans. — Mr. S. is one of several who have 
made simitar requests, and as the idea ac- 
cords with our views we will, in the next 
issue, give the first of a series of such ar 

W^ho should Subscribe for the 

Every lady or gentleman who would 
make an effort for the improvement of their 
writing at. home or in their place of busi- 

Every teacher and pupil of writing in our 

Every parent who has sons or daughters 
whom he would have become more inter- 
ested or efficient in their writing. 

Every school-officer who would be fa- 
miliar with the highest standards of writing 
and best methods for its instruction. 

Every admirer of good practical or aitis- 
>ir pcomansbip. 

Exchange Items. 

With the May numbor the Art Amateur 
concludes the fifth year <tf its publication. 
The number is admirable. It has eight sup- 
plemental pages of designs, a frontispiece, 
" Morning Prayer," from C. S. Pearce's 
salon picture ; the profusely illustrated ar- 
ticle on the National Academy exhibition; 
and the first of an invaluable series of arti- 
cles on '"The Modern Home," treating of 
the vestibule and hall. The work of Solon, 
a famous French ceramic artist, is described 
and illustrated. Other articles of much 
interest are on spurious old faience, the 
drawings of the old masters, the Pastel ex- 
hibition, and "How we lost the Castallani 
collection." The Art Amateur deserves a 
liberal patronage. Price, $4 a year; siugle 
numbers, 35 cents. Mr. Montague Marks, 
publishfir, 2a Union Square, New York. 

The CalUgraplur's Quill is the title of a 
bran new eight paged penman's paper, to 
be published monthly hy C. H. Randall, 
Fairmont, Neb., for $ i per year. The first 
nifmber is edited with ability, good typog 
rapby, and is well filled with interesting 
matter. A conspicuous feature is a large 
number of portraits and life-sketches of 
well known penmen. Mr. Kandall strikes 
out vigorously as if impressed with the be- 
lief that he has an editorial mission to per- 
form as a driver of the " quill." He certainly 
has our best wishes. 

The Normal Criterion, published month- 
ly by Maxwell Kennedy, principal of the 
Macomb ( lU.) Normal College and Busi- 
ness Institute, is well filled with educational 
uiatter of interest. Mailed one year for fifty 

Health and Home, which is among our 
most interesting exchanges, has for many 
years been published at Port Chester, N. Y., 
by W. H. Hale, M D., who has lately trans- 
ferred ita office of publication to Washing- 
ton, D. C. It is published monthly, and is 
mailed for fifty cents per year. 

The Lithographer, published weekly by 
the Lithugraphic Publishing Co., Chicago, 
III . f..r $5 per annum, is a beautifully g.,t- 
ten-up paper, which is devoted chiefly to 
the lithographic art. It contains much that 
is of interest to art in general. Single 
copies, ten cents- 

The Student's Quarterly is an attractive 
and interesting though unpretentious sheet, 
published by the students of the writing 
department of the Oberlin (Ohio) College. 
Ite editors, by an oversight, omitted to 
mention the Penman's Art Journal, but 
we trust that it will live, and the editors be 
more thoughtful next time. 

The Business Educator^ published by the 
New Jersey Buainess College, Newark, N. 
J., reflects credit, both in its style and mat- 
ter, upon the institution from whence it 

Opportunity, soone 
who wish and work. 

3 to all 

The Chirofjrapher, through whose attrac- 
ive columns the versatile and aspiring gen- 
us of our friend Isaacs beams forth monthly, 
omes regularly to hand. Any of our read- 

ivho ■ 


the I 

t of ] 

Isaacs can certainly do so by just inolobing 
one dollar for a year's subscription, and 
they will get their mouey's worth. 

The Chirofjraphic Quarterly, No. 4. 
published by H. W. Kibbe, Utica, N. Y., is 
received, and is a gem of artistic skill and 
editorial taste. It is mailed one year for 

fore us is worth the money, as auy reader 
of the Journal can demonstrate to their 
entire satisfaction by remitting to Mr. Kibbe 
ten cents for a copy. 

The Cosmopolitan Shorthand Writer, by 
Bengough and Yeich, Toronto, Canada, 
monthly, for one dollar per year, is among 
the very best of the many shorthand maga^ 
zines. Its literary make-up is excellent 
while its illustrations sparkle with the trm 
genius of wit and humor. 

The Western Penman, formerly published 
at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, by A. N. Palmer, 
has transfered the office of its publioatioa to 

Chicago, 111., where it will be published by 
Worlhington and Palmer, 81 North Clark 
Street of that ciry. In the publication of the 
W. P , hitherto, Mr. Palmer has evinced a 
degree of editorial talent which gives prom- 
r success in the editorial field. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending properly directed inat- 
ir by mail is very slight; and in all cases 
where the remitter will hand the same to 
the postmaster for examination, and seal 
n his preseuce, we will bo responsible for 
losses; and on the statement of the post- 
er that he saw the money inclosed and 
duly mailed, we will consider it the same 
received by us Persons directing books 
d packages to be sent by mail may have 
the same registered by simply remitting 
cents extra. All such packages are 
at the risk of the person who orders. 

Profeseor E. G. Foleom, one of the pioneer 
founders of busioeES colleges in tbif> country, 
and for many years the pnpul ir managsr of 
the Albany (N. Y.) Business Colle^-e, has 
lately disposed of his interest therein, and re- 
tired from active labur as a teacher. Id 1878 
he eold a half-iuleresl to Mr. C. E. Carhart, 
who assumed the entire charge of iii»triictioo, 
and under whose management the college has 
made rapid a 'vancement. Mr. T'olsom now die- 
poses of his remaining interest to J. R. Carnell, 
furmerlv of Tr-y. N. Y. Mr. Carnell was for 
some ten years principal of the Troy Biiatness 
College, and which, under bis control, estab- 
lished ihroughuut Northern itnd Eastern New 
York a wide reputation for practical work. 
Messrs. Carnell and Carhart will now consti- 
tute the new firm — Mr. Carhart ae president 
of the college, and Mr. Carnell as secretary. 
These youug men are both expeiienced teach- 
ers: by profeaaioD, practical accountants: and 
are, among business educators, acknowledged 
leaders. For the coming season cousiderable 
improvements in the course of study, arrange- 
ment and furnishing of rooms, etc., are already 
under way. Two entire floors in the Kidd — 
now Wooster — building will be occupied as 
acboulroums, ofhces, business exchanges, etc. 
Prof. Folsom will remain with the new firm as 

ts, final 

> ethi. 

A. N. Palmer, who haa for some time past 
been connected with the Cedar Rapida (Iowa) 
Business College, has lately become asaociuted 
wilb B. M. Worthington in the management 
oi the Lakeside Business College in Chicago. 
The Cedar Rapida Gazette, in a somewhat ex- 
tended personal item respecting Mr. P , says : 
"The city loses one of its most sterling young 
men in Mr. Palmer's departure, and society 

IC. J. Wright, formerly connected with ih* 
s-HUBville (Ind.) Business College, has sold 
s interest therein and removed to Dakota, 
nrbo conducts t 

C. C. Curtis, who conducts business colleges 
in St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., and who 
ID the author of a series uf oopy-buuhs and 
school charts, which are in general use in his 
own and other Western States, haa latnly been 
East on business in connection with his p b- 
Hcatiuns. Mr. C. is among the must enter- 
prising and Ruccefisfnl business college men 
of the We t. 

H.W. Ellaworlb, author of the "Rllaworth- 
ian System of Copy-books," 22 Bond Street, 
New York, haa lately copyrighted something 
new — ft copy - book cover and protector. 
It combines with the cover a blotter, pen- 
wiper, illustrations of position, and consider- 
able valuable instructioD to teacher and pupil. 

G. Bixler announces the opening of a pen- 
art school at Sparta, Ohio, on the 19ih of Au- 
gust next. 

II. C. Wright, of Wright's Business College, 
Brooklyn. N. Y., is one of the patentees of a 
Noiseless Railway Lock, which appears to be 
a useful and important invention. We hope 
■here may be "millions in it." 

The Daily Times, Batavia, N.Y., pays a high 
compliment to r>. B. Jones, of Bergen, N. Y., 

who haa been special teacher of writing in the 
public achooU of tnal cily during the past 
year. It saya : " Mr. Jones has given perfect 
satisfaction during bin term as teacher. Hin 
work was tburough, and his method of instruc- 
tion was such that the pupil was always inter 
ested aod every one under his charge made 
rapid striden forward. Prof. Jones is an ad- 
mirable instructor." 

Thos. Powers haa been employed as special 
teacher of writing in the public schools of 
Watertown, N. Y. 

[ Persons sending specimens for notice in 
this column should see that the packages con- 
taining the same are postage paid in full at 
Utter rates, A large proportion of these pack- 
ages come short paid, for sums ranging from 
three cents upward, which, of course, we are 
obliged to pay. This is scarcely a desirable 
consideraliun for a gratuitous notice.] 

Noteworthy apecimens have been received 
as fullows: 

A. H. Steadman, penman at the Toledo (O ) 
Business College, a photograph of a well- 
executed pen-and-ink design for a prospectus 
ol the college. 

W. H. Patrick, penman at Sadler's Balti- 
more (Md.) Bneinees College, a letter. 

C. A. French, in the Poatoftice. Boston, 

W. W. McCellaud. penman at the Curry In 
tilute and Businesa College. Pittsburgh, Pa., 
letter and club for Journai.. 

N. S. Beaidsley, special teacher of writing 
in the publio schools of Council Bluffs, i;owa, 

L. C. Havener, Boston, Mass., a letter and 

G. B. Jones, Bergen, N. Y.. a letter. 

William J, Althers. 137 Avenue A, New 
York, a letter and cards. 

H. W. Kibbe, Utica. N. Y., a letter. 

W. W. Bennett, Spencerian Business Col- 
Ivgf. Cleveland, Ohio, a letter. 

E. Schwarm, Oltumwa, Inwa, a letter and 
photo ol flourished lion. 

F. J. Tolland, Petersburg. III., a letter. 

J. II. Bi'iant, penman at the Spencerian 
Biiaitieos College, WashtDgton, D. C, a letter 
and specimens of left-hand writing by several 
of his pupils. 

D. A. CrJttiits, Waxahachie. Texas, a letter. 

G. W. Fox. Cedar Creek. Neb., a letter and 
specimene of writing, which are very credit- 
able. He says; "I have actjuired my pen- 
manabip. through the aid of the Journal, 
during the tw. years that I have been a sub- 
scriber. I should not now know bow to do 

A. W. Dakin, Tully, N. Y.. a letter. 

A. E. Peck, Dallas, Tex., a set of bnsiuess 
capitals and a flourished card. 

R. S Collins, Knuxville, Tenn., a letter and 
cards. He says: "Friend Hinman, in bis 
lessons, is giving us some excellent hints, I 
look anxiously tor the coming of each uumiier." 

M. J. Harty, St. Louis. Mo., a letter. 

C. C. Maring, penman at the Chatham (Out.) 
Business College, a letter. 

D. T. Hemming, Lompoc. Cal., a letter. 

G. W. Allison, Newark ( N. J.) Business 
College, a letter. 

Chas, E. Bust. Brandon. Vt.. a iKler and 
flouriahed bird. 

J. K. Carrutbere, Spencerian Bueiness Col- 
lege, Cleveland, O., a letter and several card 
specimena. He says: "Your Journal is 
better uad better every mouth. It should hv 
iu the hands of every penman in the world." 

S. J. Breakwell, Highwoud. III., a letter. 
He says : " I believe the JuURXAL to be the 
beat penman's paper published." 

W. L. Parks, La Moille. III., a letter. 

Fred. M. Johnson, Boston, Mass., a letter. 

J. ^. Parsons, Bryan, Tex., a letter. 

A^ Til V. ri: N MAN S 

J. E. Deptie, Cold W&wr. Mich,. & letter and 

J. N. McBride, Vicuna, Md.. iiicloeep. witli 
a specimen of hie preeent writing, one wrilleii 
five moiitha eiiic*, at which lime he bejjHii rp- 
ceiviiig the Journal. The improTemeiil ib 
very marked, which he attributes entirely to 

A. D. Smiill, Grand Valley. Pa., a letter. 

J. M. Ooldamith. artist -peumau and ac- 
countant, Moor's Busineee Univemty, Atlao- 
ta, Ga., a letter and club of eubecribers to the 
JouitSAi,. He B^ya: " Kaoh number of the 
.JouilNAl.giveB ample evidence of your deter- 
miDUlion tu give its readers ' value received.' " 

W. H. Loihrop, So. Boston, MaBfl., a letter. 

T. 11. l-'lack. Cedar Falla, Iowa, a letter. 

E. riall, Sidney, O.. a letter. 

G. W. Eiliotl, Elliotfe BusinesP Clleg^. 
Burlington. Iowa, a letter. 

W. S. James, Columbia Commei. iat College. 
Porllaud, Oregon, A letter. 

W. S. Shaver, Roanoke. Va.. a letter and 
eevtrnl card specimene. 

G. W. Ware, Bonham. Tex., a letter and 
Rfreral jfoiid Bpeciniens of copy-wriliug. 

S. I). (J.ilHieBB, Wright'B BuBinees Col'ege, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., a letter and an elegant eet of 

A. M. Hargis, Gem City (Quiocy, 111.) Bnei- 
iiesB College, a letter and Hourisbed bird, 

A. N. Palmer, of the Lakeside BusinesB 
College, Chicago, III., a letter. 

L. J. (trace, Cleveland, Ohio, a letter and 

Ira K, Harris, AUston, Mass., a letter and 
cards, which, for a lad of sixteen years, are 
highly creditable. 

D. E. Blake, of MusBelman's Gem City 
(Qiiincy, 111.) BusineBS College, a letter, card, 
and Heveral well-executed epeoimena of Bour- 

C. H. Peii'oe, of Peirce's Busiiieaa College, 
Keokuk, luwa, several eheets of well-executed 
figures showing the high rate of Bpeed attained 
by his piipile in tigure-making. 

E. W. Bloeer, of Miohael'B Pen art Hall and 
Business College, Oberlin, Ohio, a letter aud 
club of thirteen subBcriber-i to the .Ioi'KNai.. 

D. L. Hunt, teacher ot writing in the Rush- 
ville ( 111.) Union School, a letter. 

E. V. Frasher, National Business College, 
Wheeling, W. Va., a letter and a skillfully- 
executed piece of flourishing. 

L ! 

P. S. Heath. Epsom, N. H., a letter and 

A. J. Taylor, of Taylor's Business College, 
Rochester. N. Y., an elegantly- written letter, 
in which he 8a>fl: "I received your work on 
penmanahip, 'Guide to Self- Instruction,' for 
which please accept my thanks. It is certainly 
a valuable work, worth a hundred times its 

nog ! 

,ud I 

atiord to give it as a 
1 each subscriber of the Journal. 
I am more and more pleased with the Jour- 
nal., and wish it the buccbbb which it richly 
deserve.*. It ehould be in the hands of every 
teacher and every young gentleman and lady 
desiring to ac<]uire that knowledge of penman- 
ship which shall be of practical UBe to them. 
1 shall do what I can in spreading its circu- 


Autograph Exchangers. 

In accordauoe with a suggestion in a 
previous ntimbtrr, the following-named per- 
sons have eiguified their williDgLeca or 
desire to exchange autographs, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as eet forth in the August 
number uf the Journal : 

I, PitUbiirgb, 

i J. Woli-oll. Sbermao, I 

, Wlon.lM>rn, 8. C. 

Compliments of the Press to the 

The following flattering mentions of the 
"Guide" have appeared since the issue ot 
ibe April number of the Journal: 

"Mr. Daniel T. Ames, the well-known ex- 
pert in handwriting, and editor aud publisher 
of the Pknman's Art JofKNAL, besides num- 
erous works ou penmanship, liae just isHued 
'Amea's Guide to Setflnptruction in Practical 
a&d Artistic Penmauchip." It is a book of 
sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed on 
the finest quality of ptale paper, and is devoted 
exclusively to instruction and copies for plain 
writing, off- baud tloniiehing, aud lettering. 
There is no other work, of anything like equal 
cost, now before ihe public that will render as 
elBcient aid to either teacher or learner, in all 
the deparlments of the penman's art, as will 
this book. Of the sixty-four pages, thirty-two 
are devoted to inalruction and copies for plain 
writing, fourteen pages lo the principles and 
examples for nourishing, and sixteen pages to 
alphabets, package marking, and monograma. 
The 'Guide' is sent postage free, in j>aper 
coverB, for 75 cents, or handsomely bound in 
Btitf covers for $1. It will be found invaluable 
to teachers and BtudentB of peumanBhip, being, 
as itB title implies, a perfect guide to self- 
inatructiou." — (ieyer't Stationer. 

"It is a good and reliable work, containing 
excellent copies in both plain and ornamental 
peumanehip, with clear instructions."— TA< 

" It MupplieB Kuch hints aud models as have 
been of use to many havLvre."— The 'Student. 

" Ii will render most efficient aid to both 
teacher and learner." — The College Journal. 

"It is elegantly printed aud handsomely 
bound, and Is a complete guide in all the '!<<- 
partnienlB of penmanship." — Farm, Home and 

" It has excellent diagrams, rules and direc- 
tions for suit-training in writing." — Home and 
School VitUor. 

" It is a valuable work, and ahould he had 
by everybody desirous of improving ibeir 
writing."— The Diadem. 

" If you want a celf-leaching course in Or- 
nameotsl I'enmaoehip, send for Ames's Guide- 
book. It will pay you many timeB its cost." 
Penman and Bookkeeper. " 

"It is a comprehensive aud practical eelf- 
atriiclor in writing."— TA* Jr^nton ( 111.) Sen- 

" It ifl a book that should be in the hunds of 
every person who desires to excel in penman- 
ship." — Vermont Argut and Patriot. 

"This work is something which every 
learner as well as every teacher of penmanship 
should have, being profitable tu both. The 
book coniaiuB instruction in every style of 
penmnoBhip — plain, bosiness and ornamental. 
We cheerfully recommend it."— Rrand Jnny 
Scout and Soldiers' Magazine. 

"This is a very handsome volume, designed 
to teach, without any other iuBtruclor, prac- 
tical penmanship. Every position and move- 
ment is illustrated and BO clearly described as 
to be easily understood. The exercises begin 
with the simplest forms, and culminate at the 
close in some very elaborate and artistic work." 
— Inter Ocean, Chicago. 

" It is a useful work, possessing many fea- 
turee which will commend it to the learner." — 
Chicaqo S-vening Journal. 

" Its author has displayed considerable taste 
aud ability in its preparation, and it is indeed 
a handy and useful little work."— TAf Philo- 
mathean Review. 

"The 'Guide' is elegantly printed on the 
finest quality of plate paper, and contains 
many copies for plain writing, off-haud flour- 
ishing aud lettering. Some of these designs, 
the rustic alphabet in particular, are very 
beautiful." — New Orleans Journal of Education, 

The Art of Writing. 

Few young peraone see anything wonder- 
ful in the art of writing, yet it is really one 
ol the most curious inventions in the world. 
From being long familiar with it we have 
ceased to think it strange. But to savages 
aud other untaught persons it seems a kind 
of magic- 
Mr. Williams, in bis account of South 
Sea Islanders, tells an amusing story of the 
surpiise of a native at seeing some writing. 
Mr W. was building a church for them, and 
one day he had come to work without his 
»<|uare. Wishing to have the instrument, 
he wrote to that effect upon a chip with a 
piece of charcoal, aud handing the chip to a 
chief who stood near, he said to him, 
"Friend, take this to my house and give it 
to Mrs. Williams." 

"Take that!" replied the chief with a 
look uf surprise. "She will call me a fool 
if I carry a chip to her." 

"No she will not," said Mr. W., "take it 
and go immediately." 

Seeing that Mr. W. was in earnest the 
chief took the chip, but asked, " What must 
Isayf" "You have nothing to say; the 
chip will say all I wish." 

With a look of wonder and contempt he 
held up the piece of wood, aud said, "How 
ctin this epeakt Has this a mouth ?" On 
arriving at the house he gave the chip to 
Mrs. Williams, who read it, threw it away, 
and went to the lool-chest for the square. 
On receiving the square, the chief asked her 
liowshe knew this was what Mr. W. wanted. 

" Why," she said, " did you not bring me 
a tibip just nowt" 

" Yes," said the chief, *' but I did not hear 
it say anything." 

" If you did not, I did," wa« tbe reply. 

The chief leaped out of the bouse, and 
picking up the piece of wood he ran through 
the settlement with the chip in one baud 
aud the square in the other, holding them 
up as high as bis arms could reach, and 
shouting as he went, " See the wisdom of 
these English people I they can make chips 

Mr. W. explained to bim as well as he 
could, but the affair still seemed to the poor 
savage so very strange that he tied a string 
to the chip, hung it around bis neck aud 
wore it for some time. 

To think right is lo write right 

Rives, of Virginia, in a recently published 
letter on the subject o( publie printing, has 
a word of fugtii'stion to writers for the 
press, Hud a oumplimeut to the compositor, 
whose duty it not uufrequently is to make 
sense out of very senseless chirography. 
Nunc hut a writer for the press can com- 
prehend bow much truth there is in tbe 
veteran printer's remarks. Many Members 
of Congress — and eke not a few greater 
men— must have been surprised at the re- 
spectable figure they cut in print, without 
thinking of ibe toilsome labor and the ex- 
ercise <if the better talent than their own, 
which had been expended by the journey- 
man printer in putiing into good shape the 
message or report of a sjteech furnished 
them. Mr. Rives says: 

" I have seen the manuscript writing uf 
most great men of the country during the 
past twenty years, and 1 think I may say 
that not twenty of them could stand tbe 
test of the scrutiny of one half the journpy- 
meu printers employed in my office. This 
fact will be vouched by every editor in the 
Union. To a poor ' jotirueyman' printer 
many a 'great man' owes bis reputation 
for scholarship ; and were the humble com- 
positors to resolve, by concert, to set up 
manuscript in their hat ds — even for one 
little week — precisely as it is written by 
the author, there would be more reputa- 
tions j.laughtered than their ' devils could 
shake a stick at' in twenty-four hours. 
Statesmen would become ' small by degrees 
aud beautifully less.' Many an ass would 
have the lion's hide torn from his limbs. 
Men, whom tbe world call writers, would 
wake up mornings and find themselves — 
famous as mere pretenders, humbugs, and 

THE Catlinrapher't QvxU U worth far more thun one 
I HoUiirrery^ar. buithe liberal ban d«d publbher of- 


I EARN lo wrile your oame. Send me your nome 
L wri'teo in full and SS oenti and I will uend yon al 


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U/ANTED A SITIIATION- By B teacher who 

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$5 TO $20 

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VM Me.iaijoX, ani (iiiMwpWHuaUia ,«pi«aitflti«r,/)wt <mlw«f ifc«xK- 


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, „. ,_ fcatftimwMlSt raJ rfl'irinit in tl)<- iUi^w^ A ttmgi^vtti, ; mij im (mijimitr anS mrfJjoSinil in V'» IpJio jw |r mto tmamu) mii uliMt in 
^■. lj.» inm>»l;^». 5^ a <tnn.cter miUi will, eari ntiliji« uwJ»- );{« ^e rfljr moi* ji,*.trf»t W-.-n. inaSnn|»dt 

- ,«4™it(i, mtl« «»»v».iU3_.,<«,i*«£j,„,aat«< rftk%««tafcmib**iUUticM >,«^ MiAccUM, 

I'flrtlflanl of the Knnrrf rtf* tltAi*vmiin -x=s.i.e=insr^_ (V 

xi&J^-tHot ^lafi julitioH- 

wt*UUV 'fUKUOMUtltflUlMV. 




• e-j; ._ ResoLA/eo, ^^-^l 

pe„m.„', art, ever ie.u.d -'Lprill 111^. ""■"'""Ilj .okno„|,dg.a .a be ,b. meet coa,pr.h.„.ive and guide, ■„ ,be emir, rang, „f .be 

alpi>ab„.; .^d eve r.t,/l.7l4 ZJ. :fTo2.r 7d '"""""^'^ .n PI... Writing; . full c.ur.e of Off-baud Flouriebing; upward uf forty ...udard and „r„... 
It contain, numerou, exatnnl', of ere„ .„ '"T ! TT' "f™"'' ""'""■"". memori.l,, c.rlWcate., title-page,, etc., etc.; in .11, sevknt^- 11 x H incb plate, 
twelve ,ub.criber, and ml, Ibe Jo™?, W b"°'? '° r ." Z''"""'"' P'-'Mi-'- Pri»«, by mail, S5 ; mailed free, a. a premiun,, to the Bender „l a club of 

we will refund u. tben. the f 11 .„ ^ paid ' '""' '' "°""' °°' °°'' °" ""■"■" " '"' ''°"''' "' "'""""''•■' ""^ "■ "»^ """ "« «' »'-«/ ■» """- 1'. and 

Enlightening a Colored Man. 

An Evansville, Ind., paper publishes the 
foUovriog interview between Mr. C. J. Mur- 
phy, of Brush Electric Light Company in 
that city, and a colored gentleman of an in- 
quiring turn of mind, which will interest 
readers of TJie EUclrical World : 

A colored gentleman, who from his domes- 
ticated appearance might be regarded as a 
member in good standing in the Lime Kilo 
Club, walked timidly into the electric light 
station a few evenings since, and after liis 
sorronndings had been courteously taken 
in, ventured timidly to ask : 

" Boss, would you please, sah, tell me 
what makes dat light t" 

" Yea, uncle ; that light is produced by 

" What is dat, boast" 

" What f Electricity you mean T" 

" Yes, sah." 

" Electricity, according to the modern 
theory of the conservation and co. relation 
of forces, is a mode of motion of the mole- 
cules of matter " 

" Yea, sah." 

The old gentleman seemed paralyzed with 
amazemenl, and, assuming a still humbler 
attitude, asked : 

" Boss, what makes dat light git brighter 

"The gravitation of the upper carbon, 
retarded by magnetic influence." 

" Dat's what I thought made it do dat 
way; now, how does you squirt de kero- 
sene through de wires 1" 

" That is not kerosene ; it is the manifes- 
tation of friction that is offered by the re- 
sistance of an imperfect conductor to a 
highly escited electric condition of the 
metal in the apparatus, caused by the mo- 
lecular diaturbance induced by motion and 

The old gentleman wore a broken np 
expreaaion, and after collecting his scat- 
tered thoughts he wiped the perspiration off 
the end of his nose, and, completely sub- 
dued, asked if he could have a drink of 
water. After refreshing himself and thank- 
ing his informant, he was heard to remark 
in passing out: 

" Dey hain't none of deae niggahs knows 
how de white folks makes dat light but me. 
Hey ! Hey \ Yow !" 

Orioin of two E.xpeessions The 

origin of the terms " Uncle Sam," applied 
to our Government, and "Brother Jona- 
than," applied in the firat instance to the 
people ot New England, and sometimes to 
the people of the whole country, or, rather 
to the representative American, often pro- 
vokes a puzzle. The question how the 
terms arose is often asked. The following 

After Washington was appointed com- 
mander of the patriot army in the Revolu- 
tion, he had great diflioulty in obtaining 
supplies. On one occasion, wh. 
could be devised by him and his officers ,o 
supply the wants of the army, Washington 
wound up the conference with the remark 
• We must consult Brother Jonathan." He 
referred to Jonathan Trumbull, then Gov 
ernor of Connecticut, in whose judgment he 
had confidence. Governor Trumbull helped 
the general out of his diflicultiea, and after- 
ward the expression need by Washington 
became a popular byword in the army, and 
eventually a nickname for the nation. 

The name Uncle Sam, as applied to the 
Umted States, is said to have originated in 
the war of 1812. An inspector of army 
provisions at Troy, named Samuel Wilson 
was called by his workmen ■' Uncle Saui " 
One day somebody asked one of the work- 
men what the letters " U. S." meant Tho 
workman replied that he suppoeed it 
mean Uncle Sam. The joke was afterward 
spread in the army, and this, according to 
tho historian Frost, was the origin of the 
national sobriquet. 

" lyi^P^AVORITE" PEN mdI at »I,25 , 


sixtein pa,L^o aiphahe.rprcka" rmrkiu tj^ntam: T rcT' ^ZT.r!:;: ::::'::^' rx "r-'T '" "°""""^- 
=^-cv-r-izr-j;-t^,=-rb— "^^ri^ 

With them agents can make more monev whh 1,. fr . T .^' ""■ ''°"' '^e Journal and book are things that take everywhere. 
8 m^can ma«c more money, with less etforl, than wah any other publication they handle. 



Porlralt^amJ Biogfaphical Sketches of D. L. Muwelin 

Short Sketches ol Joi. 

Applied to Penmanship," by c 
Training of Hand and Eye," by T 
" A Few Facts," hy G, A. Qaak«n. 
"About Penmanship," by A, N. Pj 
' The Itinerant Penman," by A, E 

Flourishing," by J, W. Van Kir 


rlonvlUe, Onandapa County. New York, 

Newipaper Svbtcriplion Agent, and 

p Ink Rkcipbb. 
: Black, 


Manulacturer of the «leb«.M Oblique Gold Pen, nn- 

Fidy Ih^\»T^y tnii ,e«o?(Spi^"*" 


tauyhl personally, or by mail. A more 


PENMANSHIP. Th'eORY a"nD PRAOTIOE OF | '"■i-*.' «t ,.u™.W.-„",i:. -cS;™'/, 

AND COMMERCIAL I,AW ''°"'- '•'""1"<1. O 

EHsrfli^}rl'"i Writing and IVIeasuring Ruler 

^M-isS '^ "coloredInks. 

\^'^:i«>'^^:::::::::::::::::::::::::: ^ | °*''''ner's Assorted Colored inks, 

.._ , ^, E'P'^s'yPrepiradfoMhe use of Penmen and 

"w by 8«prBfc 

;™r"«i.i».iii>n i«k, p., i>otu,,bV .1^;^,:: 



Co rralpi oflS cnU, before Jruoiir, ne«t. 1 wUl i. 
en autograph, t 

W. p. COOPER, 
KlngTiUe, Ohio. 

of paper I EoglUh and ^ 

ible, on* 
here an 

lh«M Pont 

5*^;>/Tm: Pej 

Ak'i joukxai; 

tigs ber 

it UDtil 

; if she 

The Coming Girl. 

WillBhebo beaiiiifiiW Ifsheb; 
hair until you can't rest, and frizze: 
she resembles an eaoaperl lunatic 
wears h bu-tle as large iis a camel's hump, 
and shoes a size and a lialf too small for her 
feet : if she presses her waist into a corset 
sn much too small thai tears gush from her 
eyes; if slie paiuts ber face with every new 
cosmetii! that aiiihitinus advertisers recoin- 
mend; if ^be cares more about style than 
cleaiiliiiei's — in a word, if she is wasp- 
waisled. frzzlepated, and bump-backed — 
will she he beautiful ? 

Will she he lovable? If she chooses to 
hep'>pultr abroad rather than at home; if 
she speuHs hours before the uiirror trying to 
improve on nature, and forgets alt those 
nameless small courtesies which act like 
oil on the domestic machinery, the cheer- 
ful "good morning," the pleasant "good 
night,' the kindly voice and sunny face that 
are such a comfort and blessing to parents, 
the forgetting of self, and the polite defer- 
ence to the wishes of others of the home 
circle. If she neglects these things — will 
she be lovable T 

Will she be intelligent? If she "burns 
the midnight oil" reading trashy novels, if 
she cares more for the gossip of the neigh- 
bor than for the affairs of the nation, and 
lends a willing ear to every whisper of 
slanderous tongues, the mystery "they 
say "having charms she cannot resist; if 
history is "dull," biography '* stale," and 
science "just too awful dry," will she he 
intelligent if 

Will she marry? If she believes with 
Betsy Bohbet, that " to get a husband is 
woman's spheah," and encourages nice 
young men as Betsy did her "sweet ga- 
zelle, the editah of the Auguh"; if she is 
ashamed to have it known that she can, 
and does, successfully cook a beefsteak, 
and bake bread and pancakes, to eat which 
will not give a slr-mg man dyspepsia ; if she 
had rather inlerview the front gate than 
the h< les in her father's socks, will she 
marry* — Tubman's Work. 

The Usual Signs.—" Mr. B.," said the 
president of a bank to his cashier, " I under- 
stand you have sold your trotting-horset " 

"Yes, sir," replied Mr. B., uneasily. 
" I found the luxury too expensive." 

" And you declined an invitation to at- 
tend a champagne party the other evening?" 


Monthhj, "1 the m(ere»( of the "Art CalHijriiphie" 

Subscription, $i per year, with an elegant premium f 

The Catligroplmr-i QuitI I. publl.hed by C. H Rnndall, of Fuirintml. Neb., the flnl number liiiving 


I of Le.ion..— The .tatemeut ef Ihe .imple fact thai 
praoiieal wriling ougbl to ■wall Ibe .ub.oriplioo lUl a 
Prat, Palta. i. «lilely kao,.a a- a .,,.oy conlnb.itot 1 
I .iieceMmi leacb.t. Hi. le..oa. la Ibe «aill >till auq 


By Spe. 

Mmselman's Compendium of Self-Uaching Penmanship, 

rwhere for a dollar, aad 1. ooaceded by all to be about the floe«t work of the kit 
prlao f. one dollar per year. A wmplo-oopy Oan be bad for nolblod le.M than a dio 

C. H. RANDALL, Editor and Publisher, 




Peirce's Business College, 

Shading T Square. 



oughly miwU Ihe requireineiue of educalioH 
and buaineaa. Il IB baeed upon a new diacov- 
ery in etenography.wliicb aitnplifiea and makea 
il praflical and eaeily attainable by everyone. 
The claaa-boolt and Belt-iu«Iruot..r pi-esenting 
the New Sbonhand will iaaue in July. Oidere 
■ent in before July 1st will be booked at half 



ivhite now. 

" And I also learn that yott have taken 
a clasa in Sunday-school and have become 
a member of the church choirf" 

"Ob, sir!'' exclaimed the frightened 
man, "the amount is less than $10,0(JO, 

and if you will give me t 

wo days' time I 

will restore every cent." 

But the president wa 

s inexorable.- - 

Philadelphia Call. 

Neither Writtkn Nf 

R Printed.— 

Perhaps lh« most singula 

curiosity in this 

book world is a volume th 

t belongs to the 

family of the Prince de Lig 

ne, and is now In 

France. It is enliiled " 

Tbe Paesion of 

Christ," and is neither written nor printed. 
Every letter of the text is cut of a leaf, and 
being interleaved with tbe blue paper, it is 
as easily read as the best print. The labor 
and patience bestowed in its completion 
must have been excessive, especially when 
the precieion and minuteness of the letters 
are considered. The general execution in 
every respect ia iudeed admirable and the 
volume is of the most delicate and cosily 
kind. Rudolph II., of Germany, offered for 
it, in 1U40, 1 1,000 ducats, which was prob- 
ably e.|ual to 60,(JOO at this day. Tbe most 
remarkable circumstance connected with 
this literary treasure is that it bears the 
royal arms of England, but when it was in 
that country and by whom owned has 
never been ascertained. 


r. KBlxn, a05 Bnadinr. Now York. 

A Romance. 
How A Waitress in a Summer Hotel 


Both llie Piirkcr hny», Robert an.I Harry, 
w«ro treated like e(|iisl8 b; their fatlier and 
mother. In the little village where this 
good old man lived there was a summer 
hotel, which was pttroDized considerably 
during the season, young Harry Packer of- 
ten taking his meals tliere. A young girl 
uamed Lockwo'-d, the daughter of a re- 
spectable cili/cn living near the village, 
canio in to assist waiting "u the table. The 
frequency of Harry Packer's meals at the 
liolel attracted some attention; and his 
brother Robert, or " Bob," as he was fa- 
miliarly and affection Htely called by almost 
nil who ever knew liim, said oue day before 
the father and Harry at the breakfast table 
that Harry was sweet on a little girl down 
at the hotel, and that was the reason he 
did not come to his meals regularly. Harry 
colored up a liitle, and after they had fin- 
ished their breakfast the old Judge seated 
himself on the front porch which overlooks 
Mauch Chunk and gives such a magnificent 
view of the Lehigh valley, the moving boats 
Hud trains, which his own industry had 
created and brought together, and said: 
■' Harry, who is this girl Robert refers to ! " 

''Miss LocBwood, father, the daughter 
of II man you know very well." 

"Are you going to marry her, Harry," 
said the Judge. 

" I have some ootion of it, father," said 

'' Well, wait till I do down and see her," 
Kaid the Judge, and picking up his old 
while hat and caue, the Judge quietly am- 
bled down to the hotel and asked for Mies 
Lnckwood. She iunciccnlly came into the 
othce of the hotel, with her dining-room 
tipron on, and seated herself beside the 
Judge- Just what he said to her. or she to 
him, will never be exactly knowu unless 
she tells it, but when the Judge came out 
he was smiling and appeared mighty well 
pleased. He went homo and found Harry 
still silting on the porch nhere he had left 
him. By this time the Judge's face had 
resumed its usual grave but kind expres- 
sion. "Well, Harry," he said, "that is a 
very nice girl down there, but she has no 


The old Judge put down his memoranda 
for ^.'iO.OUO, the mother and the others for 
$'^5,000 tach, and thus $150,000 was placed 
in the bauk to the exclusive and immediate 
credit of Miss Lockwood; the engagement 
was announced, the wedding day fixed, the 
marriage took place, and Hairy Packer got 
the girl he liked. — Piltaburgh Post. 

A Tricky Insurance Company. — 
Shortly after a tire tlie other day, a colored 
gentleman called ou the insurance agent 
and said: 

" Wants my money, cap'n." 
" I dun't owe you any money " 
'* Ain't yesse'f de 'sho'ence agent " 

■ Yes. 1 f 

burned up endui 

"You .were not insured in 
"Dedcbil I wa'ii'i." 
" Come, get out of here I " 
"Hole on, boss 

Mr. Jones' shored 

■ance agfnt " 
money, fur ; 

o'lemme '^jdain Wuz 
yer comp'tiyT" 

' Wuz Mr. Jacks. 

"Wall an' good. Now, my sd' 
betwix Mr. J<me8 an' Mr. Jacks, 
walls o'dar sto's made de walls 
sto.' lif you'd a took dar sto's er 
sto wouldcr been eone De inahoi 
i>wn sto's insho'cd mine, doan ycr a 

" No, I don't see." 

" Den I ain't goin' tcr git nothin 

" No." 

whut de 
Dg away, 

' I'll rccolleck dis, sah, at 

I't otis'll hab teraay," and 

muttered : " Ef I'der knowd de comp'ny 

z so tricky, I wouldu'ter set de blame 

' afire."— ^riliafwu Travdet. 

eo^nviags directly for the beneflt of lla aiitworiben, II 
miuED*. but ilanda alone od ira merits. Every number i 

H. W. KIBBE. 7 Hobart Street, Utica, New York. 


' Or. Racob, BnrliagtuD. W 
tb four years' subMripllunii 

ihn, Little Rook, Ark. 
."— F. P. Froil, SpringJiel 





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;; 0. BsTfli Gold-edge .'"f.. ."".". '.."."..'.';::.':::;:: :m S 

'■ G. 8tiri>er (Jards, aometbinr new and el'want ".'.'. .35 .60 

" H. SaiiD Bevel^dffe. vory«tyli«h « 7.^ 

■• I. E.lmHeuvy Bevel, g ply BriBloi .35 ;65 

" J. Tbe£iite, ihelatMtiiyle. 35 .go 

pnbne.^^d^CeSul^dTtKomSl la't'/^f S''maWn'' rte mit b**'^* "^ ""^""^ "'"' "'"^"'' "*" '" ""* 
AGENTS WANTEH. I want a good agent in every town ii 

) good, and good wiitirif 


STEKL PENS. "Dakln's 

, by tbeir uie. Samplt 


i, Ohio, Bays : 

lantbip, ] 

.. N. PAt.MRit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 



Adapted for use with or withont Text-Book, 


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FaTorablfl arrsngementM made witb Biuiiiui CoUeg«a 
Dewriptive LUI now ready. Corresp-radenoe invited. 


Sent Post-paid on reoeipl of 25 cen'l*. 


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to BolloH Bub^ariptions to the PENMA-Va Art JOUB 

,• price 

1 00 

Standard Practical Peomanahip, by the S| 


Family Record, 18ra 

Mamage Certifloate, lgi2S 

Garfleld Memorial, 19x24 V.... "/""'". S( 

Flourished Eagle, ■iiii^'.^///.'/'^^.'//""/"/^^^ « 
Centennial Piolure of Prupess, Kxil M 

origlcaJ and artisno. per packer 50 ■....; 3t 

100. by mall S 

1000 '■ 14 '50"; "byexpr^'";;.;!!'."'.";!!" 4 OC 
Live agents can. and do, make money, by taking sub 

ioribers lur the Jouhnai, and selling tbe aboT« works. 
Send for onr Sp«oial Rates to Agents. 

D. T. AME8, 
7-t-l. 205 BroadwHy. New York. 

Shorthand Writing 


iT.Sti*'' ""™'"'°° '° "■" ■"" ">■"•"■ """ "'"' 

Voaog me, bav. only .o inB.t.r lo D>k. ll 

Important Announcement, 

)enmnnslilp in the, has Joined 

'enmuDiibip at Chigago. 

iling-oard ever sent 

out by any 


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e of geltlng 



roiigb May. 


July, and August. Slu 

dents can enle 

at any lime 

. , 

The Penmanslitp Ha 

1 Is largo, air 

y, and splen 


n any^L^^ 


liar .tyles, 

I urlber Infora 

nation given If 


raph wrillen in twe 

ve difler^ol 

The Western Penma 

n It now publ 

sli-d, month 

Worthington & Palmer, 




"DbaK SIH: The cards ordered of you a^e received. I am'delighted wllh the comhInHil n* h it 
have believed It possible lo wnle my autograph in so many different and elegant Btyl«s, but for your''ooulnr'dtmon. 
PBOr H. W. FUCKMOBB, Philadelphia, Pa., says ; " A. W. Dakin's writing U most exoellent ' 

Address. PROF. A. W. DAKIN, Tully, New York. 

Rteommentled and used by more than one 


f of 

Friend It 

idarasM: I 

-04 pnrftctly 

parkagt o/y 


rtcHveil to 1 

out thai an 

tsquitiU I 

otieh dUptayt 

and cardt a 

€ nU, in m 

opinion, rta 

foHUr. Tou 


H. VI 

77?^ Full Equipment of a Business Man. 




, to prodao« a p«rrM 

m JnpaD Ink c 


Ur. Madarati doa a vtty rxlt 
Tht tait and rapidity of hit twrfc 
ttandi la day without an tquaX at a oard-w 
G. A Oaskei.I.. Editor or Pcnn 

raou, a paoknge of elogant iiHor 

The huidMin€8t t 

ai6 E.OOth St., NEW YORK. 

The Spbncerian Oblique Holder is approved by professional and business penmen. 

The Spencerian Writing Suler hu 
Fnll Script Alpl,abel5-botl. capitals and small letlers-and (en scaUx of mecauriment. 

Price-list of SPENCERIAN SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

3-5 753 and 755 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 


I am confident I can pUate ynv. 

sayloKihat for grace of 

Cardj, plain white, good quality . . 

" bavel-edM " ■■ " 
Alphabet of Off-hao.i Capitala 




^tOffT&pbtc deaigoi aod onit 




tool Judge. I will p,«i.Dtl 
rluQfe to see many apecloie 
Bd qnalily oi lloe aod bea 








W. W. BENNETT. Spencerian Business College. CLEVELAND, 0. 



Studenta entered at -. 
Course during ihe Su 

Business Education, or prepare 
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dation of practical teachere. 1st. They are complete expositors of (.ractioal arithmetic-having 
grown out of the waats of a cosmopolitan institution, and having been satisfactorily tested bv 
the leading teachers of practical arithmetic in this country. 2d. They are epeoimens of fine 
mode.n book-making-,n typography, paper and binding. 3d. They are eminently adapted to 
self-instruction. 4th. They ars very cheap. 

The School Edition { an abridgment of the complete edition ) has been recently published 
and has not been specially brought to the attention ot teachers. It is an admirable book for the 
higher classes in grammar schools, as also for the commercial departments of classical and liter- 
ary institutionB. It contains all the best part of the larger work, and is aa full in all the essen- 
tial Hubjects as the best schools will require. 

The retail price of the Complete Arithi 
discounts to schools. 

A single copy of either edition will be 

vilh a 1 

The Ke' 

o the Complete Edition 
BchooU using the book ( 

The Packard Arithmetics have n 
eading Commercial Schools and Bus 

n receipt of i 

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) any actual teacher 


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a single copy of which will be sent - 
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NEW YORK, JUNE, 1884. 

Vol. VIII.— No. 6 


uoaljl© to gel ready the 

Wo have bee 
matter for Ilin 
this Diiuiber. It has tLerefore been 


of l£l 

we- giro the first of 
in Box and Package 

Box and Package Marking. 
Lesson No. I. 
Bt D. T. Ames. 
Some two years siuce a series of six les- 
sons, M-ith alphabets for, and pnictical ex- 
ftinples of, box and package marking, were 
given Ihrougli these colniiins. The many 
fiivonible responses received lend us to be- 
lieve that Iho lessons were of utility to 
many readers (if the JouHNAL;. and it is in 
obedience to very uumeroufl reqnests that 
wo now offer to onr readers this first lesson 
of a new and second series of lessons upon 
tlio same subject. The ability to mark in 
a legible, arlistie and nipid maDQer a box 
or package is an accouiph^liment of scarcely 
less iuiportauco to a clerk, and especially 
in a shipping-house, to that of a good 
Iiandwriling. With the view of making 
these lessons as practical as possible we 
have vi^ited several of the leading comnier-' 
cial aud pubUshing bouses of New York, 
and exaniiiiCd the various styles of marking 
aud their methods. At the same time we 
have quizzed the presiding geniuses of the 
"ink-pot and brush." 

To enumerate the varied styles of High 
Art" employed in marking, would be as 
impossible as it would be useless. It will 
bu our purpi>se and endeavor in these les- 
sons to combine the best results of these 
observations with our ideas of the proper 
styles and methods for marking. The es- 
sentials of good nuirking— like writing- 
are, legibility and facility of execution. To 
secure these results, forms of letters appro- 
priate and adapted to being made with a 
brush orbroad-poiated pen must be adopted. 
In marking wood or metallic surfaces, and 
all largo packages, a brush is the proper 
Implement to use ; for smaller parcels, and 
especially those wrapped in paper, a broad- 
pointed pen may be used to great advantage. 

The brushes used are of three or four 
dillcrent sizes— Hat, and varying f-om two 
to five-, igiiihs of an inch in width. A fiat 
brush is the best, as, wheu carried edge- 
wise, it gives 11 thin line; while, fiatwise, 
the br.iail shades are readily made; regular 
marking ink should bo used. The custom- 
ary form of marking-pot aud brush, as well 
as au example of brushes for marking, is 
given in the illustration on this page. 

The stencil-plate is now extensively used 
for maiking-purposes; especially is this 
the caae in aflixiog brands and classifica- 
tion of goods ; and also the names and ad- 
dresses of firms, places, etc , which arc in 
frequent use, nvo cut in stencils, which 
greatly improves aud facilitates extensive 
marking- operations. 

In tlieso lessons we shall present as 
standards three styles of alphabets, which 
are those in most eoinmon use for marking 

The first, and that given herewith, is 

the Back Slant Roman, and is best adapted 
to Leing made with a brush. It may also 
be made with a broad nipped pen. 

The second will bo the Ruinau Direct 
Slant, which, while it may also be made 
wilh a broad pen upon paper, is specially 
adapted to the use of the brush, aud for 
marking upou boxes where a large bold 
lettering is desirable. 

The third is what is known as Italic, 
and may be made with facility with a brush. 
It is best adapted for uee with a broad pen 
and for marking small packages or parcels 
done up iu paper. The two styles, and the 
manner of their use, are presented in the 
accompanying cut. 

The following exercises may be prac- 
ticed, with either a broad pen or brush. 

Aftcrwhich the alphabet may be practiced 
iu the same manner. 

For practice use a heavy maoilhi paper; 
rule, iu pencil, a base and head line for 
first practice, and then practice with base 
line ouly, and fiually with no guide line, 
as in that manner is most marking done. 

which are graded from fine to points one- 
eighth of an inch broad. A full set will be 
mailed, from the office of the Journal, 
for 25 cents. Also the "Soennecken 
Packet- Feeding Pen" is a superior ar- 
rangement for marking purposes. It is 
made in four widlhs fur bold, large letter- 
ing ranging from about one- sixteenth to 
one-fifth of an inch broad. Sent by mail 
for 35 cents each. 

Wo shall esteem it a favor if any of our 
readers who are interested iu this subject, 
and skilled in brush lettering, will favor 
us with specimeofl of their work for pub- 
lication in connection with these lessons. 
Also, wo shall be pleased to endeavor to 
answer any questions of general interest 
relative to marking. 

(To be continued.) 

Anent Outing. 

By Paul Pastnor. 
I suppose that every penman takes an 
annual vacation ; if he doesn't, he ought to. 
No worker can do his best all the year 
around without a period of rest and recu- 
peration. I, for one, do not see why man 
ehould work any more than Nature does ; 

Brushes suitable muy be procured at , and Nature, if ,ou will notice, rests half 

iny nrlistB material store, and the ink the year. 

|f must stationers^ The pens best for A month, at least, you should strive to 

ise are the broad -pomted Soennecken, I get away from your work. If yon can get 

more than a month, all the better. But it 
appears to be the creed of these rushing 
modf rn times that man works out his salva- 
tion, rather than bis curse, by the sweat of 
his brow. The world expects ten months, 
at least, of a man's year to be devoted to 
toil, and grudges the two months in which 
he prepares himself to endure the ten. 

Admitted, then, that some vai ation is a 
necessity— for even the sordid world will 
grant you that— the question arise?, What 
is the best way to spend the precious timet 
The answer is as varied as the cimiinstances 
of the inquirer. Difl"erent kinds o( work 
demand difierent kinds of reerealiim. I'he 
sedeotary laborer should spend his vacation 
entirely out of doors, taking ia great 
draughts of oxygen to feed his impoverished 
blood, and filling out and toniug up his re- 
laxed muscles with moderate, increasing to 
active, exercise. The man who labors with 
his muscles chiedy should give his body a 
rest, and exercise his mind. The tastes of 
the individual must be consulted, too. 
There are certain kinds of out-of-door ex- 
ercise which will do a literary or sedentary 
worker moro good than any others, because 
he has a zest for them. The luind has a 
great deal to do with the welfare of the 
body. Assumiog that I write for indoor 
workers only— for penmen, and students, and 
literary men — I shall consider, iu this arti- 
cle, only the different kinda of outing 
which have been found to be beneficial to 
persons of sedentary occupation. Such 
persons need vacations far more than work- 
ers of the opposite class, for the reason that 
brain and nerve tissue is more rapidly ex- 
hausted and mora slowly rejiaired than 
muscular fibre. Witness the rest of a 
night, or the refreshment of a good meal, 
in Its comparative effects upon mental and 
physical exhaustion. 

For those who have naturally strong and 
sound constitutions, I would recommend 
such an outing as may he obtained from a 
few weeks' camping out, or a walking tour. 
I have known both these means of recrea- 
tion, however, to prove most pernicious in 
the case of those who were not physically 
able to endure them. The strain upon a 
weak coustituiiiju, caused by abruptly 
changing all the habits of a lifetime, or by 
undertaking physical feats which are only 

possible to etrong and hardy meu, is often 
productive of disease and loss of vitality. 
Young men of frail physique, or who have 
strong tendencies to chronic disease, should 
never attempt to " rough it." or to lake 
long trips where muscular exercise is apt to 
be excessive. The results are almost cer- 
tain^to be detrimental instead of beneficial. 
For young men whose constilotionB are of 
this nature, canoeing, where eood hotel ac- 
commodatious can be had, or bicycling — 
which is less exhaustive than walking— fish- 
ing, ridiug, or boating would be beneficial. 
They should have some exorcise every day 
— increasing the amount as the strength in- 
creased, but it should never be allowed to 
become exhaustive to such a degree as to 
become hurtful. A very good rule to fol- 
low in determining the amount of exercise 
to be taken is to note the appetite. So long 
as that remains sharp and healthful no barm 
has been done to the system by exercise ; 
but when fatigue is so excessive as to pro- 
duce inditi'ereuce to food at the proper hours 
for meals, then it is time to take warning. 

A great many young men spend their 
vacations at watering places and fashiona- 
ble resorts, wliere the expenses are enor- 
mous, and where the tendency is to divert 
one's self with HIrtation and complete inac- 
tivity. This is very well for invalids. 
Nothing will brighten up a weakly young 
fellow like the bright eyes of a girl, and 
nothing will do him mure good than com- 
plete rest and abundant, tc.uthaome, nour- 
ishing foi^d. But for rest, strong, whole- 
heaittd fellows, whose purses are slender 
and whose muscles are firm, a vacation 
spent in this way must seem etl'eminate and 
unsatisfying. Let them plunge into the 
wilderness somewhere; sleep, if need be, 
under the stars ; eat coarse food ; live like 
the full-blooded young giants they are, and 
thank God fur their bounding health and 
strength. Tbey will be strengthened and 
hardened for their work by this kind of life, 
as they could he in no other way. 

Camping by lake and stream, in the warm 
summer nights, with stars and moon shining' 
through the almost transparent tent, and 
fresh air circulating arouud the straw or 
hough-couch of the happy camper, is one 
of the pleasantcst forms of outing which 
can possibly be imagined. It combines 
the pleasures of boating, fishing and 
" roughing it." The larder may be excel- 
lent — supplied with fresh milk, eggs, butter, 
daily, from farm-houses along the route, 
with occasional luxuries in the way of poul- 
try or game, and a good, steady supply of 
toothsome fish, bread, cufl'ee, etc. Still, 
some hardships will inevitably be met, and 
those who are not strong and healthy 
should beware of tenting. 

A good, strong, easy-running bicycle is 
an excellent thing to lake an outing with ; 
but, unfortunately, very few men can afford 
so expensive a machine. A good one costs 
as much as a good horse. Still, a hundred 
dollars put into one is well invested, Jor it 
is always valuable property, and depreciates, 
with use, far less than almost any other ve- 
hicle. There are thousands of miles of de- 
lightful roads in New England alone, 
where touring with a bicycle is not only 
practicable but delightful. The motion is 
exceedingly pleasant, the esercise is exGil- 
arting, and the amount of ground which 
can be covered in a day with one of these 
two-wheeled carriages is remarkable. I 
should strongly reccommend a bicycle to 
any young man who can afford to invest in 

There are some things which should be 
looked to, in every form of outing. First, 
the clothing. This should be warm and yet 
light. Flannel is the heat material, with 
strong, coarse socks and shoes. .Second, 
the toilet. CleanlinedS is next to godliness. 
Brush and comb, tooth-brush, towels, soap, 
«tc., should always have room made for 
them. Then, the mind should not be al- 
lowed to utterly cease from ils ordinary 
functions. Take a book along— if but one, 
the Bible. Keep a diary. Keep an ac- 
count of your expenses. Jot down ocoa- 

1 will be I 

sional thoughta. You will be ui^ie apt tu 
get suggestions than if you were shut up 
within four walls. If everything else 
should be forgotten, do not forget a few 
simple household medicines. They 
save your life. Keep a clear 
have a good time, and you will 
like a giant refreshed, 

Plain Talk. 
By CnAKi>LER H. Pkirce. 

First. — Why is there such a diversity of 
opinions regarding the proper methods of 
teaching writing? The power in the vad- 
ous movements f The relative importance 
of each f The relation of each to the other? 

Second. — Is it necessary to argue the 
question with any one, when experience 
and ability are widely different? 

TJiird. — Can any points be proven, when 

Fourth. — If the forearm movement is re- 
garded as the highest power by which su- 
perior results are obtained, how is it possi- 
ble to secure it in the beginning? 

Fifth.— "Wq teach the forearm move- 
ment entirely by means of movement 
exercises composed of letters or combina- 
tions of letters in whole or in part." " We 
teach movement only so far as movement is 
involved in plain, rapid writing." "We 
do not recommend the wholearm practice. 
The forearm movement being the oliject 
aimed at, we see no benefit to be derived 
from wholearm practice, as the two have 
very little, if anything, in common." 

Sixth.— " Omt experience has been mostly 
with adult persons. I do not hesitate to 
express the belief that our method can be 
employed by pupils ten years old and up- 
wards. Not having had such experience 
with pupils below ten years old as would 
warrant a belief founded on fact, I prefer to 
expn^as no opinion furllier than that our 
method would undoubtedly work as well 
with very young pupils as any now in use." 

Opinions are as plentiful as the leaves of 
autumn, and are of vjiluo in proportion as 
the claims are substantiated by proof, which 
must have for its base facts, and these, in 
turn, must rest upon experience. This ex- 
perience does not consist merely in teaching- 
power, but in executive ability as well, 
which undoubtedly implies skill in the 
formatiou of letters at the board as well as 
upon pajter. If we concede the fact that 
"good writing is not necessary to good 
teaching," we are guilty of a violation of 
law that no set of intelligent students ought 
to tolerate for a siugle moment. 

Teaching- power implies criticism, and 
criticism implies executive ability ; there- 
fore lie who would attempt to teach must 
know how to write. It is possible to know 
how to write without knowing how to 
teacli, but it is impossible to know how to 
teach without knowing how to write. 

The best methods of teaching writing 
are secured the same as the best methods 
in teaching other specialties ; and to give 
an opinion when the very fundamental 
principles are wanting, is, to say the least, 
very presumptuous. The diversity of opin- 
ions is easily accounted for when theorists 
resort to analogous reasoning entirely to 
prove all claims. 

Prof. Henry C. Spencer, than whom 
there is no higher authority, says: "In 
practicing capitals, employ the wholearm 
movement freely ; next, use the forearm 
movement modified by allowing the muscle 
of the forearm near the elbow to come 
lightly in contact with the edge of the 
desk ; next, make the capitals a little less 
than ft space (medium ruled paper) in 
which the fingers slightly assist the fore- 
arm. In each of these movements the 
mind should be directed to the shoulder as 

3 of E 

If the forearm movement is the whido- 
arm movemeut modified (which it undoubt- 
edly is), bow is it possible to teach forearm 
without reaching it through wholearm ? If 
forearm movement is regarded as a higher 
power, then wholearm must be a lower 

pww*i , ir rt lower, ii should serve a pur- 
pose, and that purpose as a stepping-stone, 
which must be taken by the average as- 
pirant. True, indeed, that occasionally a 
few may be found to reach the top by some 
reason they know not why, yet the larger 
portion must plod on, content to wait until 
all the principles founded upon law have 
been observed. 

A short way by which a good handwrit- 
ing can be acquired has not yet been dis- 
covered ; nor do I think it is possible, by 
trampling under foot vital principles that 
are known to exist, and which must be 
countenanced if the desired results are 

If the wholearm and forearm movements 
have nothing in common, then perhaps it 
ia wisdom to make a choice ; but this state- 
ment bears no semblance of truth ; and no 
one who is the possessor of skill sufficient 
to be classed in the upper scale will con- 
cede it for a moment. The forearm move- 
ment is t!ie wholearm movement modified 
(as described), and the very same muscles 
are employed in the manipulation of each. 
There ia no movement used in its purity for 
the general execution of good work ; hence 
the claim cannot be substantiated by facts 
that forearm movement entirely will pro- 
duce plain, rapid writing. The forearm 
must rest so very lightly upon the desk, in 
the better execution of work generally, that 
it not only will admit of perfect freedom, 
but of rapid changes, which consist in mov- 
ing the arm so that the point of centre 
(meaning the fulcrum of forearm) will con- 
tinually coincide with the work jiroduced. 

The constant changing o( position in the 
pen point in writing necessitates a propor- 
tional chauge in the rest of the forearm. 
Whtn this change is effected, it is by the 
muscles of the wholearm, if they are not 
under control — which they cannot be unless 
by proper traiuiug — will they not produce 
the opposite of what is desired ? 

The human machine will be true to itself 
so long as the intelligence that guides it 
violates no established principle. While 
forearm movement may he the objective 
point, it is just as impossible to secure it 
by direct meats as it is to acquire anything 
else of value by a similar process. 

Good writing beyond childhood ia almost 
necessarily executed with a combined move- 
ment, which- is generally understood as 
being composed of fioearm and finger. 
Good writing may be executed with a 
purely forearm movement. Good walking 
may he done by holding the arms straight 
yet firm against the body. But there is a 
vast difference between what may be done, 
what ca7i be done, and what is done. As 
grace and ease in walking are added by 
simply allowing an easy motion to the arms, 
so in general writing very much is added in 
many ways by simply allowing the fingers 
to perform their function. No one can 
consistently palliate or deny that a com- 
bined movemeut is not far superior to any 
single power; but it cannot be taught sat- 
isfactorily without the proper inatructioa 
being given, first in each alone which com- 
pose it. It may be learned ; it may be ac- 
quired by hapliazard practice after a long 
time ; but to teach it with an absolute cer- 
tainty is by far the hotter way. 

I need not be told with what movement 
any writing is executed; I know that any 
departure from form is mostly due to an 
excessive use of the forearm ; that form in 
small writiug and figures must be produced 
with the fingers, and that in proportion to 
the sjieed employed iu business writing will 
the action of the fingers grow less and less. 
This accounts iu a scientific manner for the 
disparity in one's handwriting when exe- 
cuted under different pressure. 

Extended movement exercises are of two 
kiuds — large and small ; one a combination 
of capital, and the other of small, letters. 
While it is possible to produce the former 
entirely by the lurearm movement, it is im- 
possible aud utterly out of the <pieBtion to 
produce the latter with any but a combined 
movement. Writing executed entirely with 

n exc^jyg amonnt 

the forearm will contain a 

of angles, and wherever 

proached it will be due to the &y.^Q„ of the 

fingers in conjunction with thei^ugpies of 

the arm. ^ 

The object of movement exer^^^g jg two- 
fold. If they are acknowledged a, product- 
ive of the deserved results in small Vlting, 
I c;in see no plausible theory for isolajng 
the " rapital-connecting" movement to se- 
cure equal results in capitals. If practice 
on small letters in movement exercises will 
produce plain, rapid writing, then will not 
practice on capital letters in movement ex- 


fore the hi 
Ad, od. 

' similar results in capitals i 
milar cases, " the cart is be- 

pable of judging will say that 
large work should precede small work, be- 
cause it is easier. And this is very evident 
from the fact that in large work single 
movements predominate, while in small 
work the movement is not only combined 
(with about equal proportion of each), but 
the action of the fingers is so varied in pro- 
ducing good forma and undergoing rapid 
changes that it requires even a skillful 
hand to meet the emergency. 

Who, capable of judging, will not say 
that capitals are easier of execution than 
small writing? If this be so, I do not un- 
derstand the policy of decrying movement 
exercises that will give the power desire'd 
in the prodaction of capitals. Why are 
extended movement exercises containing 
capital letters easier of execution than sin- 
gle capitnls of the same kind? 

The movement exercises necessary to 
produce plain, rapid writing are unlimited. 
No one can say just how much is necessary, 
because of ihe diversity of opinions in what 
constitutes plain, rapid writiug. The con- 
sideration of age has very much to do with 
the development of a good handwriting. 
The management of our public schools 
recognize this fact, aud fully set forth in a 
graded course of study what is to beaccom- 
plislied from year to year in each of tlie 
branches taught. If intellectual develop- 
ment is so wisely provided for, physical 
development, properly understood, will 
prove not less important. 

Pupils from five and six to teu and 
twelve years, as a rule, are unable to meet 
the requirements physically that movement 
exercises call forth. Pupils from ten to 
twelve may be taught wholi-arm movements 
to advantage, but not forearm. A success- 
ful experience with pupils below ten years 
warrautft a belief, founded on fact, that the 
method of instructicm suitable for adult 
persons i? not iu the nature of the case 
suited to the requirements of cltildren. I 
am frank to conless that what children are 
capable of doing is in a direct line with ro- 
sultB to be achieved later on ; but their 
years incapacitate them to do very much 
which' age will acquire and physical devel- 
opment strengthen. 

Ode to the Stub Pen. 

Than Ibe tbarp ai>tl * 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self- improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's " Guide to Self-instructi<m in Prao- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" { in paper 
covers) or $1 for same nicely bound in 
thick covers. It tells you all about WTit- 
ing, flourishing and lettering, and how to 
learn. If you are not pleased with it you 
may return it, and we will refund the cash 
by return mail. 


'^U'^ -'^PB^ M » J 

A Schoolmaster Abroad. 

Once more upon the broaij ocean, with 
the ship's prow pointed for Liverpool. Ooce 
more toBsiog upon the uneasy bilh'ws, with 
the old *' uneasy " Beusation at the pit of 
the etomaeh, auJ the old solemn inquiry 
creeping into the brain as to what great 
wickedness in the past it may be that calls 
for this terrible expiation. And, again, the 
wonder comes that people will hisist on 
cooking and eating when nobody is hungry 
— or, in fact, ever can be hungry again. 
How strange it seems that these smiling, 
careening "stewards," with their piled up 
annfulls of piled-up dishes, should not see 
the groteequeness of their pretended zest, 
and the transparency of their preeuniptiou. 
How uncomfortably kind for the captain at 
the head of the table, and thd purser at the 
head of his, and the doctor and the chief- 
steward, and the table waiters, even to the 
cabm hoy, to take such a warm interest m 
the "appetite ' you do not have, and in 
commending the delicate dishes which you 
can by no possibility eat — the very smell 
whereof goes against you 

But the sea going battl< 

, thei 


the ( 

) appetite will SC' 
deed, by comparison with that 
which IB, for all coming time, 
great For a voyage across 
the sea, with all Europe for 
a hunting ground, during a 

8t be fought 
et days that 
ehes against 
m small, m 

in all their lovelinees. And in spite of these 
disguises there are female charms of grace 
and speech which the peculiar contact of 
sea- traveling brings to the surface, and 
helps to sustain you in your faith as to the 
survival of all that is " fittest " in womao— 
which does not necessarily include the OM^r^ 
costumes which will probably be stored 
with the ship's company at Liverpool. 

We represent a varied constituency on 
shipboard, having a sprinkling of all na- 
tionalitics and most conditions, from the 
" huoorahle senator" of the Canadian Par 
liameut, who disports himself with great 
modesty backed by rare intelligence, and 
who goes to England to place a promising 
boy in the British navy, to the nuturalized 
German "cow boy" who has grown rich in 
Colorado, and after thirty years of expatia- 
linu returns to his home in Baden, with his 
pockets full of money, a large diamond ring 
on one of his fat fingers, and a big gold 
watch tethered to a heavy lug chain of gold 
whiih dannlee conspicuou'^ly on the imtsido 
of his vest We call this representative o( 
the breezy plains " Bismarck," for the rea- 
■4on that he has nothiug in common with 
the great dutator, and for the additional 
reason that he hates the \ery mention of his 
name 'I urn going hack to Chermauy," 
Bays he, "to "ee the old home, and find out 
how they're li\m' now I want to look at 

and so I said, 'Go 'head, Katrine.' 'Well, 
then, Yawkop,' says she, 'I want shoost 
80 much pork as I can eat for once.' And I 
said, sorter desperate like, for I hadn't ex- 
pected she would be so buld~I said, 'Ka- 
trine, you shall iiave it if I have to sell my 
shirt.' And so I found a man who had pork 
to sell, and I worked a day for a ptiutid of 
pork, and Katrine eat it, every bit, and was 

"And now," says a fellow passenger, 
"she gets all the pork she wants." 

" Pork," says Bismarck, " I'd shoost like 
to see her touch pork. Why, tenderloin 
beef aint good enough for her. No, stie is 
a different Katrine, now, but she is a good 
vrow yet." 

There's a man ou hoard who measures 
sis feet five in his stockings, and is pro- 
portioufd (iccDrdiu^ly. He dispenses Pres- 
byterian theology to a small and select con- 
gregation in New Jersey, and tells good 
stories on ah'ip. oard. He is the only person 
I have seen who is indifferent to the moods 
of this rolling, pitching fhip. His steamer 
chair never drifts from its moorings ; he is 
too well ballasted to lose his equilibrium 
while promenading the deck, and he is 
wedged in so securely at night in his state- 
room berth that tiie ship might stand on 
her mizzenmaat without spilling him. He 
belongs to a party of Cook tourists, and 

keep his tongui 

he a email affair to an o\er 
worked schoolmaster, no mat- 
ter how frequent it may oc 
cur, and all the world knows 
it cannot occur very often 
And of what small account 
after all, are these fe\r dayn d 
discomfort when placd against 
the other days whith follow — 
days of submission and sweet 
content — of strange ludiffer 
enre to the rolling and pilth 
ing of the ship, which at first 
seamed simply intnlerah'e — 
days of rest and conlemplaiion 
— of forced idleness and grow 


lutle world that rlusler't ah <ut 
jou and takes you into il-* 
embrace For he must indeed 
be a queer schoolui&ster and a 
queerer man who toutd hold 
out against the influence and 
the charms of social life at sea. 
on this head were accessible it 
teresting to note the results, near and re- 
mole, which follow this involuntary com- 
panionship of a ten days' sea voyage. 

If statistics 1 ihe place where I used to wurrk from five 
'ould be in- | o'clock in the morning till seven at night 
init a heavy flail — for eight cents a day; 
and I want to ax, 'How's them. How's that, 
LOW — hemf I want to tell 'em, hut they 
won't believe it. I know that out in Colorado 
we have meat every day, and plenty of it." 

"Meat everyday! they don't. You tell 
them the truth, Bismarck; that you have it 
three times a day, and oftener, too, if you 

t closely 

There is a sort of abandon in 
ing, which resembles nothing 
than the reckless pooling of b< 
the total disregard of appearances, the in- 
difference to personal contact which charac- 
terizes American sea-bathing. 

It seems to be the rule for women who 
go down to sea in great ships to disguise 
themselves in ugly and unbecoming appa- 
rel; to set at defiance all known rules of 
symmetry and harmony of adaptation of 
form and color to style and complexion ; to 
seize upon this chance, as it were, to be re- 
venged on the tyranny of fashion to which 
for the greater part of their lives they must 
bow. But it isaseveretrialto female beauty, 
and few there be who stand the test. Says a 
lovely little lady at iny left, reclining in her 
steamer chair, wrapped up to her neck in 
ruge, and topped ofi^ with a slouched hat, to 
a chance acquaintance reclining at her left, 
" No, indeed, I don't think you would know 
me on Broadway. I am not such an awful 
fright when I am at home ; but at sea, you 
know, we must louk frightful. It's the 
thing." That, I think, is an explanation 
which explains, and it only makcB us anx- 
ious to meet these disguised fairies "on 

Broadway," or, if fortune so direct*, on the I bad only been married a year, and I 
PariBian bonlevard, where they will appear 1 a proud young feller and loved my v 

" Do you dink I could make 'em believe 
such a story t If I should tell my brudder 
Heiurich that in America we eat meat for 
breakfast, he would shoost eay, ' Now, Yaw- 
kop, what fur you try to fool met I aint no 
egiot to believe such nonsense. Who would 
eat meat for breakfast? ' No, it will be hard 
enough to make 'em believe that we have 
meat once a day. Why, how often do you 
think we hud meat in Chermany when I 
was a hoy? Twice, and, may be, three times 
ayearl Oh, them meat days! I can't never 
forget 'em. I got married in Chermany, 
and one day my vrow, she said to me, 
' Yawkop,' said she, 'Am I a good wifeT' 
and I said, 'Why, Katrine, you know 
you are good, why do you ask me? and 
she said, kinder hesitatin' like, 'Yawkop, 
my dear husband, I am goin' to ask a great 
thing of you.' And I said, 'Go ahead, 
Katrine, don't you be afraid, ask what 
, and I will do it,' Yon know we 

will probably take charge of it before it 
gets well underway. There is such an un- 
conscious pervasiveness with these two 
hundred pound men when they are not 
handicapped by excessive modesty. It is so 
natural to make room for them when they 
choose to sit, and to get from under their 
feet if they incline to walk. And then their 
lungs are so sound and their organs of 
speech so perfect, that their words go a 
great way. We have, besides, a Congrega- 
tional minister from a Massachusetts vil- 
lage, who is making his first trip across the 
ocean, and who every day blesses God that 
he 19 alive and on his way to Europe ; 
and yet another full panoplied Presbyterian 
clergyman from Toronto, who is on his way 
tj England and Scotland on behalf .^f the 
Divinity School at Winnipeg, of which he 
has charge. Prom the Congregationalist, 
on our first Sunday out, we had a short dis- 
course—that is, those of us who were able 
to be out of our berths, for Sunday was the 
best day of the voyage, and even the ritual 
service which is enforced on all Her Maj- 
esty's steamships, interlarded with a prac- 
tical discourse from a liberal Congregation- 
alist, could not wholly overcome the invol- 
untary inertia of unaccustomed sea voy- 
agers. Even the reverend gentleman him- 
self confesses to having felt queer at the 
base of his brain, and isn't quite sure that 
some of the *' points " which he had elabor- 
ately prepared for another occasion, did not 
go overboard. He only knows that he 

managed somehow i 

motion for twenty minutes, and trusts if he 
said anything not meet for the occasion the 
Lord will grant him pardon. 

The only place which utterly bids defi- 
ance to condition on board ship is the smok- 
ing-room. In this sanctum -sanctorum — this 
reveling place for smoke, and coffee, and 
cocktails, and a " frieEdly game of draw 
poker," the world wags, whatever else may 
happen. Here all men are equal— except 
those who bet on the irrong card, or " get 
left "in the "pool." For this coterie of 
goodfellows the ship is "run," and her 
daily scorings tabulated. For them, lives 
and moves and hatt his being, the " smok- 
ing room steward," that unique specimen 
of the genus homo, who serves coffee and 
cigars " for nothing," and wa*^ ut-ver known 
to complain at receiving too heavy a con- 
tribution at the making-up of the purse on 
the last day. In this respect, and in no 
other, the smokine-rni.m steward resembles 
all the other stewards who draw iheir al- 
lowance from the shijj'a passengers, and not 
from the ship's company. He has the in- 
stinct of his kind for the possession of sov- 
ereigns which he does not earn, but in all 
other respects he is as far above the " bed- 
room " or " table " steward as the middle 
deck is above the cahin. 

This feeing of servants on board our 
ocean steamers is one of the 
mysterious things of travel. 
That the whole system is-vi- 
cious and demoralizing everyj 
b'.dy knows, and that it will 
never he improved everybody 
believes. Most people who 
travel expect to pay for all 
they get, and to pay well. 
And lew, if any, care to be 
entirely free from the necessity 
cf bestowing gratuities; but 
he udefan e s of the de 
ands n a d — 

a he he ndebn eness as to 
the avount of s ch demands 
— s one f 6 h ug h ch 
g eatly need en edy ng Oc 

nd vho has I e cou age 
d on pe soua gh s an 1 
ne and pe 8 s ence to 
he t But he g eat 

m r y of A nencan travel 
ers, when adjured not to " for- 
get the steward," simply hold 
out a handful of sovereigns 
and shut their eyes. This is 
llie least troublesome way, 
and the only way that meets the full 
requirements of ihe case- If after this 
ordeal anything remains to the traveler, 
he need have no d.-Ucacy in appropri- 
ating it. I thought for once in my 
life I would probe the matter to the bot- 
tom, and see if there was anything that 
could be eaid as a guide to well meaning, 
but inexperienced travelers; so I took my 


rt-ard aside. 


Rnbert, I vt 

ant a few candid words 


yell in private. You have 

been a 


faitbful tMo 

V all through th 

« voyaee 


look.d . 


best way, and have done much to make 
tlTis tediitus trip tolerable ; and I am going 
to pay you what is right and fair. Now, 
what IS right and fair ? I take it for granted 
that you are hired by somebody to act aa 
steward on this ship, and that you are paid 
therefor, a fair salary. You have in your 
charge, say twenty or twenty-five people, 
and all are expected and are ready to make 
you a little present as a souvenir. How 
much shall my share bet" 

Kiibert lookeil at me in a very quizzical 
way, and said that he could trust me to do 
what was right. " So you can," ifaid I, " if 
you will only let me know what i$ right." 

"Don't you really know?" said he at 

" No, I don't know. Inform me." 

" Well, there's three of you, and they 
generally give us half a sovereign for each ; 
that would be one pimnd ten." 

" Is thftt all I am expected to pay ?" 

" That's all I expect to ^ft; but there's 
your table-Bteward who will waot ttie game 
and the bootlilick ; and then the sfewardesa 
will expect her fee. and the cabin-boy must 
uot be forgotten, nor the derk-eleward, uor 
the smoking-room steward." 

"But how about the captain, and the 
purser, and the doctor, and the baggage 
amashcrT Who pays them?" 

" I don't know about the captain and the 
purser, but if the doctor has hiuked at yuu, 
and particularly if he has given you a dose 
of rhubarb pills, you will have to eee him," 

The doctor had \eh a dose of rhubarb 
pills in onr state room which had been ad- 
ministered to the ocean, and eo there was 
00 way of dodging that issue. So I fooled 
up as follows: 

Bf<l- room Steward t7 50 

Tftlt1« alen-ard 7 50 

Stenardeu 5 00 

Deck BteffBrd 3 50 

Whether any part of this reasonable gift 
to the stockholders of the White Star Lice 
was unpaid will not be stated here. I will 
only Pay that coihing lefs than ibis amount 
would enable a traveler to step off the deck 
of the steamer at Liverpool, attended by the 
goodwill of tho servitors of the magnificent 
and well appointed steamer that takes him 
across the ferry. More aaon. 

Educational Notes. 

[CommiiiiicaliouB for thie Department me 
be adireBsed to B. F. KELLKY,aO.''i Broadwa 
NfcW York. Brief educational iuros aolicilnd 

Girard College has educated 3,450 oi 

Education is the generation of power.- 

uess. The former is much cheaper for any 
country than tho latler. We cannot af- 
ford to keep up illiteracy and ignorance. 
We must educate.— Normal Teacher. 

The question 
iiercial schools 

of estublisluDg cily 
is now being agitate 

Tlic bu. 

In the city of New York there are 3,G21 

Hundreds of Welsh minors arc contribut- 
ing £5 each, by weekly iDstalmcnts, to- 
wards the propused Welsh University. 

According to the last regulations, tho 
study uf German has been made obligatory 
on all studentj in the University of Tokio, 

The Indian School at Lawrence, Kansas, 
will be ready to open July Ist. 400 Indian 
boys are expected to take a course of in- 
dustrial training. 

Ezra vii: 21, contains all the letters of 
the alphabet ( I and J being considered one 
letter). Now hunt up tho long neglected 

tlie need of such ecIiooIs, as persons who 
intend to follow mercantile pursuits are 
often not fitted for such life. A school id 
this class is to be started at Flensburg in 
conjtmction with the agricultural school of 
the place. — IKes/crn Educational Journal. 

If the father wishes to give his son a 
legacy that will endure him while lifo exists, 
let him send him to au ius'itulion where be 
can obtain a geueral practical business edu- 
cation, and he will have tho satisfaction of 
knowing that he has given him that which 
is better than houses, lots or farms, or even 
gold and silver; these may take wings and 
fly off suddenly, but this knowledge will 
endure while life and reason exist. — Horace 

As "the sweet girl graduate," in her 
valedictory, confidently wres'leth with the 
weighty problems of human life that states- 
man and sage can but tdiully comprehend, 
even so doelh the mau who. wise tu his own 
conceit, yet knowing nolhing of penman- 
ship, essaycth to teach the writing-master 
hi3 duty. Yea, verily, like unto these are 
tho Loudon Spectator and its Ainericau 
me too's that it might be fulfilled tLat was 
written: "A fool uttereth all his uiiud ; 
but a wise man keepetb it iu till afterward." 
Proverbs x^is: 11. 

" Is she studying the languages T" " Oh, 
yes ; she has nearly completed the langu»ge 
of tlowers, and is now practicing the lan- 
guage of Cupid." 

Professor: "What is a fraud?" Stu- 
dent: "Taking advantage of a person's 
ignorance." Projessor: " Give nu exam- 
ple." Student: " Why— er-er-ono of 
your examinations."- -//arward Lampoon. 

"Is your wife acquainted with tho dead 
languages T" asked tho professor of ji 
Newman man. "Maybe she is," was the 
reply, "but tho language she uises is en- 
tirely too warm to have been dead very 

"Why," asked Professor Miller, "is a 
good name of more value than richest" 
And the tniart bad b.iy at the foot of the 

r-'ckoned it v 


nd den 


Qjestioniog is only one of several forms 
of instruction. Ty question as the only 
means of teaching is like making a huuse 
all roof, or a coat all tail —School Educa- 

One person out of every 1,500 in tliis 
country is in a college or university. Duly 
37,01)0 are in culleges, at homo and abroad 
These in numbers are only 4 drop in the 
great soa of fifty milliuns. 

The ai 


. of the Liberal Ni 
mill Scliool, at Liberal, Mo., has come 
baud. The inhabitants of this pi, 
it their boast that they have neither 
church nor a saloon in their limits. 

Boston believes in the equality of woman 
as teachers. A woman principal is to re- 
ceive $2,000, the same wages as a man 
principal would. In such cases womao- 
equaliiy and justice are identical.— Jc/woi 

Compulsory education 
Matamoras. Children four 
during school hours are t 
paroi'ts cannot give a re 
they are compelled to pay a 
iulu the school-fund. 

is enforced at 
<1 on the street 
rrested; if the 

fine which goes 

Education means progress, prosperity 
and h(dp to ttio Slate. Ignorance moans 
immortality, vice, poverty and wretchcd- 

Educational Fancies. 

[ \u every iuetauce where ihf aourcp of any 
ileui \iBvd m thifl department is kuowu, the 
proper credit is given. A like courtesy from 
othere will be appreciated.] 

When a bevy of schoolmarms go hoat- 
riding, may they not be called a whaling 

" What stars never sett " a?ked a Yale 
professor. "Roosters," answered a prom 
ising pupil. 

"What is syntax?" asked the teacher. 
"A saloon license is sin tax," shouted the 
son of a prohibitionist. 

The pious deacon who spelled gospel 
g-o-8-p i 1 may have been saved by the 
spirit of it, but not by the letter. 

A Frenchman is teaching a donkey tti 
talk. What we want in this country is a 
mau who will teach donkeys not to talk. 

A book keeper should be a good slight- 
of hand performer, as ho is so closely con- 
nected with ledger dnjmaia.— Philadelphia 

" Meat mo at the speliug match at Muo- 
sio Hall," was the invitation written prob- 
ably by ono who stepped down and out on 
tho first round. 

An inslnicti.r asked a French girl why 
beer in French was feminine. She replied 
it was probably owing to tho fact that the 
boys liked it so well. 

The following excuse was written to a 
Southbridge echool-teather : " Tomie slade 
homo, cuz he had no close, and thalscxcuz 
ennff.god nose." Tomie was "exkuzed." 
—Peck's Sun. 

Pater: 'IWell, my boy, and how do 
you like college f Alma Mattr has turned 
out some good men." Youn^ Hopeful: 
"Ya— as— she's just turned mo out." Ho 
had been expelled. 

Ihottf/hfful hoy to teacher : "I don't thiak 

y say 1 

because the Bible says ho slept with his 
fathers ; and if ho had been he would have 
had a bed of his own." 

"And so your daughter is at the academy? 
How does she get alongf" "Splendidly; 
she is studying aU the higher branches." 

plus. — Burlington 
Hawkey e. 

"Johnny," said the editor to his son and 
heir, the young hopeful of the family, "are 
you in the first class at school I" 

" No," rejilied the lad, who had studied 
the newspaper, " I am registered as second- 
class male -matter." 

A "sweet girl graduate" wrote the fol- 
luwiog on the fly-leaf of her text- book on 
moral scienre : " 11 there should be another 
fli.od, F<.r refuge hither fly ; Though all the 
world should bo submerged, This book 
would BtiU be dry." 

"Pa, is English a dead language ?" 
"Why, no, my son; English is the most 
living of all languages" " Well, pa, I'm 
mighty glad to know that; I've heard eo 
often about English having been murdered " 
—Linguistical Levity. 

A Junior, as ho knelt by his bedside, 
the other night, preparattiry to retirieg, 
discovered that the slats had been removed 
from his bed, and that tho bed had been 
stacked. His devotions had saved him a 
fall." Moral : Always pray before retiriug. 

There aro now IfiO miles of siielvos of 
books in the British Museum. It must 
make the clerk mad to have an 
ciimo iu just as he is about to close up for 
tlie day, aud ask for a book at tho extreme 
end of the shelves, and be compelled to 
walk KiO miles after it. 

Writing with the Left-hand. 

"Is ambidextrous or left-hand writing 
taught much now-a-daysf" a Mail and 
Express reporter asked Chas. E Cady, the 
principal ot a leading business college of 
New York city, wliere the study of penman- 
ship is one of the great features. 

"Yes," was the reply. " There is not an 
institute of penmanehip iu this cily that 
does not devolo more or less time to tho de- 
velopment of the chirographic faculties of tho 
left-hand as well as to those of the rieht. 
Years ago I exploded the then prevailing 
notion that the action of the muscles that 
induce the formation of script characters 
was natural to the right-hand alone. In 
fact, there is nothing natural in writing. 
Good penmanship is the result of iucpssant 
practice in which the left-hand may bo 
trained wi'h as satisfactory results as the 
right. And viewed from both an educa- 
tional and business slaudpoiot, tho [jromul- 
gation of ambidextrous instruction is cer- 
tainly desirable. In the first place, it is a 
well-known fact that persons who train 
their left-hand always become more profi- 
cient iu penmanship with their right. Aud 
what an aid it is to tho pefiple who earn 
their Hviug by the use of the pen to he able 
to write with both hands! Penman's para- 
lysis is unknown, and if an accident should 
happen to one hand tho other is always 
ready for duty. A great many clerks dowu 
town aro proficient ambidexUrists. When 
they are tired of wriiiug with ono hand 
they change the pen aud thus avoid the 
fatigue consequent upon the use of the 

id throughout the day. Take for 
llr. E. C. Coekey, of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. With bis right 
hand he is able to send a message along the 

3d with his left to take do 

of the same, 
prejudice agai 
dying out, as i 
Mr. II. A. I 
of the Spenci 


ery hanjy, is i 
!t the use of the left-hand is 

tencer, a son of the founder 
ian system of penmanship, 
was seen iu his study by the reporter. 

Said ho: "Tho number of pupils whom 
I have taught to use the pen with both 
hiiuds may bo counted by the thousands, 
and may he encountered in nearly every 
part of the United States. Now, here is 
work doue in this city by children just com- 
mencing. You will see by the signatures 
that many of them are suns of the repre- 
feniative society people and millionaires of 
New York." Mr. Spencer then exposed 
manuscripts, ou which were shown speci- 
mens of the left-hand writing, iu compari- 
son with the right-hand wriiieg, of hia 
pupils. A very young son of Jay Gould 
exhibited a tremulous signature; Paul 
Bonner's, the thirteen-year old eon of R. 
Bonner, of the Ledger, was rather dark 
aud mysterious ; ami other young gentlemen, 
ranging in ago from nine to eUven jnirs, 
gave evidence of future tkill in the art. A 
printed specimen ot the signature of the 
thirteen-year old son of Carl Schurz, written 
with the left-hand, was executed in magni- 
ficent script. 

'•This young man," said Mr. Spencer, 
" I consider tho best ambidextrous writer, 
of his aye, in the country. President Gar- 
field, my iu8trnct(»r iu mathematics at Hiram 
College, was proficient in the uee of the pen 
with both hands, It may not be generally 
known that Thomas Jtfferson in the latter 
part of his life wrote only with his left- 
hand. He was stricken with paralysis of 
the right arm, and by constant training was 
in a few months able to use his left-hand 
and produce tho same style of writing as 
f.rmerly was characlerislic to his right- 
hand. Ambidextr(.u8 writing is spreading 
of late. Through my advice two principals 
of public schools iu this city have taken 
hold of the matter with gratifying results. 
I have never matio it mandatory upon pu- 
I'ils to write with the left-hand, but simply 
gave them permiesiou to devote some part 
of tho writing exercise to an tttort to pro- 
duce with tho left-hand such work as they 
bad been doing with the right. I instruct 
tbem at first to do some right-hand writing 
with a pencil, and then go over it, in ink, 
with the left-hand, and then practice with- 
out the aid of pencilled copy until a suffi- 
cient degree of perleciion has been attained. 
Can I give you an estimate of the number 
of ambidextensts throughout the Uuiun? 
Well, only a few years ago I taught classes 
with my brother, H. C. Spencer, in Wash- 
ington, to the number of (JUO students ; one, 
in Baltimore, of I-J3. In Galveston, Tex., 
I iustrucied 2(10; in Shreveport, La., anO. 
I have instructed pupils by the thousands 
in St. Louis, New Orleans, and other large 
cities. Since it is deeirablo to see with both 
eyes, hear with both ears, and walk with 
both feet, it is well that the art of writing, 
as a 'secondary power of speech,' should 
bo produced with both handt." 

Back Numbers. 
Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The fullowiug we c«u send, 
and no others: All numbers of J878 but 
December; all for 1870, except January, 
May and November ; all nuuibf rs for 1880 ; 
all numbers for 1881; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 18c3, but January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's wriling- 
leesuus bcgau with May, the second lesson 
was iu lh( July number. Only a few copies 
of several of tlie numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them sliould order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will bo mailed 
for $1, or any of the Dumbers at 10 cents 

AHir Jouisnai- 

Guarding a Billion Dollars. 
The Monev .Stoked in Wall Strket 


Detectives at Ralls and Parties 

—Some op the Oj.d Timers. 

" r Bupjjose there are stored ia tlie banks 

aod safe deposit va-ilte in Wall street and 

vioiniiy not far from $1,000,000 000,'" said 

Mr. Robert Pink^rton to a reporter for the 



table ea^y chair \a liis tiffice in Exchange- 
place. "I uiay be a trille out ofihe way 
ID my estimate, but not very much. The 
prolecliuD of all Ihia wealth requires tlie 
servicia of a large number of men iu addi- 
tion to the usual mechanical and electric de- 
vices employed that purpose. The bulk 
of this large sum of money is stored in 
the vaults of safe deposit companies. The 
vaults aro built of lire-proof and burglar- 
proiif material, and are made as secure as 
modern invention will allow. They aro 
connected by electric wires with the nearest 
Distrirt Teleeraph office. Armed watohmen 
placed. Private watchmen and detectives 

No Good IJank Kodhebs. 

"Are there aa many professional bank 
robbers now as there were formerly f" in- 
quired the reporter. 

" I don't believe there is the making of a 
regular gang of first-class bank burglars 
among all the thieves of this ci>untry," re- 
plied Mr. PiiikertoD. "Nearly all the old 
professionals have either died or have been 
arrested aud put away in prison, and the 
younger men don't seem to have the inge- 
nuity of their predecessors. Look at the 
Eoted bank burglars who have been caught 
and shut up wilhiu fifteen or twenty years. 
There's Jimmy Hope, who was arrested in 
California for robbing the Manhattan Bank 
of tbi^ city; Bob Scott and Jimmy Dunlap, 
the Nor'lmiiiptou bank bnrniars; Ruary 
Sims, Charley Bartlelt and Eddy MtGuire, 
who were released from prison two years 
ago, after bfiug iu jail fifteen years for 
"lifting" the Biiwdoinham Rank in the 
State o' Maine; George White, alias Bliss, 
for participating in the roblery of a Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, bank ; Laogdou W. 
Moore, alias Cha'ley Adams, who cracked 

" Yes, it is customary for wealthy ladies 
to employ detectives to guard Ihem, when- 
ever they appear in public wearing ' coetly 
gems. You will find my men at nearly every 
faehionable wedding, reception, parly or 
even funeral that takes place iu this city. 
They go to the weddirgs drecsed as guests, 
and mingle with the crowd without attract- 
ing attention. They watch the expi*nsive 
aifls preseuted to the newly marrifd pair, 
and have a care lest welldrrsged thieves 
succeed in slyly removing the diamonds 
from the dreeses of the dear friends who 
may be present. Detectives must be sharp, 
quick, and level-headed if they are to 
amount to anything in criminal work. Our 
agency takes no cases involving family mat- 
te m. Much of the work done by us involves 
the looking up of the habits of clerks in 
banks and business boupes, and the em* 
ployes of express <;ompauie3 who have the 
handling of large sums of money. It is the 

have the habits k-{ their employes examined 
yearly. If a man is found to be spending 
more money than be earns, or is becoming 

Chief of the Serret Police F..rre of France 
is a. Maci^, a man of great courage and 
keen penetration. He has been in the ser- 
vice thirty yeara, and is only foriy-five years 
of age. Ttte headquarters of the secret po- 
lice are located in the Palace of Justice on 
the Seine. When Napoleon III. was at the 
height of his power " The Service of Public 
Safety," as it was then called, became a 
mere political machine for executing the 
wishes of the nobility. After his death an 
effort was madit 1o purify the service and 
was successful. A large number of the older 
»nd more experienced men were discharged 
and new men put in their places. It is now 
claimed that the young men who are now 
growing up in the service in Paris will in a 
few years became the most skillful detec- 
tives yet known. The methods of work 
used by Mace are the best yet discovered by 
experience His men are unknown to the 
puldic in their professitmal capacity. The 
old French innkeeper who serves your cof- 
fee in the morning may be in the employ of 
the police. The detectives work with the 
utmost care and secrecy, and are rarely sus- 

^-engraved from on oriffinal upecimen flawnshtd by H. C. Clarh, principal of the Erie ( Pa.) Buiineat College. 

are also on the lookout fur suspicious per- 
BODS. You would think the precautious I 
have already mentioned would be enough 
lo protect the property, would you not? 
There ia, however, one more protection. 
Police from the several stations down-town 
pass along the streets at intervals during 
the night, aud keep a careful watch of 
slrangfr* found on their beat. In the moru- 
iijg, when the vaults are opened and largo 
amounts of specie, stocks, bonds, etc., are 
pace to aud fro in the rooms upon which the 
vaults open. These men aro rrq-iired to 
give a sii^ual over the wire at stated inter- 
vals during the night, iu order to prove to 
the proper authorities that ihey are fAilbful- 
ly attending to their bueiness and that noth- 
ing of an evil nature has happened. If the 
fiignhla are not given an armed posse of 
to the vault in ques- 



' the 


1 Ihei 

are other watchmen who patrol the street in 
front of the building in which the vaults are 
taken out, detectives accompany the mes- 
BCDgers to iind from the ofiiccs to which the 
property is tf> be conveyed. I am of the 
opiniuu that it would be a diflicult matter 
for an armed mob lo force its way into any 
of the great deposit cimpaniea' vaults, for 
& few men wiibin, well equipped with rilles 
and cHDUon, cuuld defy an army of despe- 

the safe of a private banking-house in Bos- 
ton; and finally, but by no means least. 
Max Schoenbrun, one of the most successful 
burglars who ever lived. After cracking 
the safes of the Lfhigh Coal and Navigation 
Company and ihe Ocean and West Mary- 
land Banks be escaped from this country 
and went to Belgium, where he was arrested 
and sent to prison for a term of fourteen 
years. Betides these I might mention Joe 
Chapman, Ike Marsh, Charles Bullard and 
others. Many of these men were hunted 
down by our detectives. The young 
burglars are now exercieing their skill upon 
jewelry safes in different parts of the coun- 
try. Tbey linve met with such success that 
the jewelers of the United Slates have been 
compelled to organize themselves into the 
Jewelers' Security Alliance for the purpose 
of mutual protection. The burglars were 
fiist taught by Max Schoenbrun that the 
Lillio safe could be opened by knocking ofi' 
one of the iron hinges of the door. They 
learned their lesson well and have profiled 
by it. A Lillio safe was cracked iu Brooklyn 
aud another in Troy a few weeks ago by 
some of these very men. 

Detectives at Parties 
Are detect 


At« ueitcuvtB employed to protect la- 
dies wearing diamonds at parties or the 
theatre 1 " 

reckless iu his expenses, he is warned by h<s 
employer, aud if bestill persists in his course, 
is dropped from his position. When im- 
portant business interests are at stake, mer- 
chants or bankers cannct afford to have in 
their ofBces men who have the least bit of 
irregularity attached to their habits of liv- 
ing. Opera singers and actresses who in 
certain scenes wear expensive jewelry or 
precious gems, employ detectives to watch 
them while at the theatre. AVe had a de- 
tective with Patti for months when she was 
singing in the West. Sarah Bernhardt 
would not travel without one." 


"How do American compare with Euro- 
pean deteolivest " 

"The systems employed on the other side 
of the Atlantic have developed a finer class 
of detectives than we have on this side. The 
Scoilaud Yard detectives iu London have the 
reputation of being the sharpest in the 
world. John Shore, the chief inspector, is 
probably without his equal in the deteclive 
service. His men are sent to all parts of the 
world in search of crimiuala. The Old Jury 
Detective Force is another strong corps of 
detectives. Their work is conBned more 
especially to the banking district of London. 
The French detective syslem is more like 
that employed here than the EogUab. The 

pected. They have long been a terror to* 
the evil-doers of France, and have brought 
thousauds of desperate criminals to the bar 
of justice. 

The First Detective Agency 
in tliis country was fouuded by my father, 
Allan Pinkertoo, iu 1848. From a humble 
beginning the business has been extended 
until to-day our firm has offices iu New 
York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, and em- 
ploys about 150 detectives. The men who 
work for us aro from all classes and condi- 
tions of eocif^ty. It is a mistaken idea which 
many people hold when they believe that 
one detective can do all sorts and kinds of 
work equally well. The truth is that the 
man who does what may be termed ' society' 
work is wh'illy unfit to work among the 
criminal classes. Theoue must spend most 
of his lime with the young bloods, drinking 
champagne aud smoking Reina Victorias, 
and iho other must consort with thieves and 
consume vast quantities of beer and cheap 
cigars." — Mail and Express. 

"The Guide" (iu paper) 'u now offered 
free aa a premium to every person remit- 
ting $1 for one year's subscriptiou to the 
Journal. Or, handsomely bound in cloth, 
for 25 oeuta adtlitionai. 

The Book-keeper. 

Quile preiweU was lie tbougb tie saw hl> work 


Although he nan (vllh half 
That be wrote a Blopiog h 

Remarks by Henry C.Spencer, 
Jn the Occasion of the Graduating 
Exercises of the Spencerian Busi- 
Wasuingtox, D. C, May 2-iD, 18S4. 

Professor Sponcer said ; 

Ladies and GetitJemen :~Al\ bave heard 
of eix wise men of HiudooBtan, 

Thongh all of lb«iii were blind. 

The first fell againet the animal's side, 
and exclaimed : " Bless me ! he's very like 
a whU ! " The second, feeliug of the tnek, 
said: "He's very like a spear!" The 
third grasped the equinniDg trunk and 
cried: "He's very like a snake!" The 
fourth examined the knee and declared : 
" He's very like a tree ! " The fifth touched 
the ear, and declared : " He's very like a 
fan 1 " The sixth began to grope about 
the beast, and, seizing the swiDging tail 
exclaimed : " He's very like a rope ! " 

e right, 

n the twentieth year 
of its existence, and we are holding, to- 
night, the Eighteenth Annual Graduating 
Exerrises. Its growth and progress in this 
capital of the nation have been in the pres- 
ence of a cloud of witnesses. Five hundred 
and seven of our graduates are engaged in 
useful occupations in every (juarter of the 
globe. Yet the fragmentary nature of the 
ideas entertained by the community con- 
cerning the scope of training here given 
makes the businssa college seem to be a 
very elephant of Hiodoostan. Observing a 
single feature or fact, the casual observer 
readily and glibly describes the inetilution. 
A youne lady or gentleman writes a clear, 
elegant business hand. " Where did you 
acfjuire itt" "At the business college." 
"Oh, yes! that is a writing-school founded 
by the Spencers"; and he kindly dissemi- 
Dates this information as an established 

fact. An accountant is an expert, and re- 
cords with ease and accurary the transac- 
tions of a vast business. "Where was he 
trained t " " At the business college." 
" Ah ! that is a hook-kee(iing school — very 
useful fi.r those who intend to follow book- 
keepiug for a living." A young person is a 
successful salesman or cashier. " H'tw did 
he achieve such early success ? " " He at- 
tended the business college." "Oh, yea! 
that is a night-school for clerks." 

Similar conclusions are reached and posi- 
tively announced through the range of cor- 
respondence, political economy, commercial 
law, phtinogrsphy, elocution, physical cul- 
ture, and the rest. It is not yet generally 
understood that it is the duty antl privilege 
of this institution to educate the whole hu- 
biing for life, health, prosperity, and 

Wrecks are strewn everywhere upon the 
sea of life that might bave been proud and 
gallant ships sailing safely into port, if the 
chart and compass of correct business prin- 
ciples had been on board. No possible 
fiuancial, professional, or industrial career 
is safe without this talisman. 

The nation's hero who bravely and 
quietly planned campaigns that were the 
marvels of the world ; who for eight years 
was President of the United States, and 
came nearer than any other man ever did 
to securing a third term ; who was the hon- 
ored guest of every nation iu the circuit of 
our globe, has become the innocent victim 
of Wall Street sharpers, losing all his pos- 
sessions at a single stroke. " Tho dear old 
fellow!" says Mr. Beecher. "Of course 
he knows nothing about business." 

Well, why notf He ought to have at- 
tended the business college. Or, when ho 
President of the United States, with a 
salary of $50,000 a year, he should have 
sent his sons for business training, and they 
could have saved him from this pitiful sbip- 
wreok in the presence of the civilized 
world. This beautiful capital of this our 
young nation should be a great center of 
common-flense education. We do not de- 
pend upon legislation for this, and need not 
wait for people to demand it We can lead 
them up to it, and invite them to partake 

Graduates of 1884 : We have endeavored 
to give you training that will enable you to 
avoid the dangerous rocks aud shoals upon 
which so many lives and fortunes have 
been wecked. May your voyages upon 
Life's great sea be made safe and happy. 
May they prove useful to your fellow-men, 
and secure to you the honors and rewards 
of substantial success. 

A Foolish Mania. 

"No, I can't go with you this after- 
noon," explained a fashionably dressed lady 
as she stood on the stoop of her residence 
in Fifth Avenue, bidding farewell to the lady 
about to leave her. " I have my regular 
lesson in an hour, and after that I shall be 

" Your lesson f " queried the friend. 

" Yes, my writing-lesson. I am learning 
to write English." 

"Why, who wrote your notes to me?" 

" I did, but they were not English. The 
writing was American." And with a 
friendly good-by nod the lady turned to go. 
She was middle-aged, richly dressed, spoke 
ictly, with an afifectatiou of English 
pronunciation, and seemed hardly the per- 
son to begin the study of penmanship so 
late in life. Stopping on the second step 
she lowered her parasol and, leaning for- 
ward, said: "You see there are six or 
eight ladies in our set wbo are heartUy 
ashamed of their round American style of 
writing, so we formed a little club to learn 
the angular English style. We meet once 
a week in the Century building and spend 
an hour like school -children over our copy- 
books." And she smiled as she recalled 
the picture of half a dozen society ladies 
in white bibs industriously learning to write. 

" But this angular style is not nearly so 

legible as the neat round-hand you used to 
write," commented her friend. 

" Well, perhaps not. Hut it is the thing 
— thoroughly English, you know, and one 
must learn it. It's like the opera, some- 
limes ; not always pleasant, but always 
popular. But won't you cr)me with us— 
join our class?" The friend declined, said 
she had done with the three R's (reading, 
'riting and 'rithmetic) twenty years aeo, 
and moved down the street as the other lady 
disappeared in the house. 

A visit to the Century building showed a 
prettily furnished room occupied by a score 
of desks. Over half the desks were bent 
as many ladies, each with a little white 
apron or bib tucked under her chin, as 
elderly gentlemen sometimes tuck in their 
napkins at dinner. Each pretty face was 
bent close to the paper, and as each fair 
hand followed the teachers, the plumes on 
the lowered bonnets waved in unison like a 
field of wheat waved by the wind. The 
bare arms and hands laid across the note- 
paper were whiter than the cream-colored 
texture, and the black- mustached teacher as 
he turned from the blackboard to smile ap- 
provingly at his pupils, seemed immensely 
proud of his class. All were so eager to 
learn that his task was an easy one. 

Mr. Abercombie, the teacher, was enthn- 
siastic over the success he is meeting with. 
Ladies at the Victoria hotel, two from the 
Windsor and many of those " in the swim " 
were only too glad to learn from him. The 
lessons were given principally by mail. In 
a circular he tells why every lady — every 
real lady — should write angular " English." 
He says : 

A lady's attire, speech, manner — these 
are eloquently expressive of herself; ordi- 
narily, they indicate her social status. So 
should her handwriting express beauty and 
elegance. Above all should it express a 
pervading charm of womanliness, to oulti- 
wbich is the purpose of my undertak- 

way is one of those little arcompliahmenls 
that betray the lady, like the selection of 
costumes or the use of perfumes."— .y. Y. 


The general plan is based upon the old 
Italian style, which to-day is recognized 
and understood as pre-euiinently an " Eng- 
lish" style for ladies. Commending itself 
always to a refined popular taste, its intro- 
duction is meeting with gratifying success 
at the present time, when to be "very 
English," is to be wholly fashionable. 

" But why," ventured the visitor, "should 
this style be considered more desirable?" 

"I suppose because it is English, as it 
really is. Take one hundred English ladies 
born in the same circles— that is, the upper 
circles— and ninety-nine of them will write 
alike; this angular hand. Take one hun- 
dred American ladies and no two of them 
will write in the same way. Why, I can 
hardly say. It has always been thought 
good form in England to write this way, 
and BO all have been taught alike, and the 
round, old-fashioned handwriting has dis- 
appeared. At the present rate of progress 
it is only a question of a short time when 
the curved line — not the line of beauty in 
penmanship- will be relegated to the use 
of clerks and shop-girls." 

" Then you do not have many shop-girls 
as pupils?" 

"Hardly," with a quiet smile at the in- 
nocent question. " That is hardly the class I 
of— of— of— er— persons we desire to teach. 
Angular writing is essentially a lady-like 
accomplishment, and fitted only for the bet- 
ter classes. Who cares whether a shop- 
girl writes an up-and-down or a regular 
hand?" a:*d the teacher waved, with a 
magnificent flourish, the despised claases 
into obscurity. "What they want is to 
learn short-hand." 

" And your gentlemen pupils T " 
" We have none. Business men, as a 
rule, must write plainly and the few that 
do attempt anything out of the ordinary 
learn at their own convenience and in the 
privacy of their clubs. Besides the chiro- 
graphy of men betrays an inrlividuality 
which is not often seen iu the handwriting 
of ladies and they do not care to give this 
op. After all, the writing in itn ' Englishy ' 

Chirographic Style and Systems. 
Hints by Americus. 
The man from whom emanated a style of 
writing which has justly become national 
through the institutions of learning where 
the millions are educated to conduct the 
business of the worid, is, indeed, a public 
benefactor. The great number of systems 
by numerous authors more or less ckilled 
in teaching the American style of writing, 
as a secondary power of speech indispensa- 
ble to the interests of education and busi- 
ness, have each some friends and ardent 
admirers. American writing admits of be- 
ing made large or small, open or condensed, 
iu its adaptation to the multiform uses of 
literature and business. The so-called sys- 
tems then, justly considered, are methods 
of teaching the American style of writing. 
One chirographic philosopher bases his sys- 
tem on first presentipg certain elementary 
lines and their modifications for the struc- 
ture of letters. Another doctor of chirogra- 
phy frames gymnastic exercises— simple, 
compound, complex and intricate— as the 
basis of his systein of teaching. Time 
teaching has numerous authors ; muscular 
movement originators are found every- 
where; teaching letters in the order of 
their simplicity; teaching synthetically and 
then analytically; teachiugimitatively with- 
out observing the use of principal orgov- 
eruing forms which show in what respect 
letters are alike and by what modifications 
they differ from each other, has some zeal- 
ous adherents. Others bank their systems 
mainly upon the use of either a fine, medium, 
coarse or broad pointed pen. A few of the 
doctors of chirography in this nineteenth 
century are exceedingly figgressive and un- 
charitable towards their contemporaricB, 
and claim that the fact of placing copies in 
a book and giving rules for their use is' an 
unpardonable fraud, and should be inter- 
dicted by Congressional legislation. The 
systemizers who wield the chalk on the 
blackboard as the exclusive and only true 
way of guiding the pen of learners evidently 
shoulder legs responsibility as to the num- 
ber of months and years it requires to secure 
a plain handwriting than any other class of 
chirographers. It is to be hoped that from 
the chaos of controversy some great good 
wUI yet come forth. The hand of time 
moves on, aud the families of the earth con- 
tinue to make record of their aft'airs, obliv- 
ious of the dissensions, bickerings and 
turmoil which of late have been character- 
istic of a few of the many learned doctors 
of chirography in this country. 

The importation of a handwriting from 
England to be exclusively n-ritten by women 
of wealth and fashion was made coincident 
with the debut in this country of Oscar 
Wildo and the sunflower craze. It is 
learned imitatively. No rules appertain to 
its acquirement or use. It is strictly an un- 
principled system of writing, and the possi- 
bility of its taking ten hours to decipher a 
manuscript which was written in ten min- 
utes, does not seem to detract from its popu-. 
larity in select circles where wealth and 
leisure are happily blended. Un-American 
speaking and writing should find but little 
favor with our loyal people. 

Responsibility for Mail. 

The risk of sending properiy directed mat- 
ter by mail is very slight; and in all cases 
where the remitter will hand the same to 
the postmaster for examinatit>n, and seal 
in his presence, we will be responsible for 
losses; and on the statement of the post- 
master that he saw the money inclosed and 
duly mailed, we will consider it the same 
as received hy us. Persona directing books 
and pat'kages to he sent by mail may have 
tiie same registered by siiii])]y remitting 
leu cents extra. All such packages are 
sent at the risk of the penon who orders. 

The New Teacher. 


Willow and thk Gon with the 
"Automatic Dingus." 

" Wo had about as ooery and triflin' a 
crop of kids in Calaveras county, thirty 
years apo, as you could gatlier iu with a 
gee toothcoinl) and a brass band in four- 
teen States. For ways that was kitten- 
•omo they was moderately active and ab- 
noriniilly protuberant. That was the pre- 
vailing style of Calaveras kide, when Mr. 
George W. Mul(|ueen come there and warn- 
ed to engage the school at the old camp, 
where I hung up in the days when the 
country was new and the murmur of the 
six-shooter was in the land. 

"George W. Mulqueou was s slender 
young party from the effete Kast, with con- 
soieutiuus scruples and a hectic Hush. Both 
of thoee was agin him for a promoter of 
school discipline and square root. He had 
a heap of iuformation and sorrowful eyes, 

" So fur as I was concerned, I didn't ftfel 
like swearing around George or using any 
language that would sound irrevelant io a 
ladies boodore; but as tor the kids of the 
school, they didn't care a blamed cent. 
They just hollered and wliooped like a 
passle of Sioux. 

" They didn't seem to respect literary at- 
tainments or expensive knowledge. They 
just simply seemed to respect the genius 
that come to that country to win their 
young love with a long-handle shovel and 
a bloodshot tone of voice. That's what ' 
seemed to catch the Calaveras kids in the 
early days. 

"George had weak lungs, and they kept 
to work at him till they drove liiui into a 
mountain fever, and finally into a metallic 

" Along about the holidays the sun went 
down on George W. Mulqueen's life juat as 
the eternal sunlight lit up the dewy eyes. 
You will pardon my manner, Nye, but it 
seemed to me just as jf George had climbed 
up to the top of Mount Calvary, or where- 
ever it was, with that whole school on his 
back, aud had to give up at last. 

" It seemed kind of tough to me, and I 
couldn't help Llamin' it unto the school 
some, for there was half-a-dozen big 
suoozers that didn't go to school to learn, 
hut just to raise Ned and turn up Jack. 

" Well, they killed him anyhow, and 
that settled it. 

"The school run kind of wild till Feh- 
oowary, and then a husky young tender- 
foot, with a fist tike a mule's foot in full 
bloom, made an application for the place, 
and allowed he thought he could maintain 
discipline if they'd give him a chance. 
Well, they ast hiui when he wanted to 
take his pluee as tutor, and he rekoned he 
oould begin to tute about Monday morning. 

" Sunday afternoon ho went up to the 
schoolhouse to look over the ground and 

paign agin the hostile hoodlums of Cala- 

" Mondiy he sailed in about i) a. m. with 
his gripsack and begun the discharge of his 

" He brought in a bunch of mountain 
wiUers, and after driving a big railroad 
apike into the door-casing over the latch, 
he said the senate and house would sit with 
closed doors during the morniug session. 
Several large, white-eyed holy terrors gazed 
at him in a kind of dumb. Inquiring tone of 
voice; but he didn't say much He seeuied 
considerably reserved as to the plan of the 
campaign. Tho new teacher then un- 
locked his alligator skin-grip and took out 
a Bible aud a new- self-cooking weapon 
that had an automatic dingus for throwing 
out tlie empty shells. It was one of the 
bull-dog varieties and had the laugh of a 
joyous child. 

"Ho read a short passage from the scrip- 
tures, and then pulled off his coat and hung 
it on a nail. Then he made a few extem- 
poraneous remarks, after which he salivated 
the palm of his right hand, took the self- 

cocking youngster in his left, and 
to wear out the gads over the various pro- 
tuberances of h's pupils. 

" People passing by thought they must 
be beating carpets in the schoolhouse. He 
pointed the gun at his charge with his left 
and manipulated the gad with his right 
duke. One large, overgrown Missourian 
tried to crawl out of the winder, but after 
he had looked down the barrel of the 

shooter i 
He seem 

t, he changed hia min 
alize that it would be 
ules of the school, so I 
t down. 
i out the 

foliage, Bill, he 
pulled the spike out of the door, put on his 
coat and went away. He never was seen 
there again. He didn't ask ft-r any salary, 
but just walked off quietly, and lliat sum- 
mer we accidentally heard that he was 
George W. Mulqueen's brother."— Bill 
Nye in Puck. 

Business Colleges, and Business 
vs. Ornamental Penmanship. 

Business Colleges and ornamental pen- 
manship were long ago united in holy mat- 
rimony and have sailed along on the voyage 
of life calmly, joyfully, affectionately. But 

the I 

of 1 
DOoth, and at last, the caln 

1 which 

George T "—ff<orj<: " Why, I don't ki 
pa,unle8S it represents Elijah or the Saviour 
ascending to heaven. The snake must be 
Satan, pa ! " — Brown is sweating, and mum- 
bles something to himself about the devil 
being carried up to heaven. 

Ttiey go up to the college rooms, are 
nsbered into the presence of Prof. Doo- 
tlicker, the principal, who is just putting 
finishing touches on a stag. He calls 
Prof. Whangdoodle, the penman, to show 
these gentlemen the specimens on the wall". 
Brown is sweating more. George is ec- 
static. Birds flying, eaglee soaring, lions 
roaring, stags jumpiug. horses galloping, 
snakes spitting. Brown is spitting, too, by 
this time, makes a dive for the d<ior, and as 
be walks down the steps he (eels for his 
pocket dictionary to see if he can find a 
definition for the word "business college," 
and wonders how long Satan staid in 

In the meantime Prof. Dooflicker has 
finished his new stag, and Prof. Whang- 
doodle is busy sending out free specimens 
to country boys, and so the business colleee 
prospers without the patronage of John 
Brown the merchant. 

But right here is where the ripple begins. 
John Brown, the merchant, is a strict busi- 
ness man. He instills common sense and 
business principles into his son, George. He 
agitates the subject among his brother 

The Influence oi Heredity. 



TiON. Mr. 

Beecher's Sermon. 
In Plymouth Church, recently, Mr. 
Beecher said: "All thf* best qualities of 
the animal kingdom concentrate in man. 
There is much that perishes in the evolu- 
lion ; we have not the Hou'fi etreneth nor 
the eagle's wing, but we gain most of the 
best elements in our material and bodily or- 
ganisms. What is lost is a thousand times 
compensated for in the brain and nerve sys- 
tems, lifting us incomparably above all the 
inferior animals. With knowledge comes 
responsibility and connection with the in- 
finite scheme of law; call it by what dif- 
ferent name you will. Every law gives 
strength to men, hut it is not an armor of 
incumbrance, or a harness <'f limitation and 
restraint. Law is not a bond to hold back 
from weakness, but men are to become 
strong and large by knowledge and obe- 
dience. There is responsibility for obe- 
dience to the laws of nature, but society is 

aud its law 
In the U 

penman at Baylie's Commerciat College, Dubuque, Toi 

this loving couple has been sailing, shows a 
ripple. Yea, there are serious indications 
of a storm, and we fear the domestic tran- 
quility which has hitherto largely existed 
will be broken. We prophesy more or less 
divorces and divorce suits during the next 
five or ten years, and we would advise all 
of the penmen throughout the country who 
can neither read, write, nor spell, — and 
judging from our correspondence there are 
nearly a million such —to take down their 
Pen-Art-Hall signs and establish themselves 
ae divorce lawyers, probate court judges, 

But why this ripple, why this divorce? 
When man and wife are divorced, they have 
had a row ; ( this is not saying that a divorce 
always takes place after a row) and this row 
is brought about by disagreement, and this 
disagreement is caused by lack of mutual 
adaptation. A thought: 

Brown the merchant takes his son George 
to a Business College to learn Business. As 
they get to the entrance, the boy shouts, 
" Oh, pa ! do you see that there eagle with a 
rattlesnake in its claws, just soaring up- 
ward t He's a swapper, ain't he ? " — Brown: 
"Hug, ahem — yes, what — what does this 
meanf" — George: "Why, these are spec- 
imens of penmanship taught here at the 
business college — see, here it says 'executed 
with a pen after three weeks' practice under 
the instruction of Prof.Whangdoodlo, Pen- 
man.' I will be as good in thretj weeks. 
Won't I keep your books nice, pat" — Brown: 
"But what^does that picture represent, 

merchants, bankers, and business men. 
George grows up to be a man, his love for 
the beautiful very strong, but a sense of the 
practical and the utilitarian predominating. 
After a while, George, and a few others 
of real good sense and practical ideas, es- 
tablish business colleges. These gentlemen, 
if we understand the drift of their ambition, 
propose to make the business college a 
school of business, and to wrest from the 
public mind the idea so universally prevail- 
ing (and which has some reason to prevail ), 
that a business college is an art school, a 
mere writing school, or a Barnum mena- 
gerie. How well they may succeed in this is 
question for the future. We do not under- 

means hostility toward ornamental penman- 
ship. As long as the youth of the land are 
endowed with jesthetio natures and go wild 
over a piece of ftourisbing, so long will or- 
naraeutal penmanship exist. The question 
is, why should this brauoh of art be coupled 
with a schuul of business any more than 
music or painting. 

We hope to see this subject thoroughly 
leetiug in July. 

discussed at the Rochesi 

Tell your friends, and tell them to tell 
everybody, that if they are in any way in- 
terested in good writing the best investment 
they can make is to send .$1 and get the 
Penman's Art Journal one year and a 
splendid " Guide to Self- Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship," worth $1 
as a premium, free. 

obeyed the 
field, in the church, the contest has gone on 
between individuality and the organized 
forces of human society. But a man is 
composed of many diverse forces. Men 
are born hwtories, unopened aud unreada- 
ble. They get much from fathers and 
mothers, and they in turn from their ances- 
tors. Men are born connected by subtle 
filaments with their forefathers in all re- 
spects. I wasn't asked by what door I 
would come into life. If I had had the 
choice of all creation I should have said by 
my mother. But I wasn't asked, nor were 
you, any more than you were asked what 
color of hair you would have — red, brown, 
black or auburn. You came by the laws 
of nature, and you were what you were by 
God, and by the iniiuonces of a thousand 
generations of men coutributing to your 
make-up. You are what you are by the 
graces of your home, wrought in the warp 
and woof of your life. Then the influence 
of your age and time. Most men know 
what is generally believed, aud that is all 
the philosophy of the times, 
public sentiment. No 
any choice as to when or where he 
will be born. In that he has no more in- 
dependency tiian the leaf in the tree. If he 
is born in Germany he speaks German, not 
half as good a language as English, and he 
ipt Emperor, King, and Bismarck 
to boot. He can't help himself. But with 
all his limitations and responsibilities, every 
man has individual liberty and must an- 
swer for himself before God.'' 

The Point op Honor. — It is extremely 
refreshing to notice the fine aeuae of honor 
possessed by some of the rising generation 
in Virginia City. Recently, two youths, 
each aged about fourteen, met on C St., 
when the fuUowing dialogue took place : 

" I say, Bill, you got my kite." 

"No, I ain't." 

"'Pou yer wordt" 

" 'Pon me word." 

"'Pon yer souH" 

"'Pon me soul." 

" Hope if you may die if you have?" 

" Hope I may die if I have." 

" You ain't got my knife t " 

" I ain't got your knife." 

The querist seemed to be still incredulous, 
but was on the point of giving it up in de- 
spair when a bright idea occurred to him, 
and he returned to the attat'k with, " Pon 
yer honor? " 

" Oh," said the other, " now yon touch 
me honor, take your danged old knife," and 
he handed the article over. 

" Well done, Bill," said hia chum, " I 
alius knowed you was a honorable chap." 

A wild Western paper is calling loud for 
the coinage of half cents. It is a mistake 
of jadgment. What we really need is more 
of the ordinary < 

P..bli.hed Monthly iit »1 per Yeai-. 

iDgl* noplM of th» JOURNAL WDt on r«o«ipt of 10c 


joiomii $:«)%' Ki5.oo iiao.ob »l7r>J 


We bop« to reader Ibe JoriiSAL xiffict^clly interMt- 
\<>K ftDd ftllmollTe lo i*<-ure, rol only Ibe patronise ol 


b^iid**tn oU.ih.'°For^*'"Vmeil'»o'ui.r/fo S»it.hi^nw 
lioD,-' in ololb, aud the "Slandard Pmolicul Penman- 

Id pl8M oMhe above P^j"'"""^"j^^^"^" l)^'' ^''- '" 
followliig named work», vii.: 

The CenleDDiBl Picture of Progreu 22x28. 

•' GarteM Memorial'. '.\V.'.'- .[''.'.' ..'". 19x24! 
;; Family Record 18x22. 

The price ol each of lhe.e wort., by mail. 1. 50 oanl. 

For Ihree namea and |n we will forward the large Cen 
mnlal plctnre, SSHO m. ; relail* for «2. Or. a copy of 

>0 "Standard p'rac'tk«rpeDmnn1il.ip''''*° "'" ° ' "' 


ai nearly as poMib 

^ tlM.T' Mo"lf blS" 



BruiKlway. N«tv To 



Sabsoripiiona to Iho Phs 

Ane ABT JOUiUf* 

romptly attended lo by Ibe 



New York, Jjne, 1884. 

The Convention. 

We agaiu <-all atteDlii.n ti> the Sixth Ao- 
niml Meeliog of the Bueinesa E.lucatora 
an.l Peumeo, at Rochester N. Y., vn the 
17ih of July next. Vigorous eiiorl8 are 
heiog made lo remier this tlie most numer- 
ously atteuded, eothusiastic aud pr.»filable 
convention yet held, and, as far as wo are 
a'lle to judge, with good pmspei'ts of suc- 
ce^s. We are certain that no one engaged 
in teaching any of the coiniiiercial branchea, 
or in ftny department of pt'nman&hip, can af- 
ford to be among the absent ones, 'i'he iu- 
fljeuoe for good of such a (vuning together 
upon ill who attend is beyond estimate. 
The comparison of experiences and the ac- 
quaintances thua formed and cultivated tend 
not only to strengthen the individual teach- 
ers, but to engender a mutual respect and 
CO ■ operation, which, nnfortunately, in 
times past haa not existed in any aupera- 
buudance among rival huaiuesa colleges or 

We hope to aee an attendance which ahall 
not only exceed that of any previous con- 
vention, but the most aanguiue expectation^ 
of its managers. Communications may be 
addressed to L. L. Williams, chairman of 
the Executive Committee, Enchesler, N. Y- 




Educators Appreciating the 

Below we give place to a letter from Mr. 
Brown, Jacksonville (III.) Business Col- 
lege, respecting the Journal and its dis- 
cuesions regarding practical writing. In 

through the coluir 
trust Bro, B 
and that be \ 
ity for such g 

all penmen for discusi 

18 of the Journal, wo 
vill have no hesitancy, 
long find the opportun- 

, III., June 5lh, 1884. 


J Amk 

Please Hud %\. inclosed for renewal of my 
subBciiptiou to the AttT Journal, aud permit 
me to congratulate you most heartilj upon the 
BUCcesB with which your paper is meeting. I 
enjoy the busineBS writing diecussiou which 
the Art JotMiNAL is conducting, and wit-h to 
express gratification at the friend y spirit and 
evideut fairness at all times exhibited by it. I 
am not at all accu->tnmed lo WFiling for the 
presp, though I have been repeatedly solicited 
to do Bo by the new papers whiih are spiiug- 
ing up on every hand. I tind that the extra 
work which I Hm oliliged to do in counectioii 
with the BiiflineBsE^UicatorB' Association ibis 
year all that I can possibly do outside of my 
regular school-work. If I should conclude to 
enter upon the discufision of the writing ques- 
tion I ehould much prefer lo du it through the 
columuB of the Art Journal I have bad it 

3ind < 

: the 

■ for^ 

am satisfied that the time is near at hand for 
the readjustment of the penmanship qufStion 
ae a branch of practical education. Bv read- 
justment I not only mean the thing to be 
taught, but also ihe method of teaching it, Of 


I opiii 

. but 

me that that opiuiun is gaiuiiig ground verv 
rapidly among teachers, both iu and out of 
business colleges. 

The prospects of the Rochester meeting sepm 
to be very good, so far as 1 am able to judge, 
and other members of the Executive Commit- 
tee think we shall have bollt a large aud a 
profitable meeting. I have heard uolhiog so 
tar from the Executive Committee of tin- Pen- 
men's Division, but hope they are beslitiug 
themselves to secure a large attendance. 

While iu Chicago, a few days ago, I suc- 
ceeded in securing reduced R. R. rates, from 
Chicago and other points to RucheBtei- and re- 
turn, from Michigan Central aud the Lake 
Shore Roads. 

Will you please give the inclosed card re- 
specting this matter space in your June issue, 
as Tour paper will be undoubtedly eeeu and 
read by more of our members than any other 
or all other papers combined t I am, 
Very truly yours, 

G. W. BiiOWN. 

The card referred to above reada as 
follows : 

Railroad Rates to the Convention. 

The Michigan Central Railroad proposes to 
sell round-trip ticketa lo all who attend the 
Business Educators' Association, from Chicago 
to Roobeater for $21.50. Tickets will be sold 
on the 14th, 1.5tb, and Ifith of July, and will 
be good to, and including, July 'ioih. 

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Railroad will sell round-tilp tickets from 
Chicago and olher points on their road to Buf- 
falo at one and one-third fares. Tickets on 
this liue, it will thus be seen, may be purchased 
at Toledo. Cleveland, or any other statioQ, as 
well as Chicago. These tickets will be sold on 

the 14tb, 15th, and 16th of July, and will be 
good to, and including, July Srith. 

All persons who expect to attend the 
Rochester Convention should immediately 
advise G. W. Brown, of Jacksonville, 111,, 
accordingly, who will furnish certificates to 
all who are entitled to these rates. The 
railroads will sell these tickets to only those 
who are supplied with certificatea from Mr. 
Brown, __ 

Howard V. Whittier, a specimen of 
whoae penmanship ia shown in the above 
cut, is aixteen years of age, and the son of 
a Methodist minister. He ia a native of 
Maine, though several years of hi? boyhi.nd 
were spent in South Carolina. Nearly five 
years ago he was placed in the State Re- 
form School near Portland, Me., where he 
has been ever since. At the time he en- 
tered that institution be could scarcely write 
bis name. 

He is now studying shorthand and pen- 
manship under the instruction of Mr. E. P. 
Wentworth, the asei«Iant superintendent of 
the school. He is a subscriber to the Pen- 
man's Art Journal, and attributes much 
of bis improvement to his dilligent study t>f 
that paper and of the Spencer Brothers' 
Practical Penmanship. 

It is gralifying to note the degree of ex- 
cellence in penmanshp which may be at- 
tained by boys, even under what at first 
appear to be very adverse eircurostHnces. 
The introduction, Into sclioola, of such 
papers as the Penman's Art Journal is 
always followed by good results. The fine 
specimens of business and oroHmenlal writ- 
ing by the "great maaiera uf penmanship" 
create in the student a love for the useful 
and beautiful in pen-art; they educate the 
eye to a nicer apprecialiim of the minor 
points of excellence; and they stimulate 
him to do his best to reach that high de- 
gree of skill that others have attained. 
The student who has his ambition aroused 
and who energetically and faithfully follows 
the instructions given in the Journal by 
those who have [iiade the teaching of pen- 
manship a life-work, will he sure to achieve 

Fine vs. Coarse Pens. 
The glory of a wriling-mnster and the 
tbrmeui of a business wr Icr is an exqtii- 
sitely fiue-poinled jjeu. This is equally 
true respecting either the use of the pen 
or the writing executed. To the eye uf the 
writing-master that writing only is beauti- 
ful which has accuracy of form and delicacy 
of hair line and shade; while to the prac- 
tical man of affairs such writing is an 
abomination. Its oxtremo delicacy and 
sharp contrasts between hair-line and 
sbado call fur closer attention while read- 
ing than dues the less accurate but stronger 
writing of his business associates. Of 
course, fir professional writing fine peua 
are dosirablo ; but firali business purposes 
a pen of medium coarseness is much the 
best, and also in the class-room a pen not 
fioer than the "Penman's Favorite," or 
" Spencerian No I ," is preferaljle to " Gil- 
lolt's 3(13 " Not only arc pons of medium 
ite with, but 

nd he 




The King Club 

and waa sent by S. Van Orden, Pittsburgh,' 
Pa. The Queen Club numbeis twentij-two; 
it was sent from Duff'a niercabtile College, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., by W. J. White. The 
third club in size numbers /oMJieew, and is 
also from Pittaburgh, Pa; it was sent by 
W. D. Rowan. Evidently a healthy influ- 
ence prevails in Pittsburgh respecting good 
penmanship. Thanks to Bro. Duff. 

The Double Penholder, mailed from 
be oilico of the Journal, at 00 cents per 
ozeu, can be used oblique or straight, as 
lie writer may prefer. 

tile necessary that 
we at some lime secure a Hitle relaxation 
from our overburdeniug duties, and that we 
may do so, in July we shall make the 
Journal eight pages. In view of the fact 
that the Journal has been increased from 
eight to sixteen pages without a change of 
price, we trust its readers will pardon its 
reduced size for a single month. The Au- 
gust number will be full size and up to the 
highest standard. 

No More Specimen-copies Free. 

For years after its publicatiiui it ««<» ' nr 

custom to mail a sample- copy of the JnuR- 

NAL free to all applicants, and while we 

who apply with the intention of subscrib- 
ing, it is quite impossible that we should do 
so to the thousands who apply eimply to 
gratify at our expense tliiir cuiin&ity or de- 
sire to get a thing of value for ni-tliing. 

Since the Journal has become so widely 
known and popular, postal-card requests 
for specimen-copies have so multiplied that 
to comply with them all would be little 
short of ruinous to any publisher. .And, 
besides, each number of the Journal is 
worth its price, and we know of no reason 
why persons wiahing one for any purpose 
should not remit ten crnts, which certainly 
is a trifie to them, but no small sum when 
aggregated as it has been at thia oflice. 

emember, yuu cau get the Journal 
year, and a 75-ceni book free, fur $1 ; 
I $1 book and the Journal for 1)11.25. 
your tritrnda a f^vor by telling them. 

If you want a good and durable pen of 
medium fineness, send thirty cents for one- 
fourth gross of '' Ames's Penman's Favor- 
ite," No. 1. .^^_^ 

How to Remit Money. 
The best and safest way ia by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parta of 
a dollar, send postage-atamps. Do not Bend 
personal checks, especially for small sums. 
Dor Cimadi&n postage-stAmps. 

[ Under lliis head anawera wiM bi 
all quMtiona— liie repliwi to \vbich 
value or general iiilepest to readers. 
which are perooiial, or to wliicli aiiaw 

nil explai 

» many who pro- 

which have 
, The ox- 


Inquiry is frequently nia( 
exobange books and premiuii 
been sent ancordiog to requf 
change we should be willing 
should pereoDS making tiiich r 
for a moment, they would perceive that any 
book or print having been twice through 
the mail could, at best, be disposed of by 
us only as a damaged or second-hand pub- 
lication. Consequently we must positively 
deoline to consider any proposition for such 

J. A. D., N,.rfH|k,"Va,— I am wishing to 
purchase some book that will aid me in all 
kinds of penmanship, and aio unable to 
decide what to get. Would you please 
explain about your Compoudiiim f I eee 
that you ask $.i, while te-eral others are 
adrertiaed for $1. What is the difference 
between Ihenit 

^Hs.— The difference is: First, in the 
size and extent of the works. Our Com- 
pendium consists of seventy 11x14 incli 
platec, handsomely and substantially bound, 
and treats of plain writing, flourishing, let- 
tering, designing, and engrossing, giviug 
numerous examples for each. It weighs 
seventy six ounces, and requires thirty-eight 
cents postage. The $1 Couapendiinns con 
sist of less than twenty slips and a small 
book t.f instructiou, chii-fly of plain writing, 
about .'(xJ) inches in size, all inclosed iu an 

most pen- pictures, for which black or 
French walnut, with gilt inside, will do 
well; or a gill frame may be used, with 
some color like blue or purple velvet in- 
side, with good effect. Whether a deep or 
flat frame, is a mere matter of taste. Pen- 
pictures or prints should be so framed as to 
show a liberal margin, the width of which 
will, of course, vary according to size of 
picture. F.»r pintures 12x15, ]J to 2 
inches; 18x22,2 to 3 inches; larger pic- 
tures, somewhat wider. Where mats are 
used, sharp contrasts should be avoided j 
for dark grounds, mats of gray or gilt are 
in taste; for pen-work or light grounds, a 
shade of white slightly at variance with 
that of the picture will give the best effect. 
Mats having sharp contrasts dimiuish the 
apparent tize, and hence the effect, of the 
picture. Frames hung with top pitching a 
little forward have the best fffect, as the 
pitch tend* to bring the picture 
right angle with the vision. 1 
of slant should vary according it 
which the frame is bung, and if 
the average bight of the eye, 
should be given. 

eight at 



three ounces, 
ige. Were the 

requiring two cents pualage. Were th( 
price of our Compendium the same in pro- 
portion to its size and exient as are the Si 
Compendiuins, it wouM be about $30 in 
stead <if $5; and as for comparison, the 
difference in plan and extent scarcely admits 

AV. H. G., Danville, Ind —Will you 
please answer, through the Journal, the 
following question ? What reason have we 
for elanling our writing upon ao angle of 
52 degrees t 

Wo are rot informed that there is any 
specific reason, beyond the fact that that 
slant has been found to be the best, consid- 
ering its ease and the appearance of writing 
having that slant. It will be found, by 
personal experiment, that a forward slant 
is easier and more in accord with the natu- 
ral motion of tho hand ihiiu either the up- 
light or back slant, which fact undoubtedly 
led to its first adoption ; and by the com- 
mon assent of authors and instructors in 
America at least, 52 degrees has come to 
be the recognized standard of slant. Our 
correepondent eays that it is claimed that 
were auy other elaut, even a perpendicular, 
uniformly taught and practiced, it would be 
equally practical. We tlnuk 
from our own obseivation; i 
auy usage adopted througli 
rience is likely to be better and 
any individual whim. AH thi 
world unite in according tho preference to 
the forward slant for writing. " Vox pop- 
uU, vox Dei." Can any of our authors or 
great lights in chirographic science illu- 
minate T 

J. II. W., Morrisville, N. Y., asks for 
advice through the Jouhnal respecting 
the best style of frame, etc., etc., for the 
Family Kecord, Marriage Certificate, and 
other Jouhnal premiums. As this may 
interest uiany others, wo will endeavor to 
comply, although with little hope of being 
able to offer advice that will apply to all 
cases. Ou general priucipks we always 
select a gilt, oak, or some light colored 
frame for pictures having a dark ground, 
like an oil painting, a dark steel engraving, 
etc., and the reverse for light grounds, like 

lafer than 

Books and Periodicals. 

Shaw's "New His'ory of English and 
American Literature." Revised and greatly 
improved edition. With the American 
literature entirely re - written, re-arranged 
aud simplified, and the English literature 
revised and brought down to dale; by 
Truinau J. Backus, LL D , president of 
Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Sheldon & Co., 8 Murray Street, 
New York, publishers. This is a most 
excellent work, aud should, at least, be 
examined by every teacher of English and 
American literature. One volume, I2mo, 
480 pages, half leather binding. Introduc- 
tory price, $1.25; exchange price, 75 cents 
A sample copy will be sent (where it is 
desired for esaminatiou with a view to in- 
tr-.dufti n ) ou receipt of 50 cents, if or- 
dered auy time before October 1st, 1884 

" Hill's Science of Iihetoric,''207 J2 mo. 
pages, by Sheldon &. Co., 8 Murray Street, 
New York. This is a comprehensive and 
philosophical text-ho.-k. It is clear and 
simple in style; apt in its illustrations, 
and pre-emiueutly modtru. Well adaptt-d 
fir awakening an iutere?t in the learner. 
Introductory price, $1 ; exchange price, 60 

'The Catboli." Seiics of Peaders," pre- 
pared by the Right Rev. Richard Gilmour, 
D.D , Bishop of Cleveland, published by 
Boaziger Bros., New York, Cincinnati, and 
St. Louis, are models of typography. The 
illustrations are excellent in every respect. 
An attractive feature of the books is the 
interspersing of uumerous sections of script, 
tho plates for which were prepared at the 
office of tho Journal. 

"Right and Wrong Contrasted," by 
Thomas E. Hill, author of •'Hill's Man- 
ual." "Hill's Album of Biography and 
Art," etc. This is a little pamphlet of 
sixty-eight bi-aulifully illustrated pages, 
which should be read by every boy and 
girl in the laud Its lessons of truthful- 
ness, honesty, industry, deportment aud 
general morality are admirable; and, from 
the telling manner in which they are pre- 
sented, both in words and illustrations, are 
well calcula'ed to interest and instruct the 
reader. We have never examined another 
book of this character and cheapness that 
Bives us fo much satisfaction, and which 
we can so heartily commen<l as this one. 
We certainly advise every reader of the 
Journal to send for a copy; mailed iu 
paper covers, for 25 cents; in clolh,'75 
cents; by Hill Standard Book Company, 
103 State Street, Chicago, III. 

Exchange Items 

The Penman and Artist. No. 1, Vol. I. 

bran new, promised bi-monthly by Mr. and 

Mrs. C. N. Crandle, BushneU, HJ., 8 pages 

for $1.00 a year. " The first bora " is vig- 
orous and promisine, but we suspect that 
Brother and Sister Crandle will soon real- 
ize more forcibly than ever before tbqt even 
a bi month is not a very extended period 
of lime. We certainly wish this new born 
a vigorous youth and prosperous old age. 

The School Supplement for June, by 
Eaton & Gibson, Toronto, Canada, is fully 
up to the high standard of former numbers, 
wliich is as high as the best of our ex- 
changes, both as regards the matter it con- 
tains aud its elegaut typography. It is an 
eight-page monthly for $1 per year. 

The Chirograplier for May is spicy and 
interesting. Truly Brother Isaacs's bump 
of editorialativencs? appears to have been 
wonderfully developed, since he seems, as it 
were, to have bounded at once into editorial 
fame and success. In the vigor of his youth- 
ful visions, it is, perhaps, m.t a matter lor 
surprise that he should imagine the Jour- 
nal to he in the decline of age, aud in his 
fancy-dreams see its mantle falling upon 
the Chirographer. It is true that there is 
a veuerahlencss about the Journal that 
attaches to none of its predecessors or con- 
temporaries, but there is also a correspond- 
ing dignity and solidity of success, and we 
trust that for prudential reasons Brother 
Isaacs will not so far dote on the dotage of 
the JoiTRNAL as to relax any personal effort 
on his part t.. boom the Chirographer. 

The- Western Penman is now published 
by Messrs. Worthiugton & Palmer, at 
Chicago, 111 . for 60 cents a year. The 
June issue is a quarto of 16 pages. It is 
well edited, and coutaius much matter of 
general interest to penmen. The meclian- 
ical execution is not such as to redouud 
spe.dally to the glory of its printer, but 
this its level-headed editor will doubtless 
see corrected in the future. It is a good 
iuveslmenl at 60 cents to any one inter- 
ested in penmanship. 

The CJiirographic Quarterly, by H. W. 
Kibbe, Ulica, N. Y., for 25 cents per year, 
is one of the most tasty and solid of the 
penmen's papers. It is certainly a credit 
to its publisher and the profession. To 
any one in any manner interested in pen 
manship. there is no way for investing the 
small sum of 25 cents to better advantage 
than for Mr Kibbe's pa ler. 

Enormous Saving. 

Under the above headieg D. P. Lindsley, 
editor of the the lakigraplur, and the au- 
thor of "Takigraphy," Plaiufield, N J., 
goes into a startling calculation respecting 
the saving that might be made by the writ- 
ers of this country if they would use Taki- 
graphy in place of long-hand. He says : 

The labor of writing exceeds in the ag- 
gregate, for all classes, that of any other 
kind of mechanical work ; for three-fourths, 

least, of our entire populai 
ly a small fraction of theui 
her one kind of labor, lit 
ce the labor of wiiting mat 

more closely tha 

Let us eatim; 
long-hand writin 

A rapid peoinan can 
in a minute. To do this 
pen thru the space of a 
hours aud twenty minits 

»n write, while 
perform any 

eria'lly, we do 
ion than any 
1 do. Basides, 
tiers of thaut 

thousands of our busines aud professional 
men, with their army of clerks and assial- 
antst 1,000,000 of these make 300,000,000 
of miles of inky lines in a year, and strokes 
innumerablp.-:jOO 000,000 Miles of Pen 

In Takigrafy we save five sixths to nine 
tenths of this labor both in the number of 
strokes emplojd and in the dietans traverel 
by the pea— that is to say we save 38,880,- 
Of)0 strokes of the pen in one man's work; 
aud 270 miles of pen travel ; ard in the 
writing of 1,000,000 of penple 38 millions of 

illions of strokes, and 270 tnillions of miles 

ak line: 
Hud byo 

All this 

B million of writers! What, then, 
ly of the labor of a century— the 
many millions that now write, and the un- 
counted millions thai shall be? And what 
hinders us from effecting this saviugf Noth- 
ing ! Absolutely nothing ! 

We do not claim perfection for Taki- 
grafy, but it is certain that it can he ctsily 
adapted to every use now made of long-hand 
writing. Is it practicable for all clases of 
people. If taut in our scools by competent 
the place of long-hand 
■alion; and the 20tli century of 

;il da 

-rid who; 

creast means for the exchangf <if ihaut v 
be the one great wonder— all other Irimi 
ranking far below it. 

And School Items. 

K. G. EvanR, who has fur eomf lime pa»I 
heen connreted wilh Ihe Ulica ( N. Y ) I)u«i- 
ii«8B Collfgi*, liaB lately purchai-ed. and will, 
un July Ist, asBUme, lli« manaKetneiit (.f lh« 
Queen Cily Commercial College, llurliiiglon, 

H. W. Bearoe, who fur eevei .1 year. pa«i 
has beeu a special teacher of pehiiiansliip, was 
among the recent graduates of ilip Long Is- 

land Colle 

-e Huepital, Brooklyn. 

N. Y. 


niah him 

uccess in his new pr. f 

• hioll. 

The Spe 

cerian BusinesB Colleg 

, Wa,l 


tun, D, C, 

held its Eighteenth Am 

inal Gl 


ating Exer 

cIbcb on May 2Jd. Th 

e graduates 


sixty-two. The iuvil 




a of design and the 



an — for o 

ne of which Mr. Spm 

or has 



We reto 

n our thanks to Pr. f 

Geo. S. 


of SuulG's 

Commercial College e 

.1 Lite 

luBlitute, New Orleans, La., fur 

.is con 


mentary m\ 

italion to be present at 


Eighth Au 

iversary of that instill 

ion, n 


occurs on J 

une 98th, and our regrets for 


being able 

to be present. 

[ Persons Bttadiug specimens for notice 


hie col 

Liiun Bhould eee that ihe ptt 

kltgf* c 



the aame are pontage paii 

ill full 


tcB. A targe proportion ot 

liese pa 


ifS CO 

ne short paid, for sums va 


uiB upward, which, of cou 


to pay. This ia scarcely 

a desira 



atiuu tor a gratuitous notice 



orthy speoimene have bee 

n receiv 


1 stroke. 

pen m writing 

Wo inaki 
or turns of tlio 
Wilting thirty 
make 480 stroke 

h..ur, 28,000; in a day ..f only live hours 
1 14,000, aud in u year of 300 «iich days, 4:J, 
2(10,ono. The man, therefore, who made 
1,000,000 slr.ikes with his pen in one month 
was not at all remarkable. Many men- 
newspaper writers, for instance— make 4 - 
000,000, Hero we hav,.in the aggregate, 
SOU miles of ink lines to he traced on paper 
by a single writer in a year. 

What, then, ma; we estimate the labor of 
writing byonr enlire people,— the editors 
or onr 11,000 periodicals— and the authors 
of the thousands of volumes that come from 
onr teeming presses f— the hundreds of 

I follows ; 

J. M, Davis, Pairfax, Mo , a letter and cards, 
e says : " I have now read the Jouhnal for 
'o years, and tiud it Ihe greatest aid of any 
iucational paper I have ever taken." 
N. E. Ware, of Ware's Bu.ineBS Inelitute, 
Sharon, Ga., a letter and cards. 

S. M, Gibaon, Greensboro, Ala., a letter and 
a set of very gracefully executed capitals. 

L, M, Looiuis, Williamstown, Ky,, a letter 
and copy-slips. He says: "My style is due 
to the Jounxil. and the ' Standard Practical.'" 
D. H. Farley, principal of commercial de- 
partment of the State Female Normal College 
■rrenton. N. J., a letter. 

A. B. Kalkanii. 
carls, and capita 

A. W. Dakin, Tully, N. Y,, s letter a 
cards. Mr, Dakin's specimens deserve m. 
Ihau a simple menlion. His general writing 
a model of ease aud grace, while his carda i 
rarely excelled. 

>t; Farniington, N. Y., a letlei 

MUfl Bertha Wamn, Santa Clara, Cal., a 

J. E. CfUBtuB, R&ndolpb, Ky.. a letter. He 
eaye: "I tliink the Journal is the brightest 
star ID the profesflion." 

C. P. HouBen, Central TeiineBBee College, a 
letter, in which he nays : " The aesiBtance 
which I have derived from the JOURNAL and 
'Guide' iB ^TO^th more than ten times their 

C. H. Peirce, Peiroe's Business College, 
Keokuk, lofra, a epecimen autograph. " Im- 

W. C. Walton, Portsmouth, N. H., a letter 
and pen-sketch of Hghthouee in that harbor. 

H. C. Clark, Erie ( Pa.) Commercial Col- 
lege, a letter. 

M. C. Gilbert, of the Oswego (N. Y.) Writ- 
ing and Book-keeping Academy, a photograph 
of a Bet of resol tioiis lately engrossed in cred- 
itable style for the fire department of that city. 

E. L. Burnett, Elmira, N. Y., photographs 
of several creditable specimens of pen-work, 
including a Bet of resolutiooB engroseed for b 
Masonic lodge. 

J. A. Hope, Pocahontas, Me., two fiourished 
birds, also several card specimens. 
W. P. Spenaley, Dubuque, Iowa, a letter. 
G. W. Allison, Newark, Ohio, a letter and 

J. H. W. York, Woodstock ( Ont.) BusinesB 
College, a letter and set of capitals. 

C. H. Uhrig, Cambridgeport, Mass.. a letter. 

F. W. H. Wiesehalm, St. Louis, Mo., an 
elegantly written letter. 

Arthur D. Skeels, Ann Arbor, Mich., a letter, 
in which he eays : " I consider the Jotjenal 
superior to any other penman's paper. I have 
taught penmanehip in the public achools for 
the past three years, and words cannot express 
my appreciation of the merits of the Journal." 

C. W. Robbine, of the Sedalia (Mo.) Busi- 
nesB Collego, a letter and two flourished bird 

F. Powell, Washington, Kas., a letter. 

D. M. Wingate, Scranton, Pa., a letter. 
J. J. Graham, Queensville, Ont., a letter. 
W. S. Beardsley, special teacher of writing 

in the public schools, Council Bluffs, Iowa, a 

R. H. Maring, Land, Ind., a letter. Mr. 
Maring has lately taken, as a partner of his 
joys and sorrows, Miss Lona Shumeman. May 
the partnership be breesed with much joy and 

A. N. Palmer, Lakeside Business College, 
Chicago, III., a letter. 

W. J. White, Duff's Business College, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., a letter. 

S. C. Malone, Baltimore, Md., a photo- 
engraved card announcing the execution of 
all kinds of artistic pen-work. The card is a 
very creditable specimen of pen-work. 

An Eloquent Appeal. 

The National View of Jutre 7th, in an 
editorial eays : 

Hon. H. A. Spencer's speech, at Indian- 
apolis, nominatiug David Davis for the 
Presidency, was the uioat eloqoent of any 
preseming the name of a standard-bearer. 

Delegates offered to cast their votea for 
Mr. Davie if Mr. Spencer would assure 
them that a nomination would be accepted 
by that iUustriouB statesman. Could any 
promise have been j/iven by Mr. Spencer or 
any other responsible leader in the National 
party that Judge David Davis would ac- 
cept a nomination for the Presidency, he 
would have undoubtedly received the nomi- 
nation of the National Convention instead 
of General B. F. Butler. 

While we congratulate Bro. Spencer on 
his eloquence, we would also console him 
with the assurance that, whether Judge 
Davis or Butler, is all the same, and mat- 
ters little since the "Plumed Knight of 
the East," and the dashing soldier of the 
West, are leaders to victory in November 

SunplA oopiei of the Joubhal, 10 oeato. 

Autograph Exchangers. 

Notice.— After August this column will 
he discontinued. 

very beat bear}' uoraled pafwr. 2. Havo'lt'cal Id »llp« 
tical Penmanship," by Ibe Spenoerian Aulbore. 3. Wrile 

Send (be tame tn an cfflt-ial eoTslope without foldiDfr' 

In accordance with a suggestion in a 
previous numbtr, the following-named per- 
sona have 8igni6ed their willingnees or 
desire to exchange autographs, upon the 
Peircerian plan, as set forth in the August 
number of the Journal: 

J M 8he''™°d*'''a o' ^u^e M*"*"'' ^"'*'""'*''' ^^ 

D. 0. GrJinths. Waxiibaobie, TtixBi 
C. W. Sl-mm, Ghillloothe, Ohio. 
H S. Taylor. Bualnew College, Ro 

I, Green Bay ( Wit.) IliuiaeM Colleg 
bcook, Bos 367. Hurtfofl, Conn. 
ion, Wftshago Couoty. SiinoQ, OnL 

W.C. Harrey, Baylie'. Coml. Coll. 

S.'S. Eldridge. Niagara Falls, N.V. 

m! L. Parker, Pleaeaot Valley, Wi» 

D. J. Power, Box 1061, Q.iobeo. Cai 
J. H. Topping, Box 443, Newburg, 

uplained that 

Several parties have 
many of the autographs received in ex- 
change have not been in compliance with 
the programme ; «. e., they have not been 
upon the stipulated size and quality of 
paper, or were sent folded, so that they 
were ubeless for binding. Such things 
should not be. 

Presidknt's Office, 

Business Educators' Association 

OF America, 

3ii East Fouhteentii Street, 

Nkw York, June 10th, 1884. 
Principals and Teachers of Business Col- 
leges, Penmen, and Others who are 
Interested in Business Education, 
Greeting : 
The Sixth Annual Meeting of the above- 
named organization will convene in the city 
of Rochester, N. Y., on the 17th of July 
next. Au extensive correspondence be- 
tween the officers and the fraternity at large 
shows fully the increasing iuterest mani- 
fested in the purposes of the Association, 
and leads to the belief that the coming 
meeting will be the largest it has yet held, 
and it is reasonable to infer that it will be 
the most interesting. There will be many 
new faces to greet us, a broader range of 
topics to canvass than on any former occa- 
sion, and more time in which to do it — the 
Convention sitting till the 23d inst. Spe- 
cial arrangements have been made for 
board, by Mr. L. L. Williams, of Roches- 
ter, Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
and reduced railroad fares have been se- 
cured from the West— the nature of which 
ran he accprtained by addressing Mr. G- W. 
liiuwb, ui J„ckBMLwiie, HI. Tl.,.«,, ^..iufi 
from the Eaet and South can henefit by the 

rates offered by all the leading 

The holding of the Convention through 
a part of two weeks is agreeable to resolu- 
tion passed at the last annual meeting, and 
is for the purpose of giving the much- 
needed recess of Saturday and Sunday. 
Heretofore it has been found necessary to 
crowd a great dfial of work into three or 
four days' session, making the sittings long 
This objectionable feature 
will no longer prevail. The 
holiday will afford ample time for a visit to 
Niagara Falls, or to such other point as in- 
clination may dictate. 

Teachers of the business branches need 
no less than instructors in the 
athematics, and the classics, and 
prominent men in our profpssion heartily 
indorse the Business Educators' Associa- 
tion, the only organization which is con- 
ducted by teachers of the business branches. 
They believe that it fully repays for the 
effort made to attend the annual conven- 
tions, and assume that the meetings should 
have sufficient drawing-power to enlist all 
thoughtful teachers of similar subjects. 
This organization haa been a potent influ- 
ence in the advani.ement of our specialty, 
and its power and influence may be in- 
creased greatly to the interest of business 
schools and teachers by enlarging its mem- 
bership and by increasing the attendance at 

To this end, instructors in any of the 
branches of business education are cordially 
welcomed to seats in its councils, and to the 
benefits of membership in its body. 
Very respectfully, 

C. E. Cady, President. 

Revelations of a Prool-reader. 

The Copy Fdrnished by Senators, 

Representatives, and Presidents. 

One of the chief proof-readers of the 
Government, a man who has looked over 
the copy of the great men of the past de- 
cade and more, gives me the folluwing in- 
teresting facts about their handwriting and 
the publication of their speeches: " Most 
Congressmen," said he, " are very particu- 
lar as to how their speeches are printed in 
the Congressional Record. They must have 
a proof sent them, and they often change 
words and ideas so that the matter which 
appears in the Record is entirely different 
from the words they uttered on the floors of 
Congress. Most of the long speeches, how- 
ever, are written out before they are deliv- 
ered, and this copy is handed over for 
publication. Some men, like Bayard and 
Edmunds, make their speeches off-hand and 
don't trouble themselves about them after 
they are once delivered. I don't think 
Conkling ever wrote a speech. At least we 
did not get it in his handwriting. Senator 
Blaine prepared some of his speeches very 
carefully, and they were well written. Once, 
I remember, he brought the manuscript to 
the office, and, finding that the foreman was 
not present, he cut it into "takes" himself and 
distributed it among the printers. On the 
foreman coming in he said : 'I know what 
I am about; I am an old printer myself.' 

** Senator Voorhees writes his speeches 
on very largo sheets of printing-paper, all 
of the same size and neatly cut. He has 
used the same paper ever since he came to 
Congress, and his writing is not had. Sen- 
ator Call also uses printing- paper, but his 
baud is terrible to read. He writes two or 
three letters of a word and ends in a scrawl 
so that half of his words look alike, and 
none of them are legible. Senator Beck gives 
the printers a good deal of trouble, but he 
is a favorite because his matter is largely 
made up of statistics and conse(]ueutly 'fat.' 

" Senator Logan writes a decent hand, but 
it is said bis wife haa a good deal to do 
with his speeches. She often came in times 
past to look over the proofs. She knew as 
well as he what a good speech should be, 
a.n<\ would correct to suit herselt. 

" Senator Sherman almoit always dic- 

tated his speeches to his private secretary, 
but his copy was not good. It was interlined 
and reinterlined. Sherman is very partiou- 
lar about his expression, and not about the 
comfort of the printer. Spuator Anthony 
furnishes much better copy, and has his 
pages always of the same size. 

"Senator Hawley trusts a good deal to 
the printer. He said once, 'The printer is 
bound to have his own way abt)Ut the 
punctuation, and there is no use in fit(h<ing 
against him.' Senator Lamar is of a differ- 
ent make. He is very painstaking with bis 
speeches before they go into print. When 
he has a speech to he published he brings a 
secretary to the Government Priutiug Of- 
fice, and the two stay there correciiog and 
recorrectine till they get the speech to 

"When Senator Jones, of Nevada, de- 
livered his big silver speech," the proof- 
reader laughed as he spoke, " he brought 
his secretary to the office with him. It was 
a long speech and it took, I think. I5U pages 
of the Congressional Record. Duriug the 
reading the secretary ventured to advise 
some change, when Jones turned to him 
and said: 'Who in the d — 1 is making this 
speech ; you or me?' Jones, they say, 
turned his whole salary over to his private 
secretary. He did not do it to have him 

'' How about the members of the Houset" 
"Sam Cox prepares poorer copy than 
any other Congressman. He writes on 
pieces of paper lorn from envelopes, news- 
paper wrappers and scraps of all shapes and 
sizes. He pins these scraps together and 
thus Bends them in to the printer. His hand 
is hard to read, and he corrects, 
and recorrects, so that his proof takes i 

"Sam Randall used to rewrit 
graphs very freipiently when he 
chair. Tom Reed never bothei 
ers, but the average Coogri 
trouble. The worst men are t 
know what they want to t 
ome of thei 

i the print- 

liil they e 

named Brooks, 
here in 1868, I 

copy. I remembe 
from New Yfrk, ' 
think. His writing was worse than Gree- 
ley's. The cnpy looked as though it had 
been written with a rake. We couldn't de- 
cipher a dozen words in it, and one of the 
boys took it to Brooks to ask its translation. 
Brooks said, ' I should think you could 
make it out by the sense.' The printer re- 
plied : ' We don't see a darned bit of sense 
in it.' 

"Some of those Congressmen are very 
particular. Some write 'applause' so often 
that they might as well buy rubber stamps 
with the word marked on them to save time. 
One member of the Forty-fifth Congress 
made only one speech during a session, and 
that speech was a remark of two lines. He 
came to the Government Printing- office in 
a carriage with a secretary to correct it, 
and at the close looked proudly around and 
said: "Well, I guess that will do, won't 

"What kind of copy do the Presidents 
furnish? " 

"Much of the manuscript that comes 
from the White House is written by secre- 
taries. Arthur writes his messages on paper 
fourteen by seventeen inches, large fofdscap, 
like some they use in the State Depart- 
ment. It is very plainly written. I set up 
some of Andy Johnson's messages. They 
were written plain and clear, but I think he 
dictated theui. Hayes's hand was rather 
pinched and cramped, Garfield's was good, 
and, as to Grant, he usually wrote most of 
his matter on manifold, and did not call to 
correct it after he had it c 

The Writing-Ruler has become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It ia 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a re- 
liable penmanship chart and compass, sent 
by the Journal on receipt of 30 oen(fl, 

V y 


TU aJoM (life CM and tpeeiiatnl 0/ torainj ore /rom a je( 0/ eapiet lately joften uy a( lU ofice 0/ fie " Journal," /or Iht Argo$y P«hliikiag Company, 

81 Warren Street, New Tori. Thu firm hat pubtuJted a large edition, which it now ready for the public. The price of the work u fl, and 

m comWer U luperior (o any compeniiium of penmaniMp on the market. It « better arranged, more elaborate, and hai the 

original and valualU feature of containing the imtruclioni to Uamere upon each copy -slip; Ihae eopia being 

graded and numbered form a perfect tyaUm for Itlf-intlruction. 

How Fortune Comes. 

Wars will r>ften elHjiee Icfore a doctor 
gets any rctiirii for tlie money which hie 
Iriende iuTostfd in ohtainiDg his diploma. 
On the other hand, a siDgl 
inay hring pat cnts by tbi 
twenty years ngo a yoimg 
been eslahlif'lii d three years in Londdti 
wilhont inakiDg hd income, lost hesrt, and 
determined 1o emigrate to AiiBtralia. He 
sold his small hoDse and furniture, paid his 
paBiHgo money, and a week before his ship 
was to sail, went into the country to eay 
good-by to his parente. Having to chang<' 
trains at a junttioo, he was waiting on lb' 
platrnrui, when a groom in a smart livery 
galloped up to the etalinn, ard. calliiig ex- 
citedly to a porier, hacded him a tele- 
graphic message for transmission. From 
tome remarks excliangrd brtweeu the two 
men, the young doctor uuderatood that the 

Duke of , a membi-r of the Cabinet, had 

fallen diiugennisly ill, and that an eminent 
phycirian in Lnndoo was being telegrajihed 
for. The groum added that he had ridden 
to the houses of three local doctors, who 
bad all been absent, and that " ber Grace 
was in a terrible way." The youug doctor 
Baw his opportunity, and at once seized it. ' 
" I am a medical man," he said to the groom, 
"and I will go to the ball to offer mj as- 
aoother d' ctot arrives." The 
vidently attached to his matter, 
"Jump on my horse, sir, and 
down the road for about four 
;an't miss the hall ; any one will 
ro it is." The doctor went, was 
jceived by the Duchess, and 
> be just in time to elop a 
1 treatment if the patient, which 
miyht have proved fatal if continued f<»r a 
fdw hours longer. The duke was suffering 
from typhoid fever; and when the euiiuent 
physician arrived ''rom town he declared 
that the young doctor's mantigement of the 
case had peen perfect. The result of this 
was that the latter was requested to remain 
at the ball to take charge of the pati.-nt, 
and his name figured on the bulletins which 
were issued during the next fortnight, and 
were printed in all the daily newspajiers 
of the kingdom. Such an advertisemeut is 
always the making of a m''dical man, espec- 
ially when bis patient recovers, as the Duke 
did. Our penniless friend received a fee of 
five hundred guineas; took a house at the 
West End, and from that time to Ihis has 
been at the head of one of the largest prac- 
tices in London. — CJmmbers's Journal. 

groom was e 
for be said: 
ride straight 
miles; you. 
tell you wbe 
gratefully r( 

The longest bridge now in actual use is 
the r-Titi tbat eroases the St. Lawrence River 
at Montreal — a tubular structure resting on 

U'^0 foot, and twenty-four others 2-10 feet 
each. Its total length is £),4.!7 feet, of which 
the tubular pari measures 7,000 feet. The 
graudest suspension bridge in the world is 
the oae ncr-^ss the East River between New 
York and Brooklyn, at the cost of $20,000,- 
(100. ItisSOeO feet in length. Another sus- 
pension bridge, which will eventually meas- 
ure more than the one just named, is the 
new bridge across the Forth at Queensbury, 
Scotland, to be completed in I8S5. The 
Forth is rather more than a mile wide at 
this point, and the necessary approaches 
will make llie entire structure about one 
and one-third mile long. A large part of it 
will rest on piers, but it will contain two 
suspension spans, one of which will he the 
same length as the main span of the New 
York and Brooklyn Bridge. There is a 
bridge over the Ohio, at Louisville, r),;j|0 
fret in length. There are the Parkersburg 
Bridge, West Virginia, 7,04.i feet; the St 
Charles Bridge over the Missouri, 6,53li 
feet ; bridge over the Delaware, 4,920 feet, 
bridge over the Rhine at Mayence a,980; 
bridge over the river Tongahudha, near 
Bombay, India, :i,7iHi feet; bridge across 
the MibS-.uri, at Omaha, 2,800 foet; bridge 
over the Mississippi at Quincy, ;i,7!lO feet, 
and the railway 8uspen*.ion bridge, at Niag- 
ara, 2,^20 feel. — Mail and Express. 

The cumulative punv. ^. . 
very generally appreciated. There are few 
men living at the age of seventy-five, bang- 
ing on to existence by some slender ouiploy- 
ment, or pensioners, it may be, on the 
bounty of kindred or friends, but might, by 
exercisicg the smallest particle of thrift, 
rigidly "adhered to in the past, have set 
aside a respectable sum which would ma- 
terially help them to maintain their indo- 
peLdence in their old age. Let us take the 
small sum of five cents, which we daily pay 
to have our boots blackened, to ride in a 
ear the distance we are able to walk, or to 
procure a bad cigar we are better without, 
and see what its value is in the course of 
years. We will tuppuso a boy of fifteen, 
by blacking his own boots, or saving liia 
car-fare, or going without his cherished cig- 
arette, puts but five cents a day; in one 
year he saves $18 :j.S, which being banked 
bears interest at the rate of five per cent, 
per annum, compounded hi yearly. On 
this basis, when our thrifty youth reaches 
the age of eixty-five, having set his five 
cents per day religiously aside during fifty 
years, the result is surprising. He baa ac- 
'■umulaled no less a sum than S:J,8U:3 18. 
A scrutiny of the progress of this result is 
interesting. At the age of thirty our hero 
had $;ii)5; at forty, $877; at fifty, $i,Gti7; 
at sixty, $2,962. After fifteen years' saving, 
his annual interest more than equals bis 
original principal ; in twenty-five years it is 
more than double ; in thirty-five years it is 
four times as much; in forty-five years it is 


$86, . 

the ; 



nd the last years 
id a half times aa 


The actual cash amount saved in tifiy years 
is $912. '■.0, the d.fiVrence between that and 
the grand total of $;J,89aJ7— viz., $2,- 
980,67, is accumulated iutcrest. What a 
magnificent premium for the minimum of 
thrift that can be well represented in fig- 

A Life Saved by a Cigar. 

Bob IngersoU tells — in private, though — 
a good story at his own expense, but one 
which we see no reason should not be en- 
joyed by the world at large. It seems that 
while lugcrsoll was in Cleveland, soon after 
bis successful legal fight for the Slar- 
Routers, a sort of anti-tobacco crusade bad 
been started in that city, and a well-known 
Boston scieniist was delivering nightly lec- 
tures against the use of the soothing weed. 
This speaker invited others to argue the 
question with him, but although the 
smokers were largely in the majority, the 
Boston man invariably proved too clever for 
the debaters brought against him. 

Availing themselves of " Bob's" presence, 
some of hie friends beeeed the grent orator 
to take up the cudgels in behalf of the to- 

when the prohibitionist requwoivw 

to his arguments. Bob solemnly arose and 
said he would reply to the statement of bis 
eloquent friend by the relation of a simple 
incident. He said : 

*' I was once attending to a mining case 
in ore of the wildest and most lawless re- 
gions of Utah. A murder had recently 
been comuiitted by a notorious thief, and a 
committee of local vigilantes were watching 
for him at every crossroad. Just after 
nightfall I was riding back to the town 
from the mine, mounted on a white horse. 
The vigilantes had received information 
tbat the desperado in "Question would pass 
the very road the same evening also riding 
on a white horse. The posse had ambushed 
themselves iu some chapparal, and as I 
came down the bridle-path they got ready 
to fire all together — for they waste no time 
on trials in that seciion. Entirely uncon- 
scious that half a dozen shot-guns were 
sighting my shirt-fmnt, I stopped ray horse, 
struck a match, and proceeded to light my 
cigar. Thinking that the light would give 
them a still better mark to shoot at, the 
concealed party held their tire for a second. 
In that second the blaze of the match re- 
flected on my features, revealing they were 

not those of th( 
stepping out on 

ladies and genth 
good fortune to 

oad, they congratu- 
w escape. And so, 
if I hadn't had the 
moker I wouldn't be 

"And you call that fortune? " grimly 
asked the anti-tobacco lecturer, after the 
applause had subsided. 

"Wasn't itf" inquired Bob, with a 
plaintive smile. 

*' I don't see it," tliundered bis opponent. 
" If it hadn't been for that miserable cigar, 
there would have been one less lawyer in 
the world." 

And amid the roar that followed, Inger- 
soU sat down, completely knocked out in 
one round. 


A building for the promotion of arts and 
manufactures is to ho erected in Quebec, on 

"Change is what we need," cries the ! 
editor of a democratic organ. The proba- ' 
bility is that, being a newspaper man, he 
had nothing but large bills. 

Popular Estimation.— Fir«( Errand 
Boy: "Hullo, Bill, he's a hartist, be is." 
Second ditto : "Well, leave him alone, can't 
yerf It ain't his fault, poor feller !"— i*'un. 

They were standing at the front j?ate. 
" Won't you come into the parlor and tit a 
littlowhile, George, dear?" "No, no, Iguesa 

"Yes, both legs." "Then m v.„- 
little while." 

New York City spends $.'i,000,000 annu- 
ally on churches and $7,000,000 on amuse- 
ments, which goes to show that she is 
having more fun in this world than she will 
see iu the next. 

Fine writing on glazed paper will give 
one or two f^ir copies without calling in the 
assistance i-f a press or water if use is made 
of a writing solution of three parts of good 
jet-black ink and one part of gelatine. 

A useful mucilage for labels, etc., can be 
made of two ounces of dextrine dissolved in 
one ounce of anetic acid and five ounces of 
water, and the addition of about au ounce 
of alcohol when the d xtrinc is dissolved. 

"How does it happen, doctor," asked 
lawyer Coke, "that so few of your patienta 
recover?" " Probably," quickly replied Dr. 
Bolus, " for the same reason that so few of 
your clients recover." — Boston Transcript. 

A New View.— " Did not the sons o( 
Jacob commit a heinous sin when they sold 
their brother Joseph T" asked a Sunday- 
school teacher of the son ol au Austin mer- 

"Yes, sir." 

"What sin was it they commiittd?" 
" They sold him too cheap." 
Lead Pencil Flirtation. — To wear 
a lead pencil over your ear means " I am a 

To chew the other end of a lead pencil 
moans " I am cosilatiug — don't bother me." 

To wet the point of the pencil on your 
tongue means "This is a had pencil— or 
will he when I am through with it." 

To borrow a pencil from a friend means 
"Oh! I forgot and put it la my pocket; I 
thought it was mine." 

To lend a had pencil means " No matter ; 
I can buy another for a nickel." 

To sharpen a lead pencil with a table- 
knife means "Wasteful extravagance." — 
St. Joseph Commercial lieview. 



^^^^p_,^jc;- ^THE PUBLISHERS OF THE ^_ 

Xi J 

) -. j' 


- w ^ y , ^ ^ .^YY^'ij ^«tU(<:f)VJ. 

NewC™!w, " P''°'7°f""'"i/"«" «opy««.o„,.dat>he otiio. of th. JounN*L, a„d represent, a p,g, ( , ,i.e , fr„„ ,1,, depurlmenl of E„Rro.ei„g in -Ame,'. 

™,lt^7» f '; ""''.^■"•■" P'-'-l-iP." "1-1. i, u,nver.»ll, »cl.„owledged .o he ,b. mo.l comprehen.ive and pr.cioal guije, in ,he en.ire rang, of ,h. 

rr.'eu Ind overireli^nTlT'M' "7" " ™"'-« ,»' i°"'"«i"° "' "»"' WrUh.g: a full cour.e of Off-band; npward of for,j .land.rd .,,.1 ornate 
Itc',nl.n'.r,lr . . r ^ »' ™">">«m«l,, engroBB.d resolutione, memorial,, cer.ilic.le., Ihl.-page,, etc., etc.; in all, SEVIC.VTV 11x14 inch plat... 

contain, numerou. example, of .very ipeces of work m the line of a profe.aional pen-arliBl. Price, by mail, V,: mailed free a. a iireminm to Ibe .end.r ol a el„b of 

r::i;tr*:bV° ;aid.^' "-"^ -- •-"• ■"-'■* -^ - ™ "-■>' - •"• ^-^^ - ^---^ -■" ^^ '..;=- ^.i.".;.::.:: t ani 

»,i,ing (»ba. not to do ) .b.nld be memori.,3 W !;„:", ,7' j!,,?': !"'"i'° r-" l';'";r- ," " " ?'-° ".' ""."'^ "'"' » '™.'""'J' "' 

aj penman. Slmll 

Now Cumpeiidium 
i useful knowledge 


An English Idea of American 

The intolerable tolerance of American 
feeling toward RpeculatiouB greatly in- 
creaees the riek in investing in American 
bonds. No President of a railroad is ever 
ponisbed either for mierepresentation or for 
committing his BbareholderR to the maddeet 
enterprises. If he aucceeds he is considered 
a great man, and if he fails be is pitied, and 
sometimes presented with great sums to live 
on. Even the President of a bank is not 
held criminally liable tor loans to his own 
relatives without security, if only his friends, 
when he has failed, will pay up his defaults, 
The manager of a deposit bank who uses 
deposits to buy "blocks" of shares is, if 
the shares rise, considered clever, and if they 
fall and be fails, is, after tlie twenty- four 
hours, neither considered nor treated as a 
mere thief. It he is well connected, or 
popular, or sheltered by friends, his " ruin " 
is regarded as a sufficient penalty, and after 
a year or two of retirement Le usually be- 
gins again. The effect of tliis is, that any 
one who can obtain the control of large 
funds is tempted to make himself rich at 
once, and that the market in always at the 
mercy of men who are playiu)< a game in 
which they Ftake temporary incunveuience 
and disrepute against furtune. Tlie temp- 
tation is too great for a race of men who 
care more tn gain money in large sums than 
any people in the world, and at the same 
time fear poverty less thau auy othf-r peo- 
ple. Miltionaires in America in»ke "cor- 
ners" as if they had nothinc to lose, or let 


. thei 


cing " as if it were only an expfnsive game. 
An Englishman, however speculative he 
may be, fears poverty excessively, and a 
Frenchman shoots himself t<> avoid it; but 
an American with a million nill speculate 
to win ten, and if be loses take a clerkship 
without thinking much about it. There is 
a good side to the "detadiiifnt" noticea- 
ble in all American busiue^^s meu, a freedom 
from pordidness and fn>in )>etty grasj ing ; 
but the peculiarity makes tliem the most 
dangerous business gamesters in the world. 
You know in dealing with a Frenchman 
that he will not voluntarily risk pecuniary 
ruin, but to an American that ripk rather 
adds to the excitement of hU pursuit. 
What, indeed, is ruin, in that exhilarating 
air, with nobody caring, and thirty- six 
States around you offering t" the skillful 
3t),U00 ways of making immey ? An at- 
tack of dyspepsia is far worse ; and, in fact, 
when a prominent American is ruined, we 
generally hear that he is " sick," and that 
his friends upon that account are full of 
anxiety for his future. — 2 he Spectator. 

The Greatest Ouelisk.— The Wash- 
ington monument is the wonder of Wash- 
ington, aud its beauty ihe admiration of 
both Americans and fureigners. Already 
over 35U feet high, it rises from the banks 
of the Potumao, a great white marble shaft 
piercing the clouds and backed against the 
blue of the sky. it is abeady the grandest 
obelisk the worid has ever seen, and in the 
seona of the future, should the nations of the 
day pass away, leaving no more records of 
their progress than the mighty ones of the 
Egyptian past, it will surpass the Pyramids 
In the wonder of its cunstructi.m. It is al- 
ready higher than the Third Pyramid, and 
within a hundred feet of the size of the 
■econd. It is taller than St. Peter's Cathe- 
dral, and when finished it will be the high- 
est structure in the worid. To day the 
Cathedral of Cologne, 512 feel high, is the 
tallest work in the worid. Next comes the 
Great Pyramid, 483 feet high; then the 
Strassburg Cathedral, 473 feet; then the 
Second Pyramid, 453; then St. Peter's, 
430; St. Stephen's at Vienna, 443; and 
St. Paul's at London, '38i.~The Practical 

T°?o/'T"ulo*°OTSer.'"cLir'l! ''*'"""*'''''■ EUihari, 
6-lt- H. A. MUUAW, Elkhart, Ind. 

; a book of sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed on the tin 
lies tor Plain Writing. Off-hand Flourishing and Lettering, \ 
now before the public ihat will render as efficient aid to either teacher or learner, in all the ( 
Thiriy-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plain writing. Fourteen pages ti 
Sixteen pages lo alphabets, package-marking, and monograms. Price, by mail : in paper 
covers. $i. Given free (in paper), as a premium with the Journal, one year, for $i ; full b 
wanted in every town in America, to whom liberal discounts will be given. Both the Journ 
With them agents can make more money, with less effort, than with any nther publicatioi 

■paper, and is devoted exelusivffy 
er work, of nearly equal c 
f the penman's art. as will this 



^und(in stiff 
1. and book a: 
they handle. 

s ; handsomely bound in stifl 
jvers) for $1.25. Live agents 
: things that take everywhere 

I In Practical and 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you onier either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
instruclion," aud they are not satisfactory, 
you may return thetu, and we \vill refund 
the entire amount paid. 

^ Obltoation.— The letters 

at the foot of a card of invi- 

tice. There are 

' invitation afloat during 

ofR.-S, V. 
tation alwaj 

the festive S' 
church weddings, requiring no answer, not 
even to regret that one cannot attend— that 
it is wise, if you wish to know the number 
of guests who will respond to your sum- 
mons, to put the magic letters in one cor- 
ner of the invitation-card. When there is 
a set preparation, of substanlials in food, 
the hostess wishes to know how many 
guests to provide for. At afternoon teas 
this is not necessary, as the supply of hot 
water aud biscuits is supposed to be unlim- 
ited. Always reply to au invitation to lun- 
cheon— even if it is what is called a stand- 
ing luncheon, the number of guests makes 
a diflerence in the supplies. The same rule 
applies to formal invitations for the evening 
given by societies, associations, or other 
organizations. If the card bears only the 
request to attend, people naturally think it 
moans, "Come if you can"; otherwise it 
makes no difierenco in the preparations. 
The letters of obligation, R. S. V, P. in 
one corner give notice that a more explicit 
reply than your attendance is looked for. 
The four letters do not add to the cost of 
the card, and they simplify matters very 
much. Some punctilious people always 
reply to every invitation of whatever sort, 
but thoy are persons of much leisure. The 
busier folks, however, understand what R. 
S. V. P. means. 

-"Can you 
asked the 
trous appli- 

A Good Playin' Hand. 
write a good plain hand? 
advertiser of one of bis nun 

" Ob, yes, sir," was the reply. 

"Well, let's see it," said the merchant. 

The man sat down, and in a few moments 
handed to the merchant the following: 

"A good playin' hand — the joker, right 
and left bowers, ace and king of trumps." 

That applicant was engaged. 

Y cent/., by R. I 


3EAUTIFUL Specimena 

MUMAW, Elkh^ Ind 

) Writ«— at the Blkbftrt (Ind,) Coinmerola 
Giionl&r frae. 

H, A. HiruAW, Principal. 

FHBEI WeUter'a UDabridved Dictionary to every 
peraoQ nbo neourea tllly subjoribere lo The Fracli 


Elkhait, ladian 



t. Ad>Ueu. wit 


ual BuBioeag De 




1,000 coplea 0/ MuuelmsD's $1 Compendium of Elegant 

1,000 copte* oJ Shaylor-all Compend'iutu ol Self-teach- 
ing Penaaiiablp. (The very tame as advenieed 

1,000 coplea of Macllu'a l\ Book on Penmansliip aad 


E. K. ISAACS. Publisher Chirographcr, 

you couldn't apeod a dim 


u), TnunbuU Co., Ohio. 


L, partioul&ra regarding 


doi.n ■■ EtegaDily Writt.n." 18 o.nU. B..1 
oenU. B.v.l o, Ould Edg,, 55 ell. P.. 


A Philosophical Treatise 


Couii.tlng o( DUcuuloii,. Letitiire. Arlicl.. and Opiu- 

t will be a.Dt, prepaid, at the t«gu!ar price, 
a (400) lour bundred orden have already been 





Price. Five Shillings. 

Ibair plctuiea. For the plotur* pugroaied by il 

EAUTIFUL Card Writing —For one dollar I wUl 

Braadmr, Maw T«ife 

Inventions of a Half Century. 

The number of iDveDtions that bave beeo 
made dnriug tbe past fifty years is uuprece- 
dented in the history of the world. Inven- 
tions of benefit to tbe buman race have 
been mad© in all ages since man was cre- 
ated ; bat looking back for half a hundred 
years, how many more are crowded into the 
past fifty than into any other fifty since re- 
corded history I The perfection of the lo- 
comotive, and the now world -tra versing 
steamship, the telegraph, tbe telephone, 
the audiphone, the sewing - machine, tbe 
photograph, chromo lithographic priotiug, 
tbe cylinder printing-press, tbe elevator for 
hotels and other many-storied buildings, 
the cotton gio and tbe spinning.jenny, the 
reaper and mower, the steam thresher, the 
steam fire-engine, the improved process for 
making sleel, the application of chloroform 
and ether to destroy sensibility in painful 
surgical cases, and so on through a long 
catalogue. Nor are we yet dune iu tbe field 
of invention and discovery. Tbe applif-a- 
tioQ of coal gas and petroleum to heating 
and cooking operations ia only trembling on 
tbe verge of surceasful experiment ; the in- 
troduction of steam from a great central 
reservoir to gem'ral use for heating and 
cooking is foreshadowed as among the 
coming events ; the artificial production of 
butter has already created a conBternation 
among dairymen ; the navigation of tbe air 
by some device akin to our present balloon 
would also seem to be prefigured, and the 
propulsion of machinery by electricity is 
even now clearly indicated by the march of 
experiuient. There are some problems we 
have hitherto deemed impossible, but are 
the mysteries of even tbe most improbable 
of them more subtle to grasp than thai of 
the ocean cable -ir that of the photograph 
or telephone t We talk by cable with an 
ocean rolling between ; we speak iu our 
voices to friends a hundred miles or more 
from whetft we articulate before the micro- 
phone. Under tbe blazing sun of July we 
prodace ice by chemical means, rivaling 
the most rolid and crystaJline production of 
nature. Our surgeons graft the skin from 
one persiin's arm to the face of another, 
and it adheies and becomes an internal 
porliuD of the body. We make a mile of 
white printing-pHper and send t on a spool 
that a perfecting printing-press unwinds 
and prints, and delivers to you, folded and 
counted, many tlionsands per hour. Of a 
verity this is the age of invention ; nor has 
the world reached a stopping- place yet. 

Length of Life— The physical fortune 
of any million of people is thus traced: 
The number is made up of 511,772 boys 
and 488,3*.i5 girls. Before the age of five 
years is reached 141,387 boys and 121, 7M 
girls will die. The next five years will be 
less fatal, and from the age often to fifteen 
years is the most healthy period of life. 
There will be some advance in deaths iu 
the next five years, and still 
which follow ; but 634,045 
their twenty-sixth year. I 
ten years twc-thirds of the v 
married. The deaths duri 

re in the five 

□g the next 
en will have 
that period 
wiU be U2,052, and of these 27,134 will be 
oaueed by consumption. Between twenty- 
five and forty-five the deaths will be 
greater, and only 502,912 will enter on 
their forty-sixth year. Each succeeding 
decade up to seventy- five will become more 
fatal; and at seventy-five only 161,114 will 
remain. Of these 122,529 will have per- 
ished by the eighty-fifth year. Of the 38,- 
5(i5 that remain but 2,153 will struggle on 
tit be ninety-five, and 223 to be one hun- 
dred years old. Finally, in the one hundred 
and eighth year, the taet solitary life will 
flicker out. Such is the average lot of a 
million men and women. 

There are 124,000 miles of railroad in 
fhe United States, or seven times as many 
miles aa there are in tbe United Kingdom 
of Great Britain. 





For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 

WORKS, CAMDEN, N. J. 26 John Street, New York. 

The School Microscope. 


Miu-loDville, Onondagn County, New York, 

HolCOmb & Co., Pwhliehpra and Booksellers, 

^p*Gatato)rne, Relereoeei, etc., ssnt oo appIicAtlon. M J. 

kinds Sympatfaet 
Mailed lor 25 cent 





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PucceseluIlT adopt and use the New SlloltT- 
IIAND. It \» learned in 16 Icbboub, and thor- 
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and buBinesB. It ib based upon a new discov- 
ery ill stenography, which simpliHes and makee 
il practical and easily attainable by everyone. 
The class-book and selt-iDslruclor presenting 
the New Shorihand will issue in July. Orders, 
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booked at half the retail price of $1. Address 

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Expressly prepared for the use of Penmen and 



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Oblique Hole 

is approved by profeBsiiiual and business penmen. 
The Spencerian Writing Ruler has 
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Price-list of SPENCERIAN SPECIALTIES sent on application. 

Ivison, Blakemaii, Taylor & Co., 

3-5 753 and 755 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 

Place to secure a Butintn Education, or prepare 
to teach Speoceriaa Penmanship, is at the Spen- 
cerian Business College, CleTelaiid, Ohio. Over 
800 students during the past jear, 500 in daily 
attendance. 10,000 since organization in 1852. 

■. We call specini atieniion to our Short Buaineeii add Writing 

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i, per (heel, by expr« 


33x08, for vrliilBbk.. 
loiu&ud, bjr expreu. . 

'hatmoD'H Drawioff-paper, liot-preu, 75i'20..9.l& JL 20 


Onanieuial Cards, I'J deHigmi, perpault of ^ ouda, 

ijo.i! ;; aixai ;; 

stone Ulolfa, ooe yiini wule. nny length jier yani, 
■UlMl uo one lido 

Liquid SlBting, tbo bp«l lo luw, ior waU» or w<>(>deii 


frtiwt. Soicoaib i'ubL'i^t^ Uo^ ( 


say that your o,anlB oumvare favorably wllh thois of Ibe belt pen-arllsli ol Ibe world. Coriinlly your*, 

Aiiociule Anllior of the Spbacerian Syitetn at PeoataiiBhip. 
Will wrile the lollowlng, IrMb Irom lb« pen, Hat posl-pftld : 

Perdo*. Per2S. 
Cardi, plain nbile, good quality .30 ,55 

" bevel BlIt-wTga " " 45 .65 

Alphabet ol Off-baud Uapitati as 

8pe«imM of W^iUDfflo^o^mo^»l«?J??''f.".. *.'!.?.■. .\\\V".y.".".". '.85 
25B.aalifulCoo,blnBW..M 75 

uyF.i»uriiepeD;Vgroii\v."v.v.".v.";::;;;;::".".".'.;'.::::; :::::::: Uo 

Address. «/. «/. BENNETT, spencerian Business College, CLEVELAND, 0. o-it. 

The Packard Commercial Arithmetics. 


Complete Edition (Withand without uniwen), 328 pp., Octavo. School Edition, 27S pp., Ouodec. 

These books have marked characteristics whioli have won for them the uuvaryiiig commen- 
dation of practical teachers. Ist. They are complete expoaitore of practical arithmetic— having 
grown out of the wants of a cosmopolitau lustilution, and having been BaliHfaotorily tested by 
the leading teachers of practical arithmetic in this country, '-'d. They are specimens of fine 
modem book-making— in typography, paper and binding. 3d. They are emineniiy adapted to 
self-in^truclion. 4th. Tbey are very cheap. 

The School Edition (an abridgment of the complete edition) has been recently published, 
and has not been specially brought to the attention ot teachere. It is au admirable book for the 
higher claeees in grammar schools, as also for the commercial departmenls of olasei«al and liter- 
ary institutions. It contains all ihe best part ol tbe larger work, and ia us full in all the esseu- 
tial subjects as the best schools will require. 

Tbe retail price of the Complete Arithmetic is $1.50 ; of the School Edition, $1. Liberal 
discounts to schools. 

A eiugle copy of either edition will be sent to any actual teacher or school otEcer, for ex- 
ammation with a view to introduction, on receipt of one-half retail price. 

The Key to the Complete Edition is uow ready— a single copy of which will be sent with- 
out cost to all BchooU using the book as a text-book. Additional copies will cost $1 eauh. 

The Packard Arithmetics have recently been adopted, and are highly commended, by the 
leading Commercial Schools and Business Colleges of 
**'ph b^'^V-hi ^'o'kl'''d Baltimore, Peoria. Troy, BIoomloRton. 

:^3t. S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Broadway. New York. 



Adapted for use with or without Text-Book, 

and tbe only set recummended to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Counting-House-BooU keeping." 


Favorable Brrantrenieiile maile wllh BiiaineM Colleyee 
The best Pea Id the U. S, and Ibe betl PeameD om them. 





leat Poal-pald on reoeipt of 23 oeti'u. 


19 AND 121 William Street, New Yore. 


olioii iubfcripliooB lo the Pb5Mas'b Art Jourkal 
to veil popular publioatioua upon praotloal and artlatlo 

readyi. |*r|.art SO 

W-illiains; ami Parknnf* Gmo» 5 00 

Standard Practical Peninanflt^p, by the Spencer 

Biother. :.. 1 00 

Ame«'i Copy-»!ip*. per eheet of « exeriaww 10 

Family Beoird, i8r,'3 1 00 

Marriage Certifloate, 18x23 1 00 

Oarfleld Memorial. 19il!4 "".!!!!..""!!!!!!'.". 50 

BouDdinff^i4.Mx33.-!;."!i!!!!!;!i;;".;!'.;!!;". so 

Flourubed Kagle. aixM 50 

Centennial Piotureol ProgreM. 92x25 50 

•^ 29x40 100 

Ornamental and Flonriehed Card*. If deelgns, new, 

oriinnal and artUtio, per pnok of 50 30 

100. by mall 50 

1000 '■ wsbVbyVxpwi.!'!;!!!".""'"!!!'. i iw 

Kriben lor tbe Jolrxau ami »elllng the above works 
Send for our Special Ratea to Agentg. 

D. T. AMES. 

Shorthand Writing 


■ ,'b,S'u''r"°i'"° " "" '""■>■■'•"■ ""'• '""' 

Yomg ,n«D taie odI, lo n„i.l.r Shorthand lo uik. Il 

(7'Seail .lamp lur .peolmen ol wrilhig aud oirculan 

W. ai. nUl-TON, Steno^raiitier. 


Important Announcement. 

A. N Palmer, formerly teacher of peomanthip in the 

College and Jnttilule of I'eunaDBbip at Chicago. 

, ^^cial feature of tbis whool le Ihe training ..r pro- 

plan of tbis soliool, not ooly lo gradaote Dae penmen, but 

Thoie wiHbiug to make a inooeM of the profsMion of 
penmanitliip will find it to tbeir advantage to attend thU 

SPKCIAL SUaiMEU SESSION through May, June, 
Jnly, and August. Students can enter at any time. 
The PenmauBlip Hall f» large, airj-, and iplendidly 

Tbe Western Penman is now publi»h«d, monthly, at 

to make ll the leading exponent of penmaniblp in tbe 
West, iiauiiile copies will be seut FKCS;, fur a BUOBT 

Worthington & Palmer, 




the penmen in the United Stale*. 


W«it«ni Hanobotoiy, Ohlngo. HI. 6-19